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A Monthly Magazine of The New York Times

Published by The New York Times Company, Times Square, New York, N. Y.

Vol. V.—No. 5

February, 1917

25 Cents a Copy $3.00 a Year

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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PAGE 771 777 783 783 785 786 788 789 791 793 797 800 801 805

WORLD EVENTS OF THE MONTH

An Editorial Survey
THE PRESIDENT'S PEACE EFFORTS

Text of Reply of Central Powers to President's Peace Note
Text of Entente Alies' Reply to President
Official French Text of Entente Reply
Great Britain's Note Amplifying the Entente Reply "By Arthur J. Balfour
Belgium's Separate Reply to the President
Germany's Retort to Entente in a Separate Note to Neutrals
Replies of Neutral Nations to President Wilson's Peace Note
"Peace Founded on the Rock of Vindicated Justice” . By Premier Loyd George
Lloyd George and His Guildhall Speech

By Charles H. Grasty
GERMAN PEACE REJECTED: Chronology of German Peace Movement

Text of Reply of Entente to Central Powers

German Semi-Official Comments on the Entente Reply THE WAR SEEN FROM TWO ANGLES :

Preparing for the Final Decision: German View By H. H. von Mellenthin

The Month's Military Developments : American View By J. B. W. Gardiner THE SITUATION IN GREECE

Greece Betrayed by Her Rulers: A Documented Indictment TURKEY'S DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE: Text of the Note WAR RELIEF ACTIVITIES IN FRANCE

By Ernest Larisse THE FRENCH VICTORIES OF DOUAUMONT AND HARDAUMONT

By Military Experts
GREAT BRITAIN'S NEW WAR PLANS

By Earl Curzon
RECRUITING BRITAIN'S GREAT ARMIES: History of the First Phase
TWO YEARS OF BRITISH ACHIEVEMENT

By Ex-Premier Asquith
NAVAL POWER IN THE PRESENT WAR, II. By Lieutenant Charles C. Gill

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Contents continued on next page Copyright, 1917, by The New York Times Company. All Rights Reserved. Entered at the

Post Offices in New York and in Canada as second class matter.

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THE NEW "OLD GUARD” OF FRANCE

By John Joseph Casey
Reviving the Tradition of Marshal of France
THE TEUTONIC ATTEMPT TO SOLVE THE POLISH QUESTION
EMPEROR CHARLES WITH HIS SOLDIERS

By Karl F. Nowak
GERMANY'S EFFORT TO AVERT THE WAR: Full Text of Chancellor's Speech
A Reply to Bethmann Hollweg's Speech

By F. H. Howard
WARTIME METHODS IN GERMANY Reichstag Address by Herr Dittmann
ENSLAVEMENT OF THE BELGIANS: New Documents in the Case

Cardinal Mercier's Appeal and Baron von Bissing's Reply
Text of Allies' Declaration Regarding Belgium
Protest of Chiefs of Belgian Industries

Appeal of Belgiau Workingmen to American Workingmen
DATES OF DECLARATIONS OF WAR
GREAT LAND IRONCLADS AND VICTORY

By H. G. Wells
MAKING FOOD FOR HUNGRY GUNS

By Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
THE MOLTKE OF 1870 AND THE WAR PLAN THAT FAILED

By T. G. Frothingham
WONDERS OF WAR SURGERY
A WAR VISION

By Count Ilya Tolstoy
AMERICAN PRECEDENTS FOR BRITISH BLOCKADE METHODS

By A. Maurice Low WHAT THE ALLIES ARE FIGHTING AGAINST

By Gilbert Murray THE BASIS OF A DURABLE PEACE

Views of "Cosmos" History of Past Efforts to Enforce Peace

By Sterling E. Edmunds Rising Tide of Democracy a Cause of War By Henry Dwight Sedgwick HOW OTHER WARS ENDED

By Charles Willis Thompson ARMENIA AND CIVILIZATION

By R. H. Kazanjan
Horrors of Armenian Encampments

By an Eyewitness
PROGRESS OF THE WAR Chronology to January 11
THE EUROPEAN WAR AS SEEN BY CARTOONISTS: 26 Cartoons, All Nations
FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF THE WAR: Editorial Summaries

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J. H. RYCK MAN

CURRENT HISTORY

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF THE NEW YORK TIMES

FEBRUARY, 1917
[FEBRUARY EDITION 56,000 COPIES]

