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and earned the regard and respect of their pupils.

Even to the girls' schools the war brought new tasks. By descriptions, by maps and charts, the positions of the armies were explained to the children; the many economic and political questions brought to the fore by the conflict were discussed and elucidated. Through the children, these discussions and explanations reached the parents and helped to educate the popular mind generally.

In addition, an effort was made to develop the feeling of national responsibility in the minds of the pupils. On almost every teacher's desk throughout Germany is a collection box in which the pupils deposit their savings. Every month these boxes are opened, and quite a little ceremony is made of the occasion. The children dispose of their collections as they see fit. Each class has its own particular work; one buys materials for presents to be sent to the soldiers at the front, another undertakes the care of a sick child and saves money with a view to sending its little protégé to a convalescent home, a third collects newspapers, a fourth provides a nearby hospital with games which the members of the class construct themselves. All this not only affords the children pleasure, but it has a real civic and educational value. The burden on the teacher is a heavy one, for she has to devise means of keeping the children interested and to act as guide and friend for them in their selected activities. The league opened in Berlin in the Winter of 1915-16 a State exhibition: “ School and War."

an impressive exhibit of the tremendous value of this work. By this work in the schools, the experiences of the war are engraved on the hearts of our children, and they will never forget its lesson.

In many houses throughout Germany the father is absent. To many he will never return. It would be culpable in the extreme to neglect the growing youth in these homes. The league is active in getting hold of girls and boys over school age who are enjoying a novel and dangerous freedom. Volunteer work

ers of the league, women of education and social position, are engaged in organizing boys' and girls' clubs and in keeping closely in touch with their charges, over whom they exercise a tactful care.

The civil work of German women, however, has not been confined to looking after the welfare of children and of soldiers' dependents, important as that work is. They have taken in hand te organization of their own domestic economy. In recent years it has been the fashion abroad to regard the German woman as pre-eminently the housewife, concerned exclusively with her kitchen, her children, and her church. In fact, in England and America the idea that German women were anything but housewives, cooks of skill and resource in producing food whose first quality was substantial, nutritive value, whose social standing was vested purely in the ability to keep house well and economically, received no credence.

As a matter of fact, for the last decade the German woman was paying attention to many other things than her house, and the housewife type was rapidly disappearing. German women were entering the professions, and the other forces of our modern social structure were forcing the housekeeping type into the background. Germany came more and more to live on imported goods. The war instantly changed that. Food could no longer be imported, delicacies were out of the question, the women had to learn to keep house and supply the table in a rational manner from Germany's own resources.

It took a little time for the women to realize this, but when they did they acted quickly and successfully. The housewives throughout Germany were organized into guilds, sometimes associated with local institutions, sometimes as independent bodies.

The first task undertaken was a rigid training in economy. Nothing must be wasted! The war broke out just at the season of the fruit harvest, and immediately preserved fruit kitchens were improvised everywhere. Volunteers toiled over the stoves, putting up the rich fruit harvest, so that none should go to waste.

It was

This was true not only of the small went home and, after a brief struggle towns, but even in Berlin. In one of the against the family tastes, gave up, and capital's most beautiful and wealthiest tried to adhere to the pre-war dietary. suburbs, throughout August and Septem Rapidly, of course, the sale of many ber, every morning the heavily laden staples was restricted and the import of fruit carts from the Central Market in others ceased altogether, thus throwing the city appeared at 8 o'clock. Beside the established menu into chaos. Then the driver of the first cart sat two of the housewives' guilds began practical the ladies of the suburb who went to the demonstrations in neighborhoods, showmarket every morning at 6 o'clock in ing how the available foodstuffs could order to procure the choicest fruit. The be best employed. carts were unloaded in the yard of the Cooking recipes were invented and schoolhouse and their contents carefully experimented with, cooking evenings and weighed. Then a crowd of young girls, cooking parties organized, and consultwith handcarts of every description, ing and advisory bureaus opened busied themselves distributing the fruit throughout the country. The solution of to the houses of the women who had the dietary problems is ascribable alagreed to put up preserves on that par together to the work of the housewives' ticular day. If there was any surplus, guilds. the ladies who bought the fruit and other The marked increase in the cost of volunteers prepared the preserves in the living was due in no small degree to the school kitchen. They were at their post activities of the middlemen, who bought every day while the harvest lasted. The low, held stocks in reserve, and then preserves were collected weekly from the forced the selling price as high as they houses and stored in the schoolhouse. In could. The housewives determined to three months this suburb put up more overcome this situation by opening up than 20,000 pounds of preserves, which co-operative retail shops, operated by were distributed among hospitals, hos volunteers, where good wares could be pital trains, and children's homes. The purchased at little more than wholesale work was continued in the late Summer cost. These shops presently controlled of 1915 and in 1916.

