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be in a like plight, and England also The vast majority of the people un, would fall to an approximately similar derstand this, and on all sides we hear condition.

the words: The Allies 'will win, and this Now, when there are transports capa struggle will be the last European war, ble of accommodating several thousand The rights of all nationalities to free persons, when submarines, aeroplanes, development will be recognized, the fedand dirigible airships are become part eration idea will be applied in remaking of armaments, England's immunity to the map of Europe. The ugliness of war German invasion is no more. Experts and the failure of armed peace to prevent concede the possibility of such an inva war have clearly demonstrated that a sion now, and should the Prussian hel

period of general disarmament is apmet dominate the northern coast of proaching. The union among the adFrance, an invasion of England would vanced nations, which is being enhanced merely become a question of the con since the arrival of a common danger by venient moment. The entire order of the extraordinary united efforts of all life and the further development of the concerned, will inevitably leave its traces country would have to adapt themselves on every nation. The foundations of a to such a possibility, as was the case in new life in all the strata composing France.

the modern State are already being As to the consequences of Germany's laid. triumph over us in Russia, one does not In all the activities of the anti-milieven like to think, so terrible would tarists, the opponents of war, there was they be. What would become of the in a fundamental error. They thought that ternal development of our country if on by their propaganda against war they the Nieman, at Riga, and possibly in

could prevent it in spite of the fact that Revel, German fortifications the

all the causes that make war inevitable order of Metz were erected—not for the

were still in full force. defense of the captured territory, but for further offensive purposes? Fortifi

They wrote that the cause of modern cations from which armies fully equipped

war is European capitalism and its accould be moved on Petrograd the first

companying phenomena. They believed

that a general strike in all the countries day after a war declaration ?

about to enter into a war would render On the whole, the triumph of Ger

the expected conflict impossible. many in this war would mean the en

But by some kind of miracle all the slavement of the entire European civil

tremendous powers of capitalism and its ization by military ideals. Her triumph dependent forces vanished, crumbled of 1870 had already given us forty years away and became paralyzed at the outof such slavery with the arrest of uni break of the war. And they vanished versal progress.

Her victory

over

not only in France but also in that other France, Belgium, England, and Russia

country-Germany—the country which would give us now half a century or saw in the conquest of part of France, more of a similar retardation of progress in the weakening of her, and in the anthroughout Western Europe and all the nexation of her colonies, a necessary Slavonic world.

step” toward the development of GerTo all who will not shut their eyes at many's own capitalism! the events transpiring around us, it is A patent incongruity was, then, the sufficiently clear why no one to whom result. And I now ask myself if the the progressive development of humanity majority of the anti-militarists is dear, and whose mind is not clouded realized fully the organic bond seen by by personal attachments or by sophisms them between war and European capiof official patriotism, should be in doubt talism. Did they not attach too much as to the side one ought to take. One importance to the evil will of indishould not remain neutral, as neutrality viduals?

So long as there are in the present case means support of States the peoples of which are ready, the iron fist.

in expectation of personal benefits, to

ever

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support a movement for conquest, war cannot be averted by preaching. Those anti-militarists who, in the name of opposition to all war, refuse to support either of the warring sides, are, in my opinion, making a serious mistake. They have omitted from their view one thingthe present war is creating new history. It introduces to all the peoples new conditions of social reconstruction. And when this reconstruction shall have begun, it will pass by those men who had refused to act at a time when the fortunes of the century were being decided on the fields of battle.

The end of German hegemony, the disintegration of the Austrian Empire, the dawn of a new life for the Slavonic peoples, a united Poland again contributing her own national creations to the treasury of science and art—all this and much more may be expected from this war.

When old Garibaldi called together in 1870 his old and new comrades and went

tu fight for the French Republic against Germany, he did not seek world aims to justify his action. He did not overestimate the import of the war. But he saw in France liberty struggling against autocracy, and considered it his duty to come, as he had always done, to the defense of the former against the latter.

Right and

progress were on the side of France. To you and many others all this is not enough. You doubt. You want to know definitely if this war will be a war of liberation. But this question cannot be answered in advánce. All depends on its conclusion and the circumstances incident to it. Only one thing is certain. If Germany i: victorious, then the war will not have been a war of liberation. It will bring on Europe a new slavery.

It is necessary that the whole German Nation shall see in reality into what an abyss of destruction and moral degradation its Kultur, wholly devoted to conquest, has hurled it.

The Faculty of Wonder Dulled

By Winston Spencer Churchill

Former First Lord of the British Admiralty

TH

Following is an excerpt from a recent article in the Sunday Pictorial of London: MHE limitations of man's intellect do

not govern the scale of his affairs.

