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fore, was the location of the Teuton coun. indeed has been pocketed by the French termovement.
on the south and the British on the north, Rumania depended for the defense of and its fall at any time would surprise Dobrudja almost entirely upon the Rus no one. Peronne has not been touched as sian forces on the Bessarabian frontier yet, and indeed it seems that the French at Reni. These forces, however, obvious do not plan any direct action against it. ly did not get into position in time, and They can from their present positions the small Rumanian element which was both north and south of the river reach on the border was easily overcome. The the defenders with their .guns, but their Teutons then advanced as far as the position as a result of recent successes Danube west of the railroad which di will enable them, when they are ready to vides Dobrudja, but before they could move in that direction, to reach the Gercarry their movement along the whole man lines from three sides, and in all line from the Danube to the sea the probability flank them out of the town Russians arrived and checked them. The without subjecting it to direct fire. check appears to be purely temporary,
The German situation in the west is and there is reason to believe that the becoming extremely dangerous as a result Teutonic forces are present in sufficient
of the Somme movements of the Allies, numbers to force their way to the river. and it is beginning to appear that a radiIn connection with this advance, two
cal change will have to be made in their things may be noted: First, the Danube lines in order to prevent them from being River, for its entire length from the
broken. They are being badly bent now, Black Sea to the Serbian frontier, is the
bent so far that the entire Noyons salient natural defensive line of Rumania. The will soon be thrown in danger. Before second, which is a corollary, is that no
they are broken it will probably be necadvance the Germans can make south of
essary to draw them in and increase the a line through Constanta carries any
number of defenders per mile of line. threat to Rumania as long as the Danube
The battle of the Somme is just beginis not crossed. As the bridges over the
ning. Before it ends it may prove the river are few and far between-in fact,
deciding factor in the western fighting. the only one in Dobrudja is at Cerna
Not a great deal has happened on other voda—the Germans, in spite of their ini
fronts. There has been some spasmodic tial successes, have accomplished very
fighting about the Saloniki position, but
the allied offensive seems to have just little.
been begun. Previously, such fighting Fighting on the Somme
as there was developed only into a moveThe month has been characterized on ment in which Bulgaria was the principal the western front by a succession of participant. On the Russian front the heavy French attacks, and by several fighting has been equally spasmodic. The strong British drives toward the north. Russian main effort has been concenIn all cases these attacks have met with trated about Halicz and has apparently success, and it seems now that the last resulted in the taking of the main deline of German trenches has been reached fenses in the south. The city holds out, in more than one section of the front. however, so that there has been no real The French attacks have been directed change in the situation. Italy has been principally against Combles, the largest able to do but little since the fall of town, except for Peronne, in that section Gorizia. The Carso Plateau still blocks of the front. Both Combles and Peronne her path to Trieste, and such fighting as are still held by the Germans, but the has occurred has been in the attempt to French advances north of the Somme now gain a foothold on the edge of the plaseriously threaten both places. Combles teau. It has been entirely uneventful.
A recent record of proceedings of the when the German Pacific Squadron came British prize court, which is in daily into view. What followed was described session at London, reads like a tale of the in an affidavit by the British Admiral. Middle Ages, when pirates sailed the He stated that he was in command of a seven seas. On Tuesday, Aug. 22, the squadron composed of the following of court is thus officially reported by the his Majesty's ships: London Telegraph:
Invincible, (Captain T. P. H. Beamish,
flagship.) N the prize court yesterday the
Inflexible, (Captain R. F. Phillimore, C. B., President, Sir Samuel Evans,
M. V. O.) awarded prize bounty amounting Carnarvon, (Captain H. L. D'E. Skipworth,
to £12,160 to Vice Admiral Sir Dove flying flag of Rear Admiral A. P. Stoddart.) ton Sturdee and the officers and crews
Cornwall, (Captain W. M. Ellerton.)
