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hemming him in: Sakharoff had out already named the Austrian General flanked him on the north by the capture Koevess, a really able soldier, especially of Brody and an at first rapid advance skilled in mountain warfare, who was along the Brody railroad toward Lem withdrawn from Gorizia to meet the berg. Stcherbatchoff was pressing his Russian threat at the Carpathians--with whole line hard from a base near Tar disastrous results for the Austrian forces nopol. The volatile Letchitski, to the about Gorizia. Largely to him, it would south, had far outflanked him by taking seem, has fallen the task of holding the successively Czernowitz, the capital of Carpathian passes in Galicia and BukoBukowina, Kolomea and Stanislavoff, wina against the flying wings of General and getting behind him along the Dnies

Letchitski's army, but his position is sudter River-the midrib of Galicia. Both denly and markedly weakened by Rumer, thus very seriously threatened,

mania's entry into the war, which now managed to extricate himself—but with introduces a new threat against these the loss of a considerable portion of his

passes, this time from the Hungarian

side. army. He is said to have lost 50,000 prisoners and probably as many killed and Should Rumania make to the north wounded. And he probably had not more progress as extensive as she has made to than 300,000 men all told when the Rus the west through the Transylvanian Carsian drive began, on June 4, while the pathians, then General Koevess will intervening months brought continuous shortly find himself outflanked and forced losses. It is difficult to believe that

to withdraw his forces into the interior Bothmer has more than a third, or at

of Hungary, as the Austrian armies in most a half, of his original force. With Transylvania have been withdrawn. Inthese he has withdrawn to Halicz, and is deed, the whole face of the problem, from there putting up a very stiff fight; but

the Pripet River southward, has been Letchitski, who has won for himself very

suddenly altered, and altered in a sense ample elbow room south and west of

very favorable to Russia. This will be Halicz, is once more working up behind

clear, if we remember that Orsova, the Bothmer's position, and the fate of

most westerly point won so far by the Halicz is, apparently, only a matter of

Rumanian armies, is about 100 miles time.

west of Lemberg, and still further west

of Halicz; and that the upward push of On Familiar Ground

the Rumanian armies, on anything like It should be kept in mind that General

the level of Orsova, would mean the outBrusiloff knows, with close personal flanking of every Teuton position which knowledge, the whole region in which is now to the east of our old friend, the four armies under him are fighting. Przemysl; this would give Russia posWhen the war broke out, he had been session of full two-thirds of Galicia, and stationed for several months at Vinnitsa, Russia has already a far firmer hold on in Russian Podolia, on the railroad a Southern Galicia than she had at any short distance to the east of Tarnopol. time in 1914. The coniplete conquest of Earlier he was stationed at Lublin, and the Bukowina has effected that, and Ruseveral times conducted manoeuvres mania's declaration has confirmed it. about Lublin and Kholm. He fought Rumania's move, indeed, puts a new westward and eastward through Galicia

aspect on the whole problem of the Ruson the Tarnopol-Halicz-Baligrad line. sian line. It makes, as we have seen, the He won at Halicz one of the earliest

defense of Halicz by the Teuton powers Entente victories, just before the Battle

more precarious; and Halicz is the key of the Marne. So he is now playing the to Lemberg. Indeed, it was Brusiloff's great game on a very familiar chess

Halicz victory, in the beginning of Sepboard.

tember, 1914, which completed the rout But we should not forget the ability of of the Austrian forces holding Lemberg. the Teuton Generals opposing Sakharoff In the same way the loss of Lemberg and Kaledin. We should add to those would be a serious danger to the Teuton

possession of Vladimir Volhynski and Kovel, and might easily hurry their evacuation.

Consolidation of Bukowina So we come to the southern end of the immensely long Russian line in Bukowina, where it now joins the northern end of the Rumanian battle front. The Russians are still fighting in the hill country, among the Carpathian beech woods, which give Bukowina its name, but the whole of the level country along the Pruth and Southern Sereth and Moldava, is firmly in their hands; is already“ consolidated" along Russian

lines. The country about Czernowitz is singularly picturesque and attractive, and the little metropolis itself, which in normal times has about 95,000 inhabitants, has decided charm. The Pruth, on which it stands, winds picturesquely through rich corn fields and meadows, between its osier-fringed banks; and, within the city, well built houses and gold domed churches are mirrored in its quiet waters. The city itself is full of gardens, rich in trees, so that it nestles amid verdure. Russians say it looks like Kieff -on a much smaller scale—and Kieff is the most picturesque town in the Russian Empire.

