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the Austrian as commanding adviser. in the eyes of Russian diplomacy, it As Serbia chose to be Russia's tool in should have moved heaven and earth to stead of Austria's, Russia proclaimed avert such a Slavonic catastrophe. But this guardian of her own imperialistic in 1913 Russia forgot the Slavic cause, interests the guardian of Slavdom's in and Slavic Bulgaria was once more disterests in the Balkans. Of necessity membered, this time with Russia's conRussia's Balkan policy now demanded sent, if not with Russia's connivance. It the subordination of Bulgarian to Ser was over Russian pontoons that Rumania bian interests. The bridge of advance crossed the Danube to invade Bulgaria in could be neglected, but the wall of de 1913. fense was carefully kept in repair and Time speedily brought its retribution. fortified.

Within less than a year Russia and And then came the Balkan Alliance-a Serbia themselves were fighting a battle distinct trump card in Russia's hand, for of life and death. And then Russia through it Russia expected to acquire called on Bulgaria, in the sacred name diplomatic mastery at Sofia and Athens of Slavdom, to fight her enemies, to save as well as at Belgrade. Bulgaria's obsti her ward Serbia from destruction. But nate independence alone blocked the suc how could Bulgaria be appealed to in cess of this Russian plan. Her whirl the name of Pan Slavism, when this is wind campaign against the Turk riveted not a Pan Slavistic war? Russia's own the world's attention on herself. The allies oppose the Pan Slavistic idea no Balkan Alliance, which Russia had con less than do her enemies, while millions strued as an anti-Austrian coalition and of Slavs are actually fighting-and which she regarded as an addition to her fighting willingly—on the Teutonic side. own forces, was transformed by Bulga Bulgaria experienced the deepest sorrow ria's victories into a distinctly Balkan at such a Slavic tragedy, but surely union, friendly perhaps, but certainly not neither her Slavic ideals nor her own subservient, to Russia. When Bulgaria political interests threw her on Russia's single-handed inflicted on the Turkish side. armies at Lule Burgas a defeat more And what ideals or interest could draw crushing than any the Turk had suffered her to the help of Serbia ? Serbia in all his wars with Russia, the Czar's claimed she was fighting to liberate her Government realized that Bulgaria, which kinsmen from the Austrian yoke, yet she had been independent in her weakness, herself exercised in Bulgar Macedonia a was not likely to become servile when reign of terror and tyranny such as no grown strong.

Austrian, no Turk, or Russian ever exIt need not be stated baldly that Russia ercised anywhere, as any one may conthereupon ruined the Balkan Alliance. vince himself by reading the “ Report Certainly the great Russian people of the International Carnegie Commisviewed with genuine sorrow the Serbo sion.” For over a year, while Rumania, Bulgarian friction. But just as certainly brought by the logic of events to recogimperial Russia watched Serbia's initial nize the folly of her immediate past, was treachery grow and take shape as envy of making overtures to Bulgaria for the Bulgaria's victories nourished it, and she return of Dobrudja, while even Turkey tolerated this treachery. Russia watched came to terms with Bulgaria, Serbia, Serbia repudiate her treaty of alliance gasping in the throes of death, fought with Bulgaria, a treaty which the Rus with one hand to “liberate " the Aussian Czar himself had sanctioned, trian Serbs, while with the other she watched her seize the Bulgar land of tortured the Macedonian Bulgars. Macedonia and terrorize its Bulgar na From Bulgaria's point of view any tives, make a new alliance with Greece talk of moral ideals in this war is futile and Rumania to destroy her Slavic ally, claptrap. It is part of the campaign of cause the tragic war of 1913, and rob both sides to call themselves champions Bulgaria at the Treaty of Bucharest. of liberty and saviors of civilization. Were the interests of Slavdom paramount Actually this war is a gigantic clash of

joined actively the Teutonic cause the and Morava valleys, which the Berlin would have been suicidal folly for Bul

