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1916, 7,000,000 rubles were spent on medicine alone. The Central Committee of the union had purchased since November, 1915, 27,253 horses, 1,261 motor cycles, and 60 motor boats. A special factory maintained by the union had manufactured articles of a sanitary character to the value of 1,450,000 rubles. If it be remembered that the Zemstvo Union is only one of many social organizations doing work of like nature, the amazing extent of Russia's social awakening and progress may be realized.
previous maximum in twelve months. The British Empire is our best customer, representing nearly half the total. Our balance of trade with the United Kingdom alone in seven months is $854,000,357. Our trade with Japan is nearly twice as large as last year. In seven months our trade with Germany was only $5,931,635, and with Austria $564,593. We imported from Germany in the first seven months of 1915 goods valued at $36,094,099, but the figures fell to $4,813,452 in the same period of 1916. Our sales to the A B C South American republics increased 100 per cent., and our imports from those countries increased over 50 per cent.
has notified the allied Governments, in discussing the submarine merchant vessel Deutschland, that it cannot subscribe to the doctrine that all submarines shall be treated as vessels of war. The United States holds that the determination of the status of a submarine must be based on consideration of the facts in each individual case, and that the rule of conduct for a neutral Government must be the same with respect to this type of vessel that it is for other craft. Submarines may be merchant ships or warships, and their status is determined by the character and purpose of their armament, the ownership of the vessel, and whether they are privately owned or owned by a Government and commissioned as part of the naval forces of that Government.
of the Russian drive in Bukowina and Galicia, the Austro-Germans lost as prisoners to the Russians 7,757 officers and 350,000 men, besides 405 guns, 1,326 machine guns, 338 bomb throwers, and 292 caissons. Adding the losses of the next eighteen days—up to Sept. 1, 1916— the total number of prisoners captured by the Russians since the beginning of the drive is considerably in excess of 400,000. The British and French up to Sept. 10, 1916, in the drive in Picardy, which began July 1, captured 54,000 prisoners.
EMILE VANDERVELDE, Belgian
for the first seven months of 1916 reached the staggering total of $4,394,040,948, an increase of nearly $1,500,000,000 over the corresponding period last year. The exports from Jan. 1, 1916, to Aug. 1 were $2,926,221,372; imports, $1,467,819,574. Prior to the war highest aggregate of exports and imports in an entire year, 1914, was $4,258,504,805; hence our foreign business in seven months is now practically up to the
Minister of State, recently told a London audience that on the day after the battle of the Yser the Belgian Army was reduced to a few thousands; the country, all save a little corner, was occupied by the invader, its finances were in ruin, and most of its young men of military age were on the other side of the German lines. Yet today Belgium has an army of 200,000 men, well armed and equipped, which is doing its share, pro rata, on the western front, holding the twenty-odd miles of trenches from the North Sea to Bixschoote.
By Alfred Noyes
Alfred Noyes, whose fame as poet is enshrined in English and American literature, served for a while at the Dardanelles and later visited the United States, where he was warmly received. On his return to England he began studying the British Admiralty methods for coping with the German submarines. With the co-operation of the Admiralty, he has been able to shed the first real light on this mystery. His articles, which are given here in abbreviated form, are copyrighted in America by The New York Tribune Association.
HERE has been some discussion in it is now possible to give a glimpse of the
America as to whether Mr. Wil far-reaching method that destroyed the son's notes, or some other more menace of the German submarine.
secret and certain power, caused It was done in silence, and silence the Germans to aban
was one of the weapdon their deadliest sea
ons. Submarines went weapon. Inasmuch as
out and this weapon ceased to
turned. Other subtrouble the English a
marines went out, perlittle earlier than it
plexed, against a mysceased to sink neu
tery; and these, too, trals, the latter alter
never returned, or renative might be ac
turned in mysteriouscepted as probable,
ly diminishing numeven without further
bers. Nothing was knowledge, but fur
said about it till the ther knowledge abso
destruction of the fiflutely confirms this
tieth was quietly celeprobability. Nothing
small is more striking in the
gathering in London; conduct of this war
and then neutrals bethan the way in which
gan to inquire, with a the British method of
new note of curiosity, ** slow and sure" has
“ What is England justified itself. The
We heard superficial clamor for
tales of steel nets—as sudden and sensational
vague as the results proofs of " what Eng
would have been but land is doing” began in the first fortnight for certain great preliminaries of which of the war. Neutral countries even won we never heard. A few days ago I had dered why the first month of the war the opportunity of seeing the finished had produced no great historian. In the system, and this threw a flood of light on meantime, England was making the his the immense work that must have gone tory of the next thousand years; and before in even this one branch of our sea that can only be done on vast and deeply warfare. sunken foundations, which must be laid
A Mysterious Fleet in silence. Results, and solid results, of To begin with, a body of men, larger granite and oak were England's aim. than the United States Army, was chosen These are now appearing; and while her from the longshore fishermen and trawler great new armies are demonstrating crews. They were gradually drilled, diswhat England has created on that side, ciplined, and trained and put into naval
uniforms. This force is now over 100, shift their position and change their 000 strong. They were chosen, of course, shape at a signal. on an entirely different principle from A submarine may enter their seas, inthat of the army. They were tough sea deed, and even go to America. She may dogs, of all ages, inured to all the ways even do some damage within their lines. of the sea, but not at all to any form of But, if she does this, her position is discipline. This in itself implies very known, and, if there be any future damgreat preliminaries, for the finished age done, it will probably have to be product is fit to man a battleship.