He does what he can; he comprehends what he can, and the rest happens. When Armageddon burst over Europe probably no single brain achieved a complete and rightly porportioned view of the cataract of events. The first weeks and months of the general war escaped to a large extent from human control. The forces liberated were unmeasured; the consequences of their exercise unforeseeable.

The chaos of the first explosions has given place to the slow fire of trench warfare; the wild turbulence of the incalculable, the sense of terrible adventure have passed. For nearly two years the armies of Europe have dwelt close together in opposing ditches, fed by lavish

floods of human life and broadening streams of shot and shell, tormenting each other by ever-growing and improving agencies of death; and behind them their countries have transformed the infinitely varied activities of modern civilization into the three comprehensive institutions of the barracks, the arsenal, and the hospital.

The progress of the war is no longer to be measured by the battles or the positions of the contending fronts, but mainly by the economic and political reactions which the long and ever more tightly drawn strain is producing in the various nations.

Every man, every woman, every workable child is gradually being fitted into the war machine.

A sombre mood prevails in Britain. The faculty of wonder has been dulled; emotion and enthusiasm; excitemnet is

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bankrupt, death is familiar, and sorrow monplace experience, to the slow fire numb.

which with intensifying fierceness conThe world is in twilight; and from be sumes the flesh and sears the hearts of yond dim flickering horizons comes tire- peoples. lessly the thudding of guns. A hard, Now one understands how men lived frost-like surface of gayety sparkles in through the periods that seem so terrible the cities; and anxiety turns to thought in the history books, and went about lessness or to apathy for relief.

their business, and joked and ate their The beloved figure of son, father, dinners, and filled their theatres. Now, brother, friend descend from trains on too, one understands how our foreflying visits, recreating around them for fathers, with shoulder bended to the a little precarious space the happiness of burden, with searching eye fixed upon far-off days before the war. A few the enemy, preserved through the perils, hours of safety and comfort, a vivid the difficulties, and the blunders of a interlude of home and pleasure, and then thousand years the life and honor of back, as a matter of course, as a com Critannia's isle.

The Changed Ideals of the

the Belligerents By V. Kershentseff

Russian Author and Journalist [Translated for CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE from the Severnia Zapisski, Petrograd. )

mer

HE further into the past the first
days of the war retreat, the dim-

grow the idealistic watchwords which originally lent a spiritual glory and lustre to the patriotism of the warring nations. From under the sumptuous cover of words there emerges sharply the dry skeleton of materialistic and selfish ambitions.

The long war has become to the world an every day affair, and this is depriving it of the epithets with which it was formerly described, such as “liberating," “civilizing," “ altruistic,” &c. The problems of the war have grown complicated, and changed its face. After two years we look at events with different eyes.

Who will now undertake to prove that this is a war against militarism? It is this war that has helped the development of militarism in a maximum degree. It is this war that has communicated the militaristic disease even to such a country as the United States. Can there be any doubt that victory will be achieved by that group of nations which shall have its military organization developed to the highest perfection? By a perfect military organization we mean not only the purely technical militarism, but the total

of the economic, political, and technical factors comprising the military organization of a State. Not only the skeptical historian of the world war, but the ordinary citizen as well, will arrive at the conclusion that a certain group of nations was victorious because it had demonstrated its ability to solve international problems through armed force. Who will assert that such a conclusion will be a blow to militarism? Will it not be just the other way?

The war, it was said, was being waged in the name of freedom, equality, and even fraternity.

Looking back at the past months, who

confirm this thesis with facts? Who will deny the evident truth that in all the warring countries the tide of conservatism is rising? The best example is furnished by the freest country in Europe-England. Step by step the Liberal Party is giving way before the encroachments of a strengthened conservatism. The principle of voluntary military service is abandoned. The press is muzzled. The theory of free trade is found antiquated. The role of the House of Commons is growing secondary. Even the habeas corpus principle has to be

can

defended by special leagues and funds, just as in the period of dark reaction at the end of the eighteenth century.

In what country is similar retrogression not to be noticed? The war started in the name of defending the rights of small countries and nationalities. Therein lies the great irony of it. Particularly to the small countries and nationalities has it been disastrous. It has proved that the time for small nations is past, that world history has entered a stage where units will consist of coalitions of nations, bound politically and economically. Not only small nations, but even individual large nations, cannot longer exist outside of the coming powerful political combinations,

" This war will be the last. After it will come eternal peace.” This theory, popular a year and a half ago, seems at present, more than at any previous time, but a subtle or naïve irony. Of course, in Europe a temporary weariness of war is possible, especially because of the financial disorganization and economic chaos, but even in the case of such a calm there will be military problems on hand. The beginning of the peaceful period that is to come after the war will also mark the beginning of a new war, a mercial, tariff war. In itself not bloody, it may cause another bloody conflict; and it will fall most heavily on the shoulders of those who bear the chief burden of the present catastrophe.