Kent, (Captain I. D. Allen, C. B.) of his Majesty's ships Invincible, Inflex
Glasgow, (Captain I. Luce, C. B.) ible, Carnarvon, Cornwall, Kent, and
Bristol, (Captain R. H. Fanshawe.) Glasgow, in respect of the destruction of Macedonia, (Captain R. S. Evans, M. V. 0.,)
an auxiliary. the four German warships Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Nurnberg, and Leipzig, in the
While the squadron was at anchor in battle of the Falkland Islands, on Dec.
Port William on Dec. 8, at about 8 A. M., 8, 1914.
the shore signal station reported that Commander Maxwell Anderson, R. N., two enemy cruisers were in sight. Steam counsel in support of the claim, stated was at once raised for full speed, and that it was estimated that the total of the Kent proceeded out of harbor to inthe crews on board the enemy vessels vestigate. Smoke from other vessels was 2,432 persons, and thus the bounty could be observed over the horizon, and at the rate of £5 per head amounted to
later other enemy vessels appeared in £12,160. This was, he continued, the first sight. Accordingly, the British squadcase of a fleet action to come before the ron, with the exception of the Bristol court during the present war.
It would and the Macedonia, proceeded to sea, be recollected that on Nov. 1, 1914, a
and, clearing the harbor entrance at 9 British squadron encountered a German A. M., the signal was hoisted for genfleet off the coast of Chile, and his
eral chase. The enemy squadron of warMajesty's ships Good Hope and Mon ships consisted of the five German mouth were unfortunately overpowered
cruisers Scharnhorst, (flying the flag of and sunk. Whatever others might have
Admiral Graf von Spee,) Gneisenau, thought of this twist of the lion's tail, Leipzig, Nurnberg, and Dresden. it appeared that the German Admiral The affidavit continued: “At about 1 was under no delusion himself.
P. M. Invincible and Inflexible were As at that time it was clean fighting, within range of the enemy, and fire was it was perhaps as well to put on record opened at long range. Shortly after fire that the German Admiral, when he took was opened the enemy squadron, in his fleet into Valparaiso, refused to obedience to orders from their Admiral, drink the toast of “Damnation to the scattered, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau British Navy,” and apparently had a turning to port, while the light cruisers premonition that his own end was very Leipzig, Nurnberg, and Dresden turned On Dec. 8 a British squadron was
to starboard in an endeavor to escape. lying in the harbor of Port William,
“ The pursuit of Scharnhorst and Falkland Islands, under the command of Gneisenau was continued by Invincible Vice Admiral Sir Frederick Charles and Inflexible, with Carnarvon in supDoveton Sturdoe, K. C. B., C. V. O., port, and at about 4:17 P. M. Scharn
horst was sunk. At about 6 P. M. Gneisenau was sunk under the combined fire of Invincible, Inflexible, and Carnarvon. Kent, Cornwall, and Glasgow had continued the pursuit of the light cruisers, and at about 4:30 P. M. Kent and Cornwall came within range of Leipzig and opened fire. Kent, Cornwall, and Glasgow gradually gained on Leipzig and Nurnberg, but Dresden, increasing her distance, drew away to starboard, and finally made good her escape. Kent continued her chase of Nurnberg, which vessel she sank at about 7:10 P. M., while Cornwall and Glasgow overhauled Leipzig and sank her at about 9:23 P. M.”
Admiral Sturdee added that, saving the Dresden, which, as explained, outdistanced her pursuers, all the enemy ships were destroyed and sunk by the gunfire of his Majesty's ships under his command. Bristol and Macedonia took no part in the engagement. Bristol was unable to leave harbor with the remainder of the squadron, and the Macedonia, being a vessel of small fighting value, had neither the speed nor the power to take any part in the chase. These two vessels left harbor later, and were detailed to look for the auxiliaries accompanying the enemy. Two auxiliaries were found and destroyed, while a
third escaped. The vessels destroyed were unarmed. No survivors were rescued from the Scharnhorst, but from the Gneisenau, Nurnberg, and Leipzig, a small number of prisoners were taken. From these and from information in possession of the Admiralty, Admiral Sturdee estimated that the crews of the enemy ships destroyed were as follows:
Scharnhorst, 872 persons.