done by another submarine. For she has In the meantime, their fishing-boats, called upon a thousand perils, from every trawlers, and drifters were gradually point of the compass, to close upon her taken over by the Government and fitted return journey. I have actually seen the out for the hunt, some three thousand of course of a German submarine-which them. To these were added a fleet of thought itself undiscovered-marked fast motor boats, specially built for scout from day to day on the chart at an Enging purposes. They were stationed at
lish base. The clues to all the ramificavarious points all round the island. tions of this work are held by a few men Night and day, in all weathers, section at the Admiralty in London. Telephone replacing section, these trawlers and and telegraph keep them in constant drifters string themselves out from coast touch with every seaport in the kingto coast; while on shore thousands of dom. But let the reader consider the workers are turning out their own special amount of quiet organization that went munitions and equipment-nets, mines, before all this. Even the manufacture and a dozen mysteries which may not be of the nets—which do not last forever, mentioned.
even when made—is an industry in itFrom one of their bases a patrol-boat self; and that is one of the least of a took me out along one of the longest lines thousand activities. of the flotilla. This innocent line of
Sailors' Awful Ordeal trawlers, strung out for some fifty miles, had more nightmares in store for the [Mr. Noyes refers to the three English German submarines than a fleet of battle sailors who were captured from a trawler ships. It was an odd sensation to ap by a German submarine:] proach trawler after trawler and note They endured eighty hours' nightthe one obviously unusual feature of each mare under the sea that shattered the -the menacing black gun at bow and mind of one and left permanent traces stern. They were good guns, too—Eng on the other two. Periodically revolvers lish, French, and Japanese. The patrol were put to their heads, and they were boat carried a Hotchkiss, and most of the ordered, on pain of death, to tell all they trawlers had equally efficient weapons. knew of our naval dispositions. They There were other unusual features in saw a good deal of the internal routine every trawler, drifter, and whaler, fea of the German submarine also; and noted, tures that made one catch one's breath characteristically, that the German crew when their significance was realized. —on this boat, at any rate—were very About this I may say very little; but in “jumpy," too jumpy ” even to take a the matter of the nets it was demon
square meal. They munched biscuits at strated to me that within twenty-five their stations at odd moments. On the minutes any submarine reported in most third morning they heard guns going of our home waters can be inclosed in a overhead, and watched the Germans steel trap from which there is no escape. handing out shells to their own guns. The vague rumors that we heard in the Finally a torpedo was fired, and they earlier stages of the war led one to sup heard it take effect. Then they emerged pose that these nets might be used per into the red wash of dawn and saw only haps in the English Channel and other the floating wreckage of the big ship narrow waters. But I have seen traps that had been sunk, and, among the a hundred miles long, traps that could wreckage, a small boat. They
bandled into this, told they were free to see any number. For five minutes she row to England or Nineveh, and the sub lay motionless—and then, having fixed marine left them—three longshore fish the position of her prey, and taken her erman, who had passed through the speed into consideration, she slowly sublatest invention of the modern scientific merged in its direction. I knew what devil, two who could still pull at the was coming, and it came-a dull, heavy oars, but the other too crazy to steer, as explosion and a silence, and then, as if his little personal part of the price paid to see the result of her handiwork, the by England for sweeping and patrolling submarine again appeared. She did not the seas of civilization.
stay up long, as smoke was soon seen on Many were the tales of neutrals, towed the horizon, and I knew the patrols had to port, battered but safe, by these in been looking for her. She knew it, toodefatigable auxiliaries. One was towed and submerged. I hauled in my nets and in, upside down, by fixing an English proceeded at full speed to the sinking anchor in one of her German-made shell ship to try and save the lives of the holes; she was towed for a hundred
Our boat was launched, and I miles, at a quarter of a knot an hour, went aboard. By this time the Gulfand arrived for the Admiral at the base light's bows were well down and her fore to make his inspection.