the most sordid interests imaginable. In Austro-German drive through Serbia such a conflict of interests, then, Bul began. That drive was bound to reach garia also had to seek her own national Macedonia, which both European coaliinterests, nor sacrifice them on the altar tions recognized as Bulgarian by right. of passion and impulse. To Britain and For Bulgaria to oppose this German France, who spoke of the principle of drive meant to defend Serbia, the State nationality, Bulgaria recalled the Treaty which had robbed her, without any hope of Bucharest, the blackest violation of of adequate restitution. To contemplate that principle. Russia's pleas for Slavdom idly the Teutonic advance would have Bulgaria answered by offering to forget been a criminal neglect of her own most Russia's crucifixion of Slavdom in 1913, if cherished interests. Yet the Entente Russia showed herself ready to vindicate sent an ultimatum demanding that she her sincerity in 1915. To maintain her break relations with the Central Powers. despotism in Macedonia, Serbia was us Instead she entered the field against ing some 60,000 troops. Bulgaria told Serbia, and thus found herself opposing the Entente: If you are really fighting the Entente. for justice and the rights of small na Has Bulgaria been astute in her tionalities, compel Serbia to restore choice? Time alone will tell. Needless Macedonia to us. This step would begin to say, her belief in Germany's ultimate the correction of the worst political victory was an important factor in detercrime in Europe, the Treaty of Bucha mining her decision. Two brief months rest. It would release 60,000 Serbian in 1915 sufficed for Bulgaria to comtroops to be employed where they belong, plete her military task in Serbia. The toward Bosnia and Herzegovina. If you Anglo-French expedition sent to Saloniki undo now the work of the Treaty of is still where it was the first week of Eucharest, Bulgaria will join your side. fighting, and late reports made it likely

But the Entente either would not or that, after having taken time to sow, could not compel Serbia to relinquish reap, and gather her crops, Bulgaria will the Bulgar-inhabited regions of Mace still be able to anticipate General Sardonia. Instead, Serbia kept importuning rail's forces and to change the longthe Entente to allow her to invade un prophesied allied offensive into a demobolized Bulgaria. Bulgaria was thus fensive. brought to realize clearly that she could With military prophecies, however, expect from the Entente nothing at all the present writer is not concerned. It commensurate with the sacrifices de is idle to speculate whether Bulgaria will manded of her, since the composition of win in the end. Far more important is the Entente's powers necessarily called it to reach a judgment as to whether she for the support of Serbia's ambitions. deserves to win. Was Bulgaria's deciThe Entente offered Bulgaria, in ex

sion morally worthy ? It was and is change for her army, a portion of Serb motivated by her determination to free Macedonia—that is, in case Serbia should

once for all her oppressed kinsmen. But obtain Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, and

in so doing Bulgaria helps Germany's a few other Austro-Hungarian provinces.

cause ? True enough, but if Germany's To match this Entente proposal Ger

cause is no better than that of her foes many offered Bulgaria all of Serb-ruled it is hard to see how it is any worse. Macedonia in exchange for Bulgaria's

Between the two hostile coalitions one benevolent neutrality; and in case she

may make a military choice, as Bulgaria Pulgar-inhabited districts in the Timok

has already done; but a moral choice cannot be made. It

scarcely Congress had awarded to the Serb. To

necessary to recount here Germany's injuin the Entente under such conditions

iquities, as they have been made abun

dantly familiar to us all. But perhaps paria.

those who still believe that the Entente And then, in the fall of 1915, the

is fighting for the principle of nationality should remember that in October,

seems

1915, Réné Viviani pronounced in the French Chamber the Entente's guarantee of the infamous Treaty of Bucharest. And when the case of Belgium is cited it must not be forgotten that for the past twelvemonth the Entente has been making of Greece a second Belgium. That Greece has not made armed opposition nor risked inviting Belgium's fate may be a reflection on Greece's self-respect, but it certainly does not alter the case far as the Entente is cerned.

In a word, Bulgaria sees in this war the conflict for world-supremacy of two selfish coalitions, and, if she finds herself on the side of the Central Powers, it is not because she hates England and France and Russia, and loves Germany and Austria, but because in this particular situation Germany appears to be both readier and abler to permit small Bulgaria to realize, not her place in the sun-Bulgaria has no such celestial ambitions—but her humble station on our long-suffering Mother Earth.

as

con

Bulgaria’s Claim on Macedonia

By a Bulgarian Diplomat

THE

THE Bulgarian Prime Minister frank

ly and openly declared to an Amer

ican correspondent last Fall, before Bulgaria went into the war, the wishes and aims of Bulgaria. He said that Bulgaria wanted Macedonia, and that whoever gave it to her would have her on his side. The Allies, from fear of offending Serbia, refused to hand over Macedonia to Bulgaria and order Serbia out of it. They only promised to satisfy the Bulgarian demands after the war, due regard being paid to the compensations in territory that Serbia might get from Austria.