Commander Anderson said, as would be seen, the enemy vessels were disposed of by different ships; but, subject to his lordship's approval, the claimants desired to claim as in one action. The engagement started as a general action or chase, but after a time it became a series of separate actions.
Clive Lawrence, for the Crown, said he raised no objection to Admiral Sturdee's estimate of the number of persons on board the destroyed vessels.
The President, declaring the number of persons on board the four destroyed enemy vessels to be 2,432, pronounced that Admiral Sturdee, the officers, and crews of his Majesty's ships Invincible, Inflexible, Carnarvon, Cornwall, Kent, and Glasgow were entitled to prize bounty amounting to £12,160.
The Invader: A Parable
By Anatole France
Famous Member of the French Academy
Xerxes, at the head of an immense arry, invades Greece. Having learned that Leonidas, King of Sparta, is getting ready to defend the pass of Thermopylae against him, he sends for Demaratus, son of the former King of the Spartans and an ezile from his country, and addresses him.
ERXES—You know that the
Greeks gathered to defend this pass are commanded by Leonidas.
A spy, sent by me, has observed those of them who are on this side of the wall which they have raised to close the passage. They were Spartans. Having
placed their arms against the wall, they were giving themselves naked to athletic games or carefully combing their hair. I cannot believe that they thus prepare to die fighting. On the contrary, they seem to me to be behaving in a very ridiculous manner, and I conjecture that they will retire within four days. What do you think, Demaratus?
Demaratus–0 King, ought I to give you a pleasant or a truthful reply?
Xerxes—Tell the truth, and I promise you will not have to repent it.
Demaratus–0 King, do not fear words of dissimulation from me. I have al
ready told you what kind of men the blood of human' victims. They defiled Greeks are. They do not nourish vast themselves in Lydia with horrible imdesires and are content with what they pieties. At Sardis they burned the tempossess. They fear the divine Nemesis ples and the sacred woods. Heaven will which humbles those who rise too high, punish them for their crimes, and their and they observe proportion in every ruin is assured. I shall wage war against thing. Wisdom is their faithful com them to win high renown in the eyes of panion: it preserves them from yielding men and to teach all peoples what it to tyranny within and from practicing it costs to invade a country that belongs without. But when I announced to
My plan is to conquer not only you, O King, the way in which they Greece, but all Europe. Europe is beauwould act toward
you, you laughed tiful; there the sky is soft and the earth at me.
This time listen to me more fertile and all sorts of fruit trees are favorably. They have come to defend cultivated. Of all mortals I alone am this pass against you, and that is what worthy of its possession. they are preparing themselves for. Now
Demaratus-0 King, take in good part this is their custom: before sacrificing
what remains for me to tell you. Listen, their lives they encircle their heads with
I speak to you as to a sacred host. King, fillets and crowns.
do not avenge yourself too cruelly on the Xerxes questions Demaratus about the
Athenians. The vengeances of men are Greeks, the forces they are preparing odious to the gods. Son of Darius, if against him, and the quarrels which di
you believe in a god, if you believe you vide them.
are in command of an army of immorDemaratus—It is true, O King, that,
tals, you do not want my advice. But if judging according to their sentiment of
you recognize that you are a man and what is good and what is bad, the Greeks
that you are in command of men, conquarrel often and struggle, town against
sider that fortune is like a wheel which town, citizens against citizens. It is true
turns ceaselessly and throws down those that the people of Athens are not unani
whom it has raised. It never happens, mous as to the way in which it is ad
it never will happen, that a mortal should visable to govern the city. Among the
from birth to death experience constant citizens some regret the tyrants and
good fortune. For the loftiest heads are aspire to confine authority to the well
reserved the most terrible calamities. I born men; others, led by brilliant, clever,
have spoken out because you have forced and daring orators, are striving to main
me to. Now may what you desire come tain the popular government; and, again, it is true that the latter having prevailed,
to pass, O King! men who passed for just have been exiled.
