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tured sufficiently far with their main the Cameroons. In the Mediterranean the fleet to give us an opportunity to en navy took a hand in the Dardanelles gage them.

No vessels, neutral campaign, assisted by our gallant French British, have sighted the High Seas Fleet, allies, and is now working with both the far from its ports on any occasion. French and Italian Navies in the Balkan

It is true that on Aug. 19 of last year campaign and in the Adriatic. the enemy's fleet came within measurable On the east coast of Africa the naval distance of the English coast, being forces, including our

forces, including our river gunboats, sighted by some of our patrols, but turn monitors, and aircraft, have rendered ed back, presumably because the presence great service to our kinsmen from the of our fleet was reported by their air Union of South Africa. In the Persian craft. Raids on the British coast with Gulf and up the Tigris River numerous fast cruisers or battle cruisers have been . river gunboats and other vessels are ascarried out, but on each occasion the sisting our army in the Mesopotamian passage from German waters has been campaign. Our East Indian squadron, made, apparently, under cover of the which is working from Port Said through night, the enemy appearing off our coast the canal and Red Sea, is helping the at dawn and retiring before compara army of Egypt, and safeguarding comtively small forces. Such feats were, of munications with India, and thence to course, impossible in the days of slow Far Eastern waters. In the early days speed, and are now undertaken probably of the war the navy was pleased and only in the hope of enticing us into the honored to work along with our gallant adoption of a false strategy by breaking Japanese allies in the capture of Kiaoup our forces to guard all vulnerable Chau. In fact, it may be said that there points. I do not criticise the Germans for is no part of the world in which the navy their strategy or for not running any has not duties and responsibilities in conrisks with their fleet. On the other hand, nection with this war, and I might draw their boasts of searching the North Sea attention to the arduous and continuous for the enemy must be pronounced as work of the cruiser Squadron in home without justifiable basis.

waters, which is mainly engaged in preThe next point to which I would like to venting supplies from reaching draw your attention has reference to the enemies. Ships are intercepted and worldwide nature of the war in relation

boarded in great numbers under every to the British Navy. It is not, perhaps,

condition of weather, and some idea of always realized how far-reaching are the work may be gathered from the fact our naval activities, and how great, that an average of some eighty ships of therefore, is the call on our naval re all kinds are intercepted and examined sources. It may be interesting to state weekly on the high seas by the vessels that the approximate number of vessels

of this squadron. of all classes which comprise the British The task of keeping the large number Navy of today is nearly 4,000. This in of ships working in all parts of the world, cludes battleships, battle cruisers, light of supplying them with fuel, munitions, cruisers, destroyers, submarine boats, &c., can only be recognized by those in mine sweepers, patrols, and many other possession of all the facts. The work, miscellaneous craft, all of which are too, involves a great effort on the part necessary for the effective conduct of a of the marcantile marine; without our war of today. Our activities range from

mercantile marine the navy—and, indeed, the White Sea, where we are doing our

the nation—could not exist. Upon it we best to assist our gallant Russian allies, have been dependent for the movement past the North and South Atlantic, where of our troops overseas-over 7,000,000 cruiser squadrons are at work, on to the men having been transported—together far Pacific, where we are working in co with all the guns, munitions, and stores operation with our Japanese allies. On required by the army. The sareguarding the west coast of Africa the navy took of these transports both from the attack no inconsiderable share in the fighting in of such surface vessels as have been at


large and from submarine attack has been carried out by the navy. We have had to draw also upon the personnel of the mercantile marine not only for the manning of the transport ships but also very largely for the manning of the whole of our patrol and mine-sweeping craft, nearly 2,500 skippers being employed as skippers, R. N. R. The number of R. N. R. executive officers has increased almost fourfold since the outbreak of war. Indeed, it is impossible to measure fully the debt which the country owes to our mercantile marine. In the old days it used to be said that there was jealousy between the mercantile marine and the royal navy, but whatever may have been the case then there is no room now in the navy for anything but the most sincere admiration and respect for the officers and men

of the

mercantile marine.

