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in these reports are circulated, to the effect that French prisoners are being inoculated with tuberculosis by their German captors, and that Teutonic airmen have dropped bombs in Rumanian cities charged with poisoned sweets and garlic infected with cholera bacilli; but these charges are not worthy of serious consideration, and CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE dismisses them as phantasms of a diseased imagination.
BOTH SIDES IMPLACABLE
prints elsewhere the essential features of a report issued by Viscount Bryce, under the direction of the British Government, on the persecutions of the Armenians in Asia Minor and Syria; also an official report issued at the instance of the allied Governments by Professor Reiss of the University of Lausanne, Switzerland, on the atrocities by Austro-Hungarian troops during the invasion of Serbia late in 1914. These reports are valuable records in the history of the great European war, and though perhaps colored by the bias of the witnesses, furnish harrowing proof of the incredible extremes to which the passions of war have driven enlightened peoples supposed to be refined by twenty centuries of civilization.
It is the purpose of this magazine to print the essence of all the official reports emanating from each of the belligerents regarding the treatment of civilians as well as prisoners of war, so that the truth may be ascertained from the conflicting statements of all the nations. These reports unfold a tale of unbelievable brutality; it seems impossible to accept them unreservedly; they doubtless proceed from witnesses inflamed and blinded by hatred, made reckless by suffering and grief. Yet from the mass of testimony the truth may be deduced. Even when heavily discounted these documents lay so grave a burden on the offending nations that one shrinks from visualizing the horrors they depict.
Still worse charges than any containeid
ances of leading statesmen printed elsewhere in these pages, the conclusion is unescapable that the end of the war is not in sight. Each belligerent nation seems possessed with the fixed idea that it must conquer or become a vassal State. Each asserts a confident belief that, though the struggle may be prolonged, victory in the end is certain.
The Entente Governments have let it be understood officially that a present move by any neutral looking to mediation will be resented as a hostile act, and the Teutonic allies officially declare that, while they are ready to discuss peace on the present status quo of the battle lines, they realize that this proposal will not be considered by their enemies, who, they assert, are bent upon the annihilation of the Central Powers. A fresh outburst of rancor toward Great Britain is manifest in Germany, while frequent Zeppelin raids upon England and a renewal of submarine activity have intensified the bitterness of the Allies. All the combatants at present seem to be at the very
zenith of implacable hatred, and fighting with a desperation unparalleled in history.
war; generations to come would find themselves condemned to lasting anguish, menaced unceasingly." The degree to which Briand spoke for his countrymen, and uttered their conviction, was shown in the vote of confidence, 421 against 21, which followed his oration.
PREMIER BRIAND AND PEACE Tow OWARD the end of September, Aris
tide Briand, President of the French Council of Ministers, who, as head of the Parliamentary Government of France,
speaks with even greater authority than T FeBritish liner Adriatic sailed from
the President of the Republic, made two important declarations, which make absolutely clear the position of his nation on the question of a premature peace. Speaking on Sept. 13, the day after the reconvening of the French Parliament, Premier Briand had two very important pieces of news to announce: Rumania's entry into the war and the declaration of war by Italy against Germany. He also vehemently denounced the deportation of French women and girls by German military authorities as “an abomination, which had aroused the conscience of the world.”
But most important was his declaration of policy. He summoned his country to persevere in her magnanimous effort, to unite all her vital forces and bend them toward the final goal-“ peace through victory, a peace solid and enduring, guaranteed against every renewal of violence by fitting international sanctions."