The Serbians also pretended to make concessions to Bulgaria, but after the war, and on conditions inacceptable to the Bulgarians. After the sad experience Bulgaria has had with Serbian treaties and promises she is not to blame if she refused to accept any such “wild goose chase.” They knew well enough that after the war the Serbians would have played the same trick that they played in the Balkan war, namely, refuse to evacuate Macedonia.

It is not to be supposed that any one of the Allies, after an exhausting war of two, three, or four years, would have been willing to drive them out of Macedonia, but would have proposed a compromise between the two countries. A compromise would have been unfavorable to Bulgaria, for the Serbians being in

possession of the country would have had in their hands the bigger end of the stick. Hence Bulgaria would either have had to submit to what Serbia was willing to cede to it or to fight again for her rights. In the latter case all Europe would have been against her, for every one would have considered her as a disturber of the peace.

Another consideration which influenced the conduct of Bulgaria was, no doubt, the fact that when Germany and Austria decided to invade Serbia and open a way for themselves to Constantinople Bulgaria would have had to oppose them or to allow them a free passage through her territory. In the former case she would have suffered the fate of Belgium, in the latter case she would have incurred the displeasure and enmity of the Allies. The Allies would have been in no position to succor her against an Austro-German drive.

The whole question of how Bulgaria should regulate her conduct between the two warring parties depended upon a satisfactory solution of the Macedonian question. The Bulgarians regard Macedonia as theirs by all the rights which a nation can advance for the possession of a country. These claims are based upon the following considerations:

1. The Christian population of Macedonia up to the Shar Mountains is overwhelmingly Bulgarian. This has been

testified to by all impartial travelers her intrigues and propaganda in Mace(English, French, Russian, German, &c.) donia. who have visited the country.

The Berlin treaty of 1878, which sup2. The people of Macedonia have al planted that of San Stefano, provided ways called themselves Bulgarians and for Macedonia, as it did for Armenia, their sympathies have always been with some sort of an autonoinous government. Bulgaria. There are thousands of them This provision of the treaty has not been here in the United States and they all

put in practice because, besides the openly declare that they are Bulgarians Turks, the Serbians and the Greeks were and not Serbians. We have in Bulgaria

opposed

to autonomy in Macedonia. over 100,000 Macedonians who, during the Why? Because they know perfectly well Turkish régime, fled for refuge into that under an autonomous administraBulgaria. We have Macedonians as poli- tion, under the guarantee of the Euroticians, teachers, merchants, Government

pean powers, where people would be free functionaries, &c. Over 300 officers in

to express by their votes their opinions, the army are from Macedonia, and some the Bulgarian element will decidedly come of them rank as Generals and Colonels. to the front, and that everybody will see In Serbia you will not find even 100 that Macedonia is a solid Bulgarian Bulgarians who have taken refuge there, country. for Serbia for them has always been an The writer of a recent editorial says alien country.

that Bulgaria“ went to war for no reason 3. The San Stefano treaty of 1878, except the brazenly announced desire for concluded between Russia and Turkey plunder.” Is the desire of France to reafter their war, has drawn officially the gain Alsace-Lorraine, of Italy to get the boundaries of the Bulgarian element in Trentino, or of Serbia to annex Bosnia the Balkan Peninsula. That treaty was and Herzegovina, a desire for plunder"? drawn up by Russia and not by Bulgaria, Just as much right as these countries and it includes almost the whole of Mace have to their respective claims, so much donia. The Bulgarians swear by that has Bulgaria to Macedonia. In claiming treaty and demand that the wishes of Macedonia, Bulgaria takes her stand the late Czar Liberator of Russia should upon the principles for which, we are be executed.

told, the Allies are fighting, namely, the 4. Serbia never claimed Macedonia liberty of the small nationalities to disbefore 1892, and it was only in order pose of their destiny as they think best, to compensate herself for the loss of and the right of peoples to say under Bosnia and Herzegovina that she began what Government they choose to live.

Bulgaria’s Lost Claim: An Answer

By a Student of History

F

OR a correct understanding of the

merits of the Serb-Bulgar contro

versy on the subject of Macedonia and the points raised by “A Bulzarian Diplomat," a brief review of the history of the Balkan Peninsula until the accession of the Turk rule and a glimpse into the principal events that preceded and followed the emancipation of Bul

garia and the Turkish-Balkan war of 1912-13 are necessary.