At these words Xerxes sent Demaratus But these dissensions ceased at your ap
away without anger. He was not anproach, O King. The leaders of the aris
noyed with him, because he thought he tocracy have been recalled to their native
was out of his mind. land, and they are today governing in However, he was soon aware that the conjunction with the friends of the peo Spartan was not mistaken. The Greeks ple.
remained steady and resolute and would Xerxes-What does that matter to me? have blocked the way had not a man of Heaven is on my side.
Malis named Ephialtus shown Mardonius men the Persians know the true gods. I a little-known path which was not guardhave given the immortal gods the surest ed and by which the barbarians penetestimony of my piety. I have sacrificed trated into Greece. Seeing themselves white horses and young men to them that outflanked, the Greeks, with the excepthey may make me victorious. The Greeks tion of 400 Thebans, 700 Thespians, and worship neither the sun nor the stars 300 Spartans, who allowed their lives to and are very ignorant in matters divine. be sacrificed for their country, withdrew The Athenians do nothing to please the to fight elsewhere. The Persians, havheavenly powers and refuse to shed the ing seized Athens, which was devoid of
combatants, massacred the old men, plundered the temple, and burned the citadel. Meanwhile, the Athenians, who had retired in 380 galleys, destroyed 1,200 Persian ships in the Straits of Salamis.
Xerxes returned to Asia alone in a fisherman's boat. He left Mardonius in Greece with 300,000 men. The barbarians ravaged Attica, burned what remained of Athens, and passed into Boeotia. A year after the flight of the great King Mardonius was vanquished and killed at Plataea, at the foot of
Cithaeron. And at the same time the Persian warships which had escaped the disaster of Salamis were sunk by the allied Athenians and Spartans at the promontory of Mycale.
Thus the words of Demaratus came true to the last particular. Neither abundance of gold nor the number of ships nor the multitude of men prevailed against the courage and wisdom of the Greeks. Europe had heard the last of an insolent threat and no longer feared the yoke of the barbarians.
Retaliation for Interference With American Trade
HE United States Congress, in the
closing hours of the recent
sion, adopted a law which confers on the President the power to take drastic retaliatory measures against any foreign Government that interferes with our commerce or mails in palpable violation of international law. As finally agreed upon, the first of the retaliatory authorizations reads:
Whenever any country, dependency, 'or colony shall prohibit the importation of any article the product of the soil or industry of the United States and not injurious to health or morals, the President shall have power to prohibit, during the period such prohibition is in force, the importation into the United States of similar articles, or in case the l'nited States does not import similar articles from that country, then, other artides, the products of such country, dependency, or colony.
That whenever, during the existence of a war in which the United States is not engaged, the President shall be satisfied that there is reasonable ground to believe that under the laws, regulations, or practice of nations the importation into their own any other country, dependency, or colony of any article the product of the soil or industry of the United States and not injurious to bealth or morals is prevented or restricted, the President is authorized and empowered to prohibit or restrict during the period such prchibition or restriction is in force the importation into the United States of similar or (ther articles, products of such country, dependency, or colony, as in his opinion the public interest may require; and in such case be ehall make proclamation stating the artile or articles which are prohibited from importation into the United States, and any Derson or persons who shall import or at
tempt or conspire to import or be concerned in importing such article or articles into the United States contrary to the prohibition in such proclamation shall be liable to a fine of not less than $2,000 nor more than $50,000 or to imprisonment not to exceed two years, or both, in the discretion of the court. The President may change, modify, revoke, or renew
such pr lamation in his discretion and the Senate agree to the same.
The second retaliation measure, based on the same war conditions, gives the President authority to withhold clearance to vessels of a belligerent nation “making or giving any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage in any respect whatsoever to any particular person, company, firm, or corporation, or any particular description of traffic in the United States or its possessions or to any citizens of the United States residing in neutral countries.”
The law also gives authority to the President to deny American facilities of commerce to citizens in the United States of an offending belligerent nation, and authorizes him to use the land and naval forces of the Government to enforce the retaliatory provisions.
These measures were drawn by the State Department and have the approval of the President. It is construed that this action is our reply to “ the blacklist” adopted by the allied powers, the interference with United States mail by the Allies, and the embargo on certain American products by Germany and Great Britain.