On Sept. 19 M. Briand delivered another notable utterance in reply to M. Brizon, a Socialist Deputy, who suggested that it would be unreasonable and culpable to prolong the war when, by
A TYPICAL WAR CARGO ПНЕ
, withstanding the possibility that the German U-53 was lying in wait for her outside the three-mile limit. The vessel remained at Ambrose Channel, within American waters, until after dark and proceeded rapidly on a new course convoyed by British warships. She carried a large number of passengers, including five Americans, and a cargo valued at $7,000,000. It is interesting to note the munitions of war that were aboard as indicative of the nature of our present exports to the Allies. The cargo contained the following:
One aeroplane, 2,422 cases of fuses, 881 pieces of shell bodies, 617 cases of rifles, 13 cases of gun carriages, 947 barrels of lubricating oil, 31 tons of pig iron, 341 cases of brass tubes, 1,515 ingots of aluminium, 824 bars of steel, 30) cases of copper tubes, 57 cases of automobile parts, 7% automobiles, 1,20 cases of cartridges, . 10,743 pieces of forgings, 5 cases of shotguns, 6 cases of guns, 1.926 bales of cotton, 243 bundles of hoop steel, 119 pieces of steel billets, 1,014 slabs of copper, 439 cases of copper bands, 1,174 cases of brass rods, 20 cases of tractor parts, 6,664 plates of spelter, 8,192 pigs of lead.
negotiations begun at the present time: L
money and rivers of blood." The French Premier reminded the Chamber that France “had been brutally torn from her peaceful toil, traitorously attacked and dragged into war, invaded, tortured," and was now struggling with all her energies " for all humanity.” He branded as “a challenge, an outrage against the memory of so many heroes who had fallen for France, so many glorious dead,” the Socialist Deputy's proposal. "If peace," he said, came before the necessary work was done, it would be a peace of
JAPAN's New PREMIER
RAUCHI, former Minister of War, also formerly Resident General in Korea, has become the new Premier of Japan in succession to Marquis Okuma, whose resignation marked the climax of the struggle between the bureaucratic forces and the advocates of a representative Government, resulting in a victory for the former. Terauchi represents the aggressive militant spirit of Japan. He has passed most of his life in military circles, having been Director of the Military Academy, Minister of War, Field Marshal, and Lieutenant General
of the army; he has never shown any fense: Daniel Willard, President of the liking for diplomacy or civil activities. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad; Samuel His appointment is regarded through Gompers, President of the American out the world as foreshadowing a revival Federation of Labor; Dr. Franklin H. of the military spirit of Japan, and, Martin, a distinguished Chicago surgeon; though his present utterances are of a Howard E. Coffin of Detroit, of the pacific character, it is felt that Japan American Automobile Association; Berunder his leadership will soon become nard Baruch, a New York banker; Dr. more aggressive. The appointment was Hollis Godfrey, President of Drexel Inregarded in this country, when first an stitute of Philadelphia, a mechanical ennounced, as a menace to the open door in gineer, and Julius Rosenwald of Chicago, China, but the Premier, in an author President of Sears, Roebuck & Co. The ized interview, announced that the clos commission is formed for the creation ing of the doors of China is “a non of relations which will render possible possumus." So long as Japan's inter in time of need the immediate concenests and dignity are not infringed,” he
tration and utilization of the resources said, “ Japan will take no aggressive of the nation. A chief part of its work step toward any nation, especially Amer will be to inform American manufacturica." He asserts that he does not in ers as to the part they can play in a tend to take up with the United States
The practical obthe questions of immigration and State ject of the commission is to establish discriminatory legislation, but a new agi well qualified agencies capable of motation in California against the rights of bilizing to the utmost the productive reJapanese to hold lands might be quickly sources of the country. regarded by the sensitive Japanese as an "infringement on Japan's dignity." He
RELIEF FOR WAR ORPHANS says further: Japan's ambition is to have China benefit, THE most comprehensive philanthropic
undertaking ever organized in this Ilke Japan, from the fruits of world civilization and world progress. The Japanese and
country was formed in New York City, Chinese people have sprung from the same Oct. 14, 1916, by a group of prominent stock. Our future destiny is a common des citizens to be known as The American tiny that is historically involved.
Society for the Relief of French War Already this patronizing solicitude re
Orphans. It was announced that the garding China is involved, so it is re society would raise a fund of $130,000,ported, by the concession to an Ameri 000. The sum of $125,000 for operating can company to build for the Chinese
expenses for two years was pledged outGovernment a railroad through the cen side the organization by a number of intre of the country; it is asserted that dividuals, so that every dollar of the Japan and Russia have presented repre general fund will be devoted to the supsentations of disapproval of this enter port of orphans. William D. Guthrie prise to the Chinese, but they have not was elected President; James Stillman, J. yet been officially reported to the Pierpont Morgan, and Ambrose Monell, United States Government. At best the Vice Presidents; Clyde A. Pratt, General Terauchi appointment is causing Ameri Manager. The directors embrace a numcans, who have heretofore been most ber of New York's most conspicuous men, pacifically inclined, to view with firmer most of whom are well known for their complacency the appropriation by the broad philanthropies. The work will be last Congress of $630,000,000 for army
directed from this country, but there will and navy development.
be a Paris committee of seven members.