In the first part of the seventh century

the dwellers of the Balkan Peninsula consisted of the Greeks, Illyrians, whom we now designate as Albanians, and the Rumanians, who are largely settlers drawn from various parts of the Roman Empire upon the conquest by Trajan of Dacia in 105. These historical facts serve to show that the Turks, Bulgarians, Serbs, and Montenegrins are ethnologically alien to the Balkan Peninsula. In about 638 a group of Serbs and Croats, whose original home was along the Carpathian

Mountains, were invited by the Emperor by bomb and dynamite outrages in which to Constantinople, where he arranged to the Greek, Bulgarian, and Serb bands employ them against the Avars. Event participated, both against the constituted ually they settled in the Macedonian authorities and against one another. It district and established a powerful king is a matter of history that the Revel dom, (with occasional lapses,) which program of 1908, agreed upon between was utterly destroyed by the Turks in the King of England and the Emperor 1389.

of Austria, was to sever the Macedonian In about 660 a nomadic people, orig. provinces from the domination of Coninally from the steppes of Asia, in the stantinople and make them into an auvicinity of the River Volga, reached the tonomous State. It was at this psychoBalkan Peninsula, and settled in Maesia. logical moment that the Young Turk These Nomads were of the same Ughur Party, to thwart the proposed disruption or Finnish stock from which the present of Macedonia from the Sultan's rule, Turks, the Finns, and the Hungarians demanded the restoration of the Constisprung.

tution of 1876, which Abdul Hamid They were Bulgarians. Here they es granted. The Young Turk rule, a most tablished a tremendous empire and ex doubtful experiment, brought no relief torted tribute from the Greeks and to a long-suffering people, and its hopeSerbs; but they also lost their indepen less incompetency was emphasized by dence to the Turks in 1389.

the annexation by Austria of Bosnia and With the decline of the Bulgar power Herzegovina, the overthrow by Bulgaria in the first part of the eleventh century, of the Turk suzerainty, the reaction of the Macedonian district passed succes 1909, and the Turco-Italian war. These sively under the rules of Bonifae, Mar evidences of the collapse of the Young quis of Monserrat, Byzantium, and Ser Turk rule, succeeding each other in quick bia; and the Turks conquered it from the order, furnished Pashitch of Serbia and Serbs in 1389 and held sway over it until Venizelos of Greece an excuse to form 1913. The widespread state of anarchy the Balkan League, whose prime purand massacre that ravaged Bulgaria in pose was to liberate the co-religionists 1876-7 was the immediate and driving and co-nationalists of the contracting cause of the war of Russia against Tur parties from the Turk's yoke. key. Czar Alexander, in his famous The treaty of the league stipulated for manifesto, issued on April 23, 1877, de concerted action against a common eneclaring war against Turkey, said: “ Our my, but it did not map out the respective desire to ameliorate the lot of the Chris territorial shares of the members of the tian population of Turkey has been league in the event of the success of the shared by the whole nation, which now proposed campaign. The treaty also conshows itself ready to bear fresh sacri tained the all-important provision that, fices to alleviate the position of the in the event of any disagreements arising Christians in the Balkan Peninsula." In among the members of the league with this war for the liberation of Bulgaria reference to any subject or point under little Serbia fought on the side of Russia. said treaty, such disputed subject, or The treaty of Berlin confirmed the pro point, including division of conquered tervisions of the treaty of San Stefano deal ritory, if any, should be referred to the ing with Bulgaria, except that it made Czar of Russia, and his finding should Bulgaria a tributary principality to the be binding upon the appellants. Sultan instead of an independent State, On Oct. 12, 1912, the Balkan League and it also severed Eastern Rumelia from began a successful war against Turkey. the Bulgaria of the San Stefano treaty Under the treaty of London of May 30, and placed it under the political and mili 1913, Bulgaria acquired all Thrace to the tary rule of the Sultan; it, however, was Enos-Media line, together with parts of united to Bulgaria in 1885.

Macedonia to the west of Bulgaria. FerThe Turkish misrule in Macedonia, dinand of Bulgaria disapproved the arparticularly during 1903-8, was retaliated rangement made by Dr. Daneff (his

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