the food price situation in their localities, The organization of housewives did many of them in crowded districts taking more than preserve fruit and vegetables. in more than one thousand marks on a The public had to be taught how to live single afternoon. And these shops proved differently--not worse than in peace particularly valuable as a market for the times, but differently. A people is most fruits and vegetables grown by members conservative where its eating is con of the housewives' unions. cerned. Men cling to food habits when For, early in the war, the policy of all others disappear. And the task con cultivating every scrap of ground was fronting the housewives was nothing less put into effect by the women of Gerthan teaching the nation to alter its many. The organization of girl scouts food habits, its ideas of a menu, its eat and many large girls' schools undertook ing custom. At first, the means tried the cultivation of untilled tracts, and was mass meetings in which lecturers every day crowds of young girls and expounded the new principles of dietetics, women could be seen marching under the and speakers from the audiences de guidance of a specially trained teacher to scribed their experiences.

their fields. The product of these fields Many a woman who had never before was turned over to the various relief even thought of addressing an audience agencies. The work itself proved of found herself on the platform exhorting great health value to the volunteers, and and advising her neighbors out of her many an anaemic society belle became own experience.

husky at this work. Meetings were not enough, however. In the poorer quarters of the cities the Women came in droves, listened intently, task of public alimentation was carried applauded enthusiastically - and then out with detailed thoroughness. Popular

kitchens and so-called middle-class tum: “I know no parties, I know only kitchens were opened, and the women in Germans." charge took care that these eating places These women see already in spirit the and cooking places were made as bright new Germany after this cruel and bloody and attractive as possible. Something conflict is ended. Their work is all for dainty and appetizing was to be had for that future Germany of peace. Mothers, even the simplest meal.

brides, and sweethearts, they know that In these kitchens perhaps more than in this new Germany many strong arms in any other of the war institutions was and clever minds will be lacking. Their the radical social benefit of the conflict thoughts, despite their work, wander on the domestic problems of the German perpetually to the resting places of the Nation made most manifest. All classes peaceful sleepers in France and Poland. worked together. The wealthy woman Nearly every one of them has lost some and the shopkeeper's wife found them one who cannot be replaced, but they selves side by side, giving the very best have refused to permit themselves to in them for a common cause, united in lapse into inactive brooding and mournlabor for the nation. A common purpose ing. They remain steadfast in life, united them, and acclaim went to the active to administer the legacy of the 'individual who did the best work, no dead placed in their hands. They form matter what her social status might be. an army of peaceful fighters against In the relief committees of the National enemies which threaten all the nations of Women's Service League the wives of the world—against poverty, neglect of high officials and the wives of Social the young, an economic situation that Democrats meet on a parity. Women inevitably brings in its train the root of from town and country, adherents of destitution, bodily and mental exhausvarious religious beliefs, work hand in tion. Their weapons are altruism and hand and realize in action the profound purity, their gauge the dignity and welltruth and wisdom of the Emperor's dic being of the German Nation.

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After the honor of the Berlin nails comes the grip of the Russian pincers.

U present war-to present irrecon

By Alfred Rosenblatt*

Professor in the University of Cracow Oh, tra le mura che il fratricidio cemento lecture, investigated it more closely, and eterne, pace e vocabolo mal certo. Dal

presented the bright sides of war in a sangue la Pace solleva candida d'ali. Quando! -Carducci: La

Guerra,
Bologna, 1891.

manner calculated to be of universal inIVILIZATION and war appear

terest in the serious times through especially in the light of the which we are passing, and to banish, or

at least lessen, our grave anxieties recilable antitheses. Therefore the garding the consequences of the war. assertion that war has a civilizing sig The civilizing power of war was alnificance seems to us to be a fantastic ready recognized and discussed by old paradox. And, nevertheless, distin Lord Bacon of Verulam. The conquests guished minds have seriously · busied of war and their meaning for the progthemselves with this problem and have ress of humanity have also been dishistorically demonstrated the civilizing cussed in detail by Herbert Spencer and influences of war.