Balkan Developments

By a Staff Contributor

[See other Balkan articles, pages 57-84; also military events, pages 41-46]



HE problem of what we may, per great River Danube, across which Bul

haps, begin to call the Battle of garians and Rumanians—or at least their the Balkans is intensely interest

territories—face each other; why has no ing, and not a little perplexing fighting been reported from anywhere To begin with, it is quite clear that we on this long, easy line?-nothing beyond are very far from having all the facts. a few gunshots fired across the river, at For example, we have practically no widely distant points like “ Tekia, Widin, knowledge of how many of the Teuton Lomorjechovo, and Ivichton," to quote a Turkish troops are engaged, under Field recent dispatch. We need much more inMarshal von Mackensen, or on his initia

formation ere also. The Iron Gates of tive, in the attempted invasion of Do the Danube, where the river cuts through brudja; compare with this vagueness the extension of the Carpathians, mark a the precise knowledge of the western region very like the Highlands of the front, where, the French authorities tell Hudson; the “ Iron Gates " themselves us, Germany has 122 divisions, were ridges below high water, very like 2.240,000 men. When Turtukai was taken, Hell Gate, and now, like that once perilone party called it a great fortress; the ous passage, blasted out and cleared. other said it was

mere earthwork. From this point, not far below Orsova The Bulgarians said they had taken

the Rumanian-Hungarian frontier, 20,000 Rumanian prisoners; the Ru

down to the Dobrudja, (whose high manians retorted that they had not that plateau forces the Danube northward many men on that sector. If this be out of its direct course,) the great river anywhere near the truth, how many

flows between low banks, among marshes. Bulgars, Turks, and, perhaps, Teutons Armies can easily cross it; have repeatare these Rumanians and their Russian edly crossed it ever since Trajan's day; allies holding back on the Silistria-Var twice, for example, in the Russo-Turkish na line? All this is still obscure, and war of 1877-78; twice during the invawill only be made clear as the fight sions of Serbia in the present war. Why progresses.

has no army crossed it now? Again, there are some 350 miles of the We must, of course, take the Dobrudja


fighting in its relation to the Rumanian invasion of Transylvania, and also in connection with the Saloniki offensive of the Entente Allies. First, why did the bulk of the Rumanian armies go west, to Hungarian Transylvania, instead of simply crossing the Danube southward and attacking Sofia, not more than seventy or eighty miles from the great river? The reason seems to be political; in Transylvania, (which is a part of Hungary,) and in the Bukowina, (the “ Beech-land ” which is a Crown land of Austria,) there are some 4,000,000 Rumanians, speaking the same tongue as the people of Bucharest and Jassy; and their union with the present Rumanian Kingdom is as much a part of Rumanian national policy as, for Italy, is the winning of Trent and Trieste. Rumania, knowing Austria's weakness there, knowing that practically all the native Hungarian troops were employed elsewhere, determined at once to seize the “unredeemed ” Rumanian territory, leaving the Bulgarian problem to be handled later-perhaps by other than Rumanian forces.

For there are two wholly contrasted reasons which dictate the sending of Russian troops into Bulgaria. The first, the obvious reason is, to defeat the government of the Coburg Ferdinand, as an enemy of the Entente Powers. The second, and the more vital reason, perhaps, is to meet half way the pro-Russian, anti-Teuton movement among the Bulgarians themselves; evidences of which we may see in the fact that Radko Dmitrieff, the ablest Bulgar soldier of the first Balkan war, whose victories over the Turks at Lule Burgas and Kirk Killisse astonished all Europe and decided the war, has been fighting, since 1914, as a Russian officer in the Russian Army; in the fact that General Savoff, the fine organizer, who made the modern Bulgarian Army, was imprisoned at the outbreak of the present war, because he refused to fight for the Coburg Ferdinand against Russia's allies; in the fact that more than a thousand skilled Bulgar officers are even now in Russia, because they wholly disapprove the Coburger's pro-Teuton policy; in the fact

that Bulgar regiments have again and again mutinied, as a protest against the same policy.

If Rumanian forces invaded Bulgaria, they would meet with violent animosity, because of old rivalries, but far morebecause it was Rumania's intervention that caused Bulgaria's downfall in the

four weeks' war" in the Summer of 1913; because Rumania then took from Bulgaria the Silistria region, to the south of Dobrudja, nearly 3,000 miles in area. It is precisely there that the TeutonBulgar-Turks have now struck; doubtless in pursuance of a promise given by Kaiser Wilhelm that if the Coburger joined the Teutons they would win back for him every inch of territory of which Bulgaria was robbed " by the Bucharest Treaty of August, 1913. A Rumanian invasion across the Danube, therefore, would fire intense animosities; Russian intervention will find the Bulgarians half friends; for Bulgarians remember that their land is strewn with the graves of Russian soldiers who died to liberate Bulgaria, even though Russian politics did much to estrange what is nevertheless a very real gratitude.

It would seem, then, that the Entente Powers, and especially Russia, are not without hope that Bulgaria (though not the Coburger's party) may yet swing around and at the eleventh hour join the Entente, which now grows daily stronger. Perhaps we have here, in these purely political considerations-or, rather, race considerations--the key of the problem we began by stating: Why there has been no real fighting along the 300-mile Ruman-Bulgar frontier on the Danube.