It is reported that there are already
in France 200,000 children orphaned by A NEW DEFENSIVE FORCE
The membership of the society PRESIDENT WILSON has named as is divided into Founders, who will con
the Advisory Commission to be as tribute $500 or more a year; Benefacsociated with the Council of National De
tors, $250 a year, and Sustaining. Mem
bers, $100 a year. The duration of the were in training camps. Australian corporation is for fifteen years, as the aviators were winning honors in Asia and necessity for this charity will continue Africa, while in Europe the Australian long after the close of the war.
Siege Brigade and Transport had done tive of the promoters is to give expres distinguished work. The task of locally sion in a practical way to "the gratitude equipping the troops had been gigantic that Americans have always felt for the for a country still in the developmental aid given to this country by France dur stage, with a population of only 5,000,ing the Revolution."
000. Australia had kept itself and New
Zealand supplied with rifles and ammuDEBATING IRISH CONSCRIPTION nition up to the time the troops left CHERE is renewed agitation in Ireland Egypt. The British Admiralty added
over the threat of conscription. that Australia had raised a $150,000,000 The suggestion was bitterly denounced war loan and was then engaged in floatby John Redmond, head of the Nation ing a new loan of $250,000,000. alists, but is being strongly urged by the Unionist press. Recruiting in
THE SUFFERIMGS OF POLAND Ireland since the uprising last Spring
HE effects of the war in Poland seem has fallen to a low ebb, and the neces
to surpass in extent and horror all sity for filling in the depleted ranks
those inflicted upon any other territory. of British regiments in France caused
According to a statement made by the Lloyd George in a Parliamentary ut
Honorary Executive Secretary of Polish terance Oct. 13 to intimate that fur
War Victims, "the latest authentic reports ther conscription might be necessary. from Poland are that all children under The Man Power Board has reached the
7 years of age have ceased to exist, havconclusion that every young man in the
ing died from hunger and disease.” When British Kingdom must be placed in the
the war broke out there was in Poland national service, and this suggestion has
a population of 34,000,000. At the end started afresh the demand that conscrip of the second year, according to the aution be applied to Ireland. It is be
thority just named, 14,000,000 human believed by many that if this step is taken
ings had perished from various causes there will be a fresh revolutionary out in Poland. The property damage in that break. In the Parliamentary debate on
country due directly to the war is estiOct. 18 the proposition of conscription
mated at about $11,000,000,000. More for Ireland was again bitterly denounced
than 200 towns and 20,000 villages have by Redmond, and Lloyd George in his re
been razed to the ground; 1,600 churches ply was rather conciliatory, indicating have been destroyed. As an instance of that the idea of conscription is tempo
the vastness of the destruction of hurarily at least laid aside and that a fur
man life occurring in Poland, the folther effort will be made to reconcile the
lowing is given: "In Galicia, Austrian Irish Nationalists through a more lenient
Poland, in the district of Gorlice, where attitude by the Government.
a battle raged for several months, 1,500,
000 civilians, caught between the lines AUSTRALIA'S PART IN THE WAR of the contending armies, have perished
right there from starvation while in diers in the British Army, affec hiding." All these facts help to emphationately dubbed “ Anzacs," were chris size the pitiful significance of the recent tened thus in the Gallipoli campaign, official announcement that the belligerents where the official name of the Australian have been unable to agree on any plan for and New Zealand Army Corps was short admitting American aid to Poland. ened to a more convenient word formed of its initials. The British Admiralty THE City of Paris, through Kuhn, reported in August that Australia had Loeb & Co., has offered a loan of thus far sent to the European battle $50,000,000 in five-year 6 per cent. bonds fields 214,000 men and that 50,000 more to the American public to provide funds