the well-known sociologist, Professor Some twenty-five years ago there was Gumplowicz of Gratz, held in Rome a great congress of the Alexander Humboldt describes in League for Peace, participated in by im Cosmos” the civilizing effects of the portant scientists and prominent mem Macedonian

of Alexander the bers of European Parliaments. Brilliant Great. He takes especial pains to point speeches against war were delivered, out that they opened an extensive and plans for eternal peace were discussed, beautiful part of the world to the inresolutions demanding the settlement by fluence of a highly cultivated people; arbitration of all international difficul that through Alexander's conquests the ties were framed and adopted, &c. Greek language and literature Shortly after this there appeared a

spread abroad with beneficent effects, poem dedicated to war by the well known and, finally, that at the same time the Italian poet, Giosue Carducci, entitled

making of scientific observations and the "La Guerra,” and ending in the strophe systematic elaboration of all the sciences, cited above, which is particularly fitting

through the teachings and example of at present. In glowing words Carducci Aristotle, became clear to the intellect. sings the praises of war and describes He closes by declaring that the Macewhat mankind owes to it. Even the dis donian expedition may be regarded as a covery of America may be credited to scientific expedition in the truest sense the warlike spirit of an adventurer, who,

of the word, and, indeed, as the first in armed with sword and shield, sallied which a conqueror surrounded himself forth to conquer new lands for the with savants from every branch of Spanish Empire.

science, with naturalists, surveyors, hisIn this connection Lotar Dargun, late

torians, philosophers, and artists. Even professor of German history and legal

Aristotle exercised an indirect influence history at the University of Cracow, through the intellectuals of his school whose untimely death was a severe loss

who accompanied the expedition. to science, took up the question of the The most prominent historian of the civilizing influence of war in a public Roman Empire, Mommsen, says that the

Romanization of Italy was only effected * Specially translated for CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE from Nord und Süd, the Berlin po

through Sulla's wars, and that this relocal and economic magazine published by

sult was not too dearl bou

the Dr. Ludwig Stein.

streams of blood spilled in those wars.

wars

were

was

The conquest of Gaul by the Romans was also a work of civilization of the first rank.

All the larger States have been organized as the result of wars. Among the Germanic peoples military organizations were at the same time governmental bodies. Thus war created the State and the State created civilization.

International law was also created by war, but the present war has unfortunately annihilated it.

We have to thank war for the founding and the development of cities and for their growth and strength. War forced the inhabitants of scattered districts to unite, to build fortified towns, and to organize places for defense against the dangers of war. The Princes' need of money, induced by the wars that they carried on,

often the cause of progress in the matter of public institutions and rights; that is to say, the sovereigns engaged in war needed money for the war and the cities furnished them with it in return for rights and privileges which made possible and also promoted the prosperity of the cities.

The greatest human blessings, religion and ethics, science and art, owe much more to war-as Professor Dargun points out—than would be believed without an investigation of the question. Through wars religion and ethics have found their way to all parts of the world.

Many branches of science receive their greatest advancement through wars.

In the first line comes geography. It is not necessary to prove that war requires a thorough and detailed study of the hostile country, thus promotes geographical and ethnical science, and contributes to the spread of this knowledge.

The great progress of modern technique stands in close connection with military technique. The mighty advance in the technique of fortification and the manufacture of arms promoted by war's needs has reacted in animating manner upon all other branches of technical work and has aided invention. The mastery of the air by human beings and the unexpected development of the art

of flying may certainly be traced indirectly to war. The extension of lines of communication, especially in the form of great and far-flung networks of railroads, is the result of the necessities of war. And the civilizing effects of railroad connections constitute a recognized and inassailable fact. The railroad unites even the smallest town with the great centres of culture, science and art, spreads civilization in every direction, brings individuals and nations closer to each other, and promotes industry and the welfare of the people. But a short time ago the American magazine, Popular Science Monthly, pointed out in a long article how in Germany all branches of science, of technique, of industry, and of trade worked hand in hand with militarism to their profit. Because militarism spurs inventors and investigators on to create things that it needs for its purpose, inventions are made that add life to all industries and enrich the entire nation.

The Germany of today owes its greatness and strength to the war of 1870-71.

That offers many productive stimuli to art and literature is proved by the numerous masterpieces of art and literature that treat of warlike events; we shall only mention Homer's immortal “Iliad,” Virgil's “ Aeneid,” the Nibelungen songs, Shakespeare's war dramas, the Maid of Orléans, Wallenstein, and all the magnificent battle paintings, &c.

Dargun closes his exceedingly thoughtprovoking exposition by contrasting the virtues of peace with the virtues which war brings to maturity. There are, says Dargun, certain virtues necessary for the maintenance of the soundness of the people, such as personal manly courage, the consciousness of duty and honor, discipline and the sense of order, consciousness of the worth of one's own personality, and the willingness of self-sacrifice for the common good, which attain their true value only in war. These virtues become weaker during periods of long-continued peace. The full inner worth of the nation is only developed in times of danger. The sentiments of all the members of the State are united and concentrated in the all-powerful feeling

war

an

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