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sense.

It is upon

not seem to be a very big achievement, still, in a sense, unprepared. Russia, but it is all in one direction. We have also, was unprepared, and Britain with secured the ascendency, instead of being practically no army in the Continental pushed back, as we were before Verdun,

We had an army for policing yard by yard, until the Germans got the empire, but we had no army in the nearer and nearer to the fortress itself. sense of an army for a great Continental What is happening now? We are push campaign. I am the last man to dising the enemy on the Somme, and the parage the work which our first expediFrench are doing the same. Near Ver tionary force rendered. I have no doubt dun, instead of being driven back grad when the history of the whole war comes ually day by day and week by week, the to be written it will be said that the French are regaining ground that they action of that gallant little force saved had previously lost.

the situation. All that is a change, but in order to

Now France is equipped, and Russia convert that into a real victory, a vic

is rapidly becoming equipped. The Italian tory which will enable to impose the

equipment is getting along in a way only terms that will make it worth our

which has amazed even her best friends. while for having entered into this war, We have now in the field one of the it is necessary that we should get every

greatest armies any empire could compossible support that this country or mand. Germany has missed her chance the dominions can give us.

and she knows it. that support and upon the equipment

Without in the least pretending to preof Russia, with heavy guns and heavy

dict times and seasons, it would be a ammunition, that victory depends. Dur

mistake for us to anticipate an early ing the whole of these fateful months

victory; that would only produce disthe enemy knows perfectly well that if

appointment; I have never in the least Russia had been equipped with heavier

underrated the greatness of our task; I artillery and ammunition her progress

never cried out victory when, as a matwould have been much more rapid than it has been. It is upon considerations of

ter of fact, we were sustaining defeat,

as I have always thought it better to that kind, which involve greater sacri

tell the people frankly and fairly exactfices, still greater drafts upon our tenac

ly what was happening, because the ity and courage, that the one great ques

people of this country are not the kind tion whether we shall see the end of this

of people to be terrified by any facts, war in the coming year depends.

and I knew that their exertions would be Germany's Chance Gone

in proportion to the difficulty of their We have captured the ridge; we can enterprise. Having always taken that see, at any rate, the course of the cam view, and now surveying the whole situapaign. I think in the dim distance we tion in the light of existing facts and can see the end. The enemy has been upon the advice of those who are far driven off the dominant position which more competent to express an opinion he held at the beginning of the cam than I am, I have no hesitation in saying paign, and that in itself is a great that all this country and the Allies have achievement. He has lost his tide. He to do is to march together steadily, work had France not fully prepared, and yet together loyally, as they have done in the best prepared of all; the most finely the past, and then victory, assured vicorganized country in the alliance was tory, will rest in their hands.

By Charles Johnston

W

are

E have been forgetting the the trenches, more than 150. All along

north end of the Russian this line, (which is about equal to the battle line in watching the line on the western front from Ostend

absorbing drama of the south. to Rheims,) Ruzsky has been attacking, But at the north end also there has been fighting against lines organized exactly vital fighting. Kuropatkin, who was far like those we are familiar with in the greater on the defensive than in attack descriptions of the fighting on the —and of whom it was said that, at the Somme. And the result of this fighting battle of Mukden, in its time the greatest is that, along the greater part of the battle of history, he had ten matured line, the Russians have captured the plans for withdrawal but not one for an German first-line trenches and advance-has gone south to his beloved firmly installed on the western side of Turkestan; Ruzsky, one of the hardest the Dwina. hitters in the Russian Army, who shared

While the trenches themselves were with Brusiloff the honors of the first splendidly organized with reinforced congreat aggressive in Galicia, has taken crete, forests of barbed wire, subterraKuropatkin's place, or, more truly, has nean caves, deep connecting trenches, the returned to his own post which Kuro

whole well defended by multitudes of mapatkin was holding for him; and, with chine guns, bomb throwers, rapid-fire the return of the “ fighting General," cannon, yet, according to Russian rethe northern Russian line has moved ports, the German army defending them steadily forward. Not on the grand was worn, nervous, inadequately fed and scale of Galicia and Bukowina, it is true,

clothed, and the trenches were underbut there are good reasons for that;

manned. But there was no lack at all first, although Russia has an apparently of munitions, nor of fierce determination inexhaustible host of young, well-trained

to hold the trenches. In general, when soldiers, and literally mountains of shells, Ruzsky's men attacked, after a tremenwhich are pouring in daily from Eng dously heavy artillery preparation, with land, from Japan, from Russia's own high explosive shells of the largest calnew munition works in the iron egions ibre, they found that the German deof the south and east, and also from

fenders had, during the bombardment, America, yet of necessity the enormous practically given up the first-line calls made both on men and munitions

trenches; only small groups were left, in by Brusiloff's vast offensive and now by

the deepest burrows, at the telephone the new invasion of Bulgaria through

stations from which wires, deeply buried the Dobrudja, have left Ruzsky in the in the earth, maintained connections with north with comparatively limited means.