decks awash, and she looked as if she Attack on the Gulflight
would sink at any minute. She was
badly holed in her fore part. The Huns, The attack on the American steam
I thought, had done their work well. ship Gulflight was narrated to me as “ Ten minutes later I saw the patrol follows by the skipper of his Majesty's
vessels racing up for all they were drifter Contrive:
worth, and one of these vessels took off “ We had shot our nets, and about
the crew, two of whom were drowned. noon we saw a large tank steamer com The Captain of the Gulflight died of ing up channel at a good pace. She
shock. Soon four patrol vessels were on was coming in our direction, and I soon the spot, and three of these vessels put saw her colors, the Stars and Stripes,
men aboard with wires in double quick at the stern—a fine big ensign it was and time. The fourth-a big trawler, with spread out like a board. When she was
wireless (which I now know in naval about two miles off, to my horror I saw language as * trawler leader')— a submarine emerge from the depths and steamed round and round in the vicinity, come right to the surface. There was keeping a careful watch. In less than no sign of life on the submarine, but two hours the Gulflight, her Stars and she lay stationary, rising and falling in
Stripes still flying above water, was bethe trough, and I knew instinctively that ing towed at a good speed to port, with she was watching the steamer. She had the trawlers in attendance." undoubtedly come from the same direction as that in which the steamer was
Frightfulness Frightened going, and it did not take me long to [Mr. Noyes tells how the trawlers have realize what had actually happened. I driven German submarines out of Engtook in the situation at a glance. The lish waters, and narrates as follows a submarine had passed the Gulflight, (for moving story of submarine frightfulness, that proved to be her name.) She had which is an epic of unspeakable cruelty.] deliberately increased speed to lie in It was on a fine Summer morning that wait for her and get a sure target the fishing trawler Victoria left a certain rather than attempt to fire a torpedo port beloved of Nelson to fish on the when overhauling her, with the possible
Labadie Bank. She carried a crew of chance of missing and wasting one of nine men, together with a little boy those expensive weapons, even
named Jones—a friend of the skipper. American.
He held under his arm a well-thumbed "The submarine was painted light
Treasure Island." Perhaps it gray and had two guns; but I could not was this book that had inspired him to
the adventure, for, though nobody quite believed at that time in the existence of the twentieth-century pirate, there was adventure in the air, and it was only after much pleading that he was allowed to go. This vessel, of course, was unarmed and used only for fishing. For a week all went well. There was a good catch of fish, splashing the rusty-red old craft with shining scales from bow to stern, and piling up below like mounded silver. The crew were beginning to think of their women at home and their accustomed nooks in the Lord Nelson and Blue Dolphin Taverns.
They were about 130 miles from land when the sound of a gun was heard by all hands. The boy Jones shut his book on his thumb and ran up to the bridge, where he stood by the skipper. In the distance, against the sunset, they saw the silhouette of a strange-looking ship. At first it looked like a drifter, painted gray, with mizzen set. But the flash of another gun revealed it as a submarine. The skipper hesitated. Should he stop the ship and trust to the laws of war and the good faith of the enemy? The lives of the crew and the little boy, who had been left in his charge, were his first thought. Yes, he would do so, and the order was given. The engines ceased to throb. Then, as the ship rolled idly, he was disillusioned. The gun flashed again, ard he knew that he was facing an implacable determination to sink and destroy.
It was only a forlorn hope, but he would risk it, and not a man demurred at his decision. The engines rang “ full speed ahead” and the Victoria began to tear through the green water for home. The submarine opened a rapid fire from two powerful guns, and the first to fall was the little lad Jones. The skipper kept steadily on his course, with the boy dead at his feet. But the submarine gained rapidly and continued to pour a devastating fire on the helpless craft. The skipper was struck next and blown to pieces. The bridge was a mass of bloody wreckage and torn flesh. The next shell shattered the tiny engine room and killed the engineman. The Victoria lay at the mercy of the enemy. The
submarine continued to close on her, and kept up a rapid fire, killing the mate and another engineman and severely wounding another. The four men who were left tried to save themselves. The boat had been smashed to splinters, and they jumped into the water with planks.
Careless of the men in the water, the submarine steamed up alongside the Victoria and sealed her fate by placing bombs aboard her. There was a violent explosion, and her wreckage, strewn over the face of the waters far and near, was the only relic of her existence. Not till nearly two hours after this were the four numbed and helpless men in the water taken aboard the submarine. They were placed down below, and, one by one, closely examined by the commander as to the system of patrols in the neighborhood. Dazed as they were, and hardly responsible for their actions, they one and all refused to answer their captors. Late that night they were told that the submarine was about to submerge, and, so far as they could gather, they proceeded below the surface for over twelve hours. They knew enough about the system of netting to know that they were in constant danger of being trapped in the belly of the sea and drowned, hideously, in the darkness, but not a man spoke. During the night they were given some coffee and a biscuit each, and the wound of one man, who had been badly lacerated by a shell, was dressed by the ship's surgeon. They lay in the semi-darkness, listening to the steady beat and hum of the engines and wondering what kind of a miracle could bring them to the light of day again.
Abandoned at Sea On the next morning the trawler Hirose fell a victim to the same submarine. She was
sooner sighted than she was greeted with a hail of shot. She stopped and lowered a boat, while the enemy dashed up. The commander of the submarine shouted through a megaphone: “Leave your ship. I give you five minutes." The crew complied —there were ten hands all told—and were ordered aboard the submarine, while the Hirose was blown up. After being