I think I know sufficient of the officers and men to believe that the feeling is reciprocated. Those of us who have been closely associated with the officers and men who man our armed merchant vessels and patrol craft have realized from the first day of the war how magnificent were their services, how courageous their conduct, and how unflinching their devotion to duty under the most dangerous conditions. The value of the services of the officers and men of the mercantile marine goes also far beyond their work in armed vessels. When one thinks of the innumerable cases of unarmed ships being sunk by torpedo or gunfire far from land, in a heavy sea, with the ship's company dependent alone upon boats for their safety, one is lost in admiration of the spirit of heroism of those who not only endure dangers and hardships without complaint but are ever ready to take the risks again and again in repeated voyages in other ships.

The submarine menace to the merchant

service is far greater now than at any period of the war, and it requires all our energy to combat it. It must and will be dealt with, of that I am confident. But we have to make good our inevitable losses, and in order to do this we are dependent upon the shipbuilding industry of this country. The munitions organization has done a great work for the output of munitions; it now remains for the shipbuilders and marine engineers to rival that work. The first essential is the whole-hearted co-operation of the men in the shipbuilding yards and in the engineering workshops. In the same way as Sir Douglas Haig has appealed to the munition workers to give up holidays and to devote themselves to the supply of those munitions which are essential for the safety and success of their comrades in the trenches, I now appeal to the men in the shipyards and engineering shops to put forth their best efforts, continuously and ungrudgingly, to keep up the strength of our mercantile marine, and to provide those gallant fellows who have gone through innumerable dangers and hardships when their ships have been sunk with new vessels to carry on the transport of the necessary supplies of food and material for the manhood and the industries of the country. No one recognizes more than I do how great has been the output of the shipyards up to the present time.

I would only say now, let there be no question of strikes, no bad time keeping, no slacking, and let masters and men remember how great is their responsibility not only toward the navy and the nation but also toward our allies.

If we all do our part all will be well with us.

Of one prominent fact I can speak with full confidence born of experience—the nation can depend on the navy being ready, resourceful, and reliable.


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sumed that the battle cruiser would take its place in the line of battle, but it is

By Thomas G. Frothingham
Member of Military Historical Society of Massa-
chusetts and of the United States Naval Institute

I.-The British and German Navies
HETHER it is to be peace or

the word “dreadnought” will designate war for our country now the type of all-big-gun battleship of the in the future, the balance of first line, and battle cruisers will be con

naval power will be one great sidered as a separate class. factor in our relationship with the rest Before reviewing the navies one by of the world. That the United States one, it would be a good thing to keep in should have a strong navy is now a doc mind a comparison of the types of trine accepted by all classes of our citi dreadnoughts designed by different nazens. Even those most desirous for peace vies in the development of the class. On have seen that an enlarged navy is our the following page are deck plans showbest means of insuring peace—and sel ing the different arrangements of the dom has there been so universal a public turrets. opinion reflected in Congress as that Figure 1 is the original Dreadnought shown by the unprecedented vote of design of 1906. As will be observed, her money for the increase of our naval de maximum use of guns against an fense.

emy would be eight, and from many anIt is intended in this article to give a gles the turrets interfere with use of the reliable estimate of the comparative guns,

Yet four of the British first-line strength of the different navies without battleships have this arrangement of bothering the reader with quantities of turrets. figures and statistics. And first of all it Figure 2 is the turret plan of the must be understood that the United Helgoland class, and is the first arrangeStates Navy is the product of generations ment of turrets on the German dreadof highly trained men, and the result is noughts. Although the guns are twelve, a personnel that will make good use of instead of ten, eight is the maximum all the increased resources that have been broadside, and there is even more hamgiven to the navy. From the dawn of pering of the turrets at different angles, its history the United States Navy has

with fewer guns that can be brought to made the gun the one important thing,

bear. Eight German dreadnoughts have and this policy has again been confirmed this arrangement of turrets. by the lessons of the war. Our navy has Figure 3 shows the next step in placing taken the right course, and there are no the turrets-on the British dreadnought great mistakes to remedy.

Neptune. By the echelon arrangement It has become the custom in estimating of the two central turrets there is a naval power to count “ dreadnoughts possible use of all the guns in a broadas the essential elements of strength. side, but looking at the deck plan from This designation of the “all-big-gun different angles it will be plain that warships, named after H. M. S. Dread there is still a similar drawback in getnought, the first of the type in commis ting the guns into use. Three British sion, included battle cruisers until the and four German dreadnoughts and Before the war it was as British and German battle cruisers have

this echelon placing of the turrets.

Figure 4 is the U. S. S. Michigan. now considered equal to this task. The United States Navy has always adConsequently in the following comment hered to big guns in turrets aligned over




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