the second lines. German prisoners who see what he has been able to

had remained at these first-line telephone accomplish with them.

stations said that, so tremendous was the The Dwina Front

Russian bombardment, nothing could

stand against it; barbed wire entangleRiga, a city of 600,000 population, (as ments were inowed down like reeds, conlarge as Baltimore or Pittsburgh,) and, crete trenches were first smashed up into after Odessa, the greatest port in the great fragments, as old-fashioned houseempire, was the first goal of Hinden wives used to pound up their sugar burg's great drive; Dwinsk, with 100,000 loaves, and then the chunks of concrete inhabitants,

the second. The were literally pounded into dust. distance between is about 120 miles, or, When the Russian foot soldiers charged along the curved line of the Dwina and with the bayonet, over the stupendous

Let us

was

ruins their own guns had created, the telephonists gave the signal, and the German troops came rushing forward from the second line, in which, during the bombardment, they had taken refuge; fierce hand-to-hand fighting with the bayonet, with gun butts, with grenades began, but within five or six hours the Russians were masters of the first-line trenches. But, when they ran on to the trenches of the second line the tables were turned against them; finding it impossible to take them without prolonged artillery preparation, they contented themselves with retiring to the first-line trenches and consolidating these; they are now working their heavy guns forward to attack the next line, exactly after the fashion of the Somme battle.

While these fights were going on, along a line of about 150 miles, the clouds were full of German albatrosses and Russian aeroplanes, scouting, pursuing each other, taking photographs of each other's position. Again and again the albatrosses have bombed Riga and Dwinsk, while Russian airmen have bombed the German trenches, depots, and field railroads. The net result of all this is that the Russiang are now firmly settled on the west side of the Dwina and are preparing to attack the German second line, the German first line being already in their hands.

Dwinsk to the Pripet The next sector of the eastern front, from Dwinsk to the Pripet River, (a tributary of the Dnieper, which runs east and south into the Black Sea at Kherson, east of Odessa,) a distance of about 300 miles almost due north and south, distance equal to a direct line from Ostend on the Strait of Dover to Strassburg. the great German intrenched camp in Alsace. On the German side this sector is commanded by Prince Leopold of Bavaria, a veteran, 70 years old, to whom is accredited the capture of Warsaw. On the Russian side, General Evert commands, a robust fighter who won distinction by blocking the first Austrian thrust north from Lemberg against Lublin and Kholm, while Ruzsky and Brusiloff cut at and captured Lemberg and Halicz from the east. The most

vital point on this long line which, for the most part, runs through enormous forests of pine, wet and marshy under foot, is the junction at Baranovici, an important station on the direct railroad from Warsaw through Brest-Litovsk to Moscow. In this region there has been severe fighting, which seems to be approaching a decision favorable to the Russians.

The Pripet to Rumania From the Pripet southward, as far as the Rumanian frontier, the Russian line is under the general command of Brusiloff, and this is, of course, the sector in which the really decisive and dramatic struggle is taking place..

We may make the purpose of this fighting clear by naming four cities, two of them, Kovel and Vladimir-Volhynski, in Russian territory now held by German armies; two, Lemberg and Halicz, in Austrian Galicia. The German commands have undergone several recent changes, but it seems that Generals Linsingen, Boehm-Ermolli, and Bothmer, under the nominal direction of the Austrian Archduke Charles Francis, the heir to the throne of the Dual Monarchy, are in command of the sectors from north to south. General von PflanzerBallin, who commanded the extreme southern sector, has just retired owing to ill-health.

When Brusiloff tore the first great breach in the Teutonic defenses at Lutsk and Dubno, his next objective was Kovel, with Vladimir-Volhynski somewhat to the south; there were strong Teuton defenses between, first along the Styr, then along the Stokhod, and against these a section of Brusiloff's forces, commanded by General Kaledin, who has just been made a full General for his distinguished services, was immediately directed, but for the last month or six weeks Kaledin has made almost no headway, though he has taken a good many prisoners. Here, then, is the first point at which Brusiloff is now being held up.

Last month saw the able and resourceful Teuton commander, General Count von Bothmer, in a very dangerous position. Three of Brusiloff's Generals were

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