Political considerations obviously enter into the direction of the Russian invasion through the Dobrudja. This move would seem to be directed, not really against Bulgaria, but rather against Turkey; or, to name the real goal, against Constantinople. It seems fairly certain that England has overcome her long hostility to the presence of Russia there; Russia's defeat of the projected invasion of India by her Armenian-Persian campaign under Generals Yudenitch and Baratoff did much to disarm English questionings. And it has been pretty

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openly declared-notably by the well and his Russophobe policy has followed known Russian statesman, Professor him. Milyukoff-that an explicit agreement This would be a reasonable explanation exists, assigning Stamboul to Russia in of both the Rumanian movement westthe event of Entente triumph. But pos ward (instead of southward, across the session is nine points of the law; there Danube) and of the defense of the Dofore Russia is very naturally desirous brudja by Russian (not by Rumanian) of finding herself in actual possession forces. There remain certain things to of Constantine's city when the great day. be accounted for; for instance, the slowcomes. And the way thither leads ness of Russia's advance, which allowed through the Dobrudja and Varna. Rus Mackensen's forces to capture Turtukai, sian armies were already within sight of Silistria, and a group of fishing villages Stamboul in January, 1878, when Dis on the Black Sea. The reason, doubtless, raeli called a halt; but Disraeli is no more;

is the extreme difficulty of transporting


the big guns which, to a large degree to cut the railroad from German bases to through the initiative of Mackensen him Sofia, and to defend the Struma Valley, self, at the Dunayets, have become an in up which English and Italian troops are tegral part of field warfare. There are already making a thrust which will be no north-and-south railroads through the aimed at Sofia itself, the capital and the Dobrudja, and very few roads up and heart of Bulgaria. It was Rumania's down that high, very arid plateau; there thrust at Sofia, in July, 1913, which is only the Bucharest-Constanza (Kus brought Bulgaria to her knees and ended tendji) railroad running east and west, the second Balkan war. The Italo-British across the fine Danube bridge, one of the drive may have the same result, in the largest in Europe, completed, with next few months, while the FrancoFrench Creusot material, by the late Serbian drive up the Vardar accomplishes King Carol in 1895. So it is exceedingly two things—liberates devastated Serbia difficult for Russia to bring her big guns and cuts off Teuton aid from Bulgaria. to bear, and, till they are under way, her

If the present Rumanian action about progress must lag.

Orsova and the Iron Gates of the DanOn the Bulgarian side, on the con ube, which has already made a good deal trary, there is a railroad from Varna to of headway, continues very successful, Dobric; another from the Varna-Sofia

we may, very probably, see a Rumanian railroad to Rustchuk, thus running along thrust southward from Orsova, largely the back of Mackensen's positions; while, even wholly on Serbian territory, from Rustchuk eastward along the Dan directed toward Nish, and intended not ube, on its south bank, there is a good so much to defeat Bulgar troops as to highway, running through Turtukai to

cut off Bulgaria's Teuton allies, thereSilistria, evidently used in the movement fore not restrained by the political conwhich captured these two posts. The siderations which, we have conjectured, Turks, it may be noted, will fight very heep back Rumanian invasion of Bulwillingly to take Dobrudja, which be

garia from the north. longed to them as recently as 1877, and It is always perilous to prophesy, yet which still has a quarter of a million it is interesting to speculate on the posTurk inhabitants: But one doubts that sible outcome of the Balkan battle. On Turkey can have many available troops. the one hand it is difficult to

This would seem to go some distance where the Teuton-Bulgar-Turk allies are toward clearing up the northern side of to get any considerable reserves, while, the Balkan battle. We come now to the

the other, there must be unlimsouthern side; to the fighting which radi ited Russian forces available for the ates from Saloniki, at a distance of some Dobrudja drive, large Italian forces 75 miles from that city, and on a front ready to strengthen the move up the of some 150 miles. It seems difficult to

Struma, with at least considerable believe that there are more than 200,000 French and British contingents ready to troops to the north of the fighting line, support Sarrail. And at neither the including Bulgarians, as the main ele northern nor the southern front have ment, with some Germans and Austrians, the Teuton-Bulgar-Turk forces made and, perhaps, some Turks. The problem

any great headway; in the south, indeed, of this relatively small force, of five or they seem to be either held stationary six army corps, at most, is a very serious or losing ground. Therefore, if we take

It can draw supplies of munitions the question of coming reserves into acalong the railroad. which traverses the count, as we must, it is evident that the Morava and Vardar Valleys from the odds against Bulgaria and her allies are Danube and Germany; but their side exceedingly heavy, while the Generals opways distribution, in mountainous coun posed to them, men like Sarrail and Matry, is not easy. This relatively small hon, will not make many mistakes. force, then, has two tasks—to defend the We have said nothing of Greece, bevalley of the Vardar, up which an allied cause the position of Greece has not been advance will push toward Nish, seeking finally decided.




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