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Human Nature and the War

By Principal L. P. Jacks
Dean of Manchester College, Oxford, and Editor of the Hibbert Journal

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Dr. Jacks has contributed to a recent rogative of man. The war-not the issue of Land and Waier an incisive word, not the idea, but the thing in its article, in which he says:

concrete horror—is a strange comment N the two years during which the war

on the prerogative. has been in progress a number of Suppose we were to cut the war out

men, women, and children, roughly as a single chapter in the history of equal to the total population of London, man's doings on this planet and set ourhas been killed. Perhaps five times as

selves to deduce from this chapter a many have been wounded, making with theory as to the nature of the beings the killed a total not far short of the who did these things. Or suppose we population of Great Britain. "What it were suddenly endowed with a power of has cost in material wealth to accom vision to see the war, not through the plish this result would be hard to say;

medium of statistics or newspaper reprobably $75,000,000,000 is well within ports but as a living fact in all the the mark.

length and breadth and detail of its For what end has this been done ? dreadful truth and then, with that to repeat the question of Little Peter vision-fresh before us, set ourselves to kin. It has been done in order to settle write out a testimonial to the character a type of quarrel which, had it broken of man, to be delivered to the angels or out between six reasonable men with to the inhabitants of some other planet some sense of humor, instead of between on which the human race had applied six great "powers," with no power for a situation. Should we not come to of understanding each other, would have the conclusion that man is thoroughly been settled in a quarter of an hour. and hopelessly insane? Should we not

Looking at the matter in this way warn the angels against having anymost people would agree that we are in thing to do with a race of lunatics so the presence of something essentially ir- dangerous ? rational. Reason is said to be the pre We have come to this—that about

on

" the

three hundred million human beings on man and to let the real sinner go this side and two hundred million on free. In human nature there is nothing that are now engaged in trying to in whatever which could lead, under any flict upon each other the greatest pos conceivable circumstances, to such orgies sible amount of death, mutilation, and of bloodshed and mutilation as the slopes material loss, and have so far succeeded of Verdun and many other places have as to kill or wound forty millions and recently witnessed. Human nature is to destroy $75,000,000,000 worth of wealth from first to last in revolt against the at the very least. As a test case of whole proceeding. It is not human nature what man is, and what he is capable of, which does these things, but State nature we shall look in vain for any single -a very different thing. To love one's episode or revealing action that will tell native land and be willing to die for it a more eloquent tale about man—that is one thing, perhaps the noblest in man; is, if we are to judge him by what he to love a soulless machine called does rather than by what he says, as State” is another, and I for one have surely we ought to do. We could not never met a human being in England or hesitate as to the conclusion to be drawn anywhere else who was capable of so unfrom such premises. To conclude that natural a passion. human nature is brutal, or wicked, or Modern States are not human. They selfish, or cruel would not be enough. are stupid monsters without conscience, Human nature, we should have to say, without soul, without feeling. As to inis plainly mad. Insanity and not reason telligence, they lack even that modest is the prerogative of man.

amount of it which would enable them to A friend of mine who has reflected understand one another. Not understanddeeply on the war, and written about ing one another, and unable to do so, it more wisely than any other English their mutual relations are like those of man, remarked the other day: “During a number of icebergs floating on the the early months of the war I often had same sea, which may at any moment be the feeling that I was in hell already, flung into collision by the drift of inin fact, that we were all in hell together visible currents. It is the paradox of without knowing it. But that feeling has the world's history that the great States passed away. I now believe that I am formed by the combined intelligence of in Bedlam—which perhaps is only a par their members have so little intelligence ticular province of hell.” That feeling in their relations with one another. The is widespread, though vague and un human nature which is in each memdefined. Even our soldiers at the front, ber of the State, and stands on the whole keen as they are to do their duty, often for right-mindedness and neighborly respeak in their letters of the “mad busi lations, disappears in the total combinaness on which they are engaged.

tion of all the members, and a vast agFrom these conclusions there would glomeration comes into being, of which seem to be no escape—if we accept the the outstanding feature is that it lacks view that human nature is really responsible for what is going on. But, I There are many who regard the war hasten to say, human nature is not re as betokening the need for a radical sponsible for it—and venture to think change in the nature of man-in his that until this is realized the profoundest ideals, his habits, his passions. And cerpolitical lesson of the war will be missed. tainly this would be a sound inference Human nature has been dragged into from the facts if human nature were this business against its will, its intelli- really responsible for the war-only in gence, its instincts. A "spell” has been that case I think we should have to go put upon it.

further and demand the total extinction To charge the horrors of the present of man as unfit to live on the planet, time to the brute passions of man's on the same principle that we demand nature, to his want of right-mindedness the extermination of a mad dog. But or of self-control, is to commit a libel believing as I do that responsibility for

a soul.

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