WORLD EVENTS OF THE MONTH

PEACE DISCUSSIONS

Germans, with their Turkish, Austro

Hungarian, and Bulgarian allies, pushed PEACE was the outstanding topic of the month just past. Germany's

back the Russian and Rumanian forces peace proposal and President Wilson's from Central and part of Eastern Ruformal request that the belligerents state mania; they came into complete control their peace terms overshadowed every

of the Dobrudja, with advances threatenother theme. All the official interchanges ing Moldavia and even Bessarabia. In the and documents on both phases of the sub

Riga sector the Russians took the offenject appear textually in this issue. The sive and gained some advantage, advancaction of President Wilson at first justi

ing nearly a mile. The British defeated fied a hope that the preliminaries of a

the Turks in Northern Egypt, removing peace conference were in sight, but the the danger threatening the Suez Canal; definite reply of the Allies discouraged they pushed their forces eastward toward this expectation, and hope was finally

Palestine, taking Raffa, within seventy shattered both by the effect the reply

miles of Jerusalem. British troops also produced in Germany and by the British showed activity in Mesopotamia, and Foreign Minister's amplification of the

again threatened Kut. The Saloniki army reply, which served to arouse the entire was quiet. There was little activity along German population through a specific

the Italian fronts, and no important reference to the cession of Alsace-Lor

action in France, after the retaking of raine to France as a condition of peace.

Hardaumont in the Verdun sector. The news from Washington at the hour

German submarines were busy during of going to press indicated that President the month, torpedoing many large merWilson had abandoned for the present

chant vessels and at least one battleship, any further exchange of notes with the

the Cornwallis, with several transports belligerents on the subject of peace.

and minor naval craft. The operations Moreover, the rather pointed references

of a German sea raider, reported to have in the Balfour note to a league to

sunk a score of allied merchant vessels force peace” rather than a league to

in the South Atlantic, were among the “ insure peace,” such as President Wilson months' surprises. The number of allied had in mind, is regarded in high circles

vessels destroyed in November was 191, as a plain intimation that Great Britain according to an official German report. does not regard as practical a league that will seek to insure future peace by moral THE WAR COUNCIL AT ROME suasion.

THE
HE month was replete with political

events of deep import. Of chief sigTHE MILITARY SITUATION

nificance was the conference of the EnM" ILITARY operations were practically tente Premiers at Rome. Italy was rep

at a standstill during the month, resented by her Premier, Paolo Boselli; except in Northern Dobrudja, the Riga Great Britain by Premier Lloyd George sector, and the Sinai Peninsula. The and Viscount Milner; France by Premier

en

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Balkan plans of her allies, for a new and SE

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Briand, General Lyautey, War Minister; the dominance of Magyar influences at Russia by General Palitzin. The confer the Austrian Court; it is stated that ence was held on Jan. 6 and 7. No offi while the old Emperor had grown restive cial statements were made of what oc under this state of affairs, the new Emcurred, except that the conference was peror takes a sympathetic view and pracentirely satisfactory and would result in tically dismissed von Koerber. a closer harmony than ever before in the plans of the Entente. It is reported that

DANISH ISLANDS TRANSFERRED as a result Italy was won over to the

ECRETARY LANSING and Constan

tin Brun, the Danish Minister, formdrastic ultimatum was served on Greece

ally exchanged ratifications on Jan. 17, about this time; it is believed also that

1917, of the treaty conveying the Danish an agreement was reached with refer

West Indies to the United States, thus ence to the Macedonian campaign as well

marking the beginning of American sovas a general understanding looking to

ereignty over the islands. Actual physical closer unity of operations. All the Gov

possession will take place as soon as the ernments which participated let it be

purchase price, $25,000,000, is paid to known that the conference was entirely

Denmark, which will be promptly done. harmonious and its results eminently

It is likely that a Civil Governor, a naval satisfactory.

officer and a Customs Collector will be

designated, and that the present local IMPORTANT CABINET CHANGES

administration will not be disturbed.

OCANOTHER spectacular change curred in the Russian Cabinet. On

DECLINE IN BRITISH SECURITIES Jan. 9 the Premier, Alexander Trepoff, and Count Ignatieff , Minister of Public THE LONDON BANKERS' MAGA

ZINE computes the total depreciInstruction, resigned unexpectedly, and

ation in value of 387 representative it is reported that they did so unwillingly

British securities between July 20, 1914, at the demand of the Czar. Prince Go

and Jan. 1, 1916, to be $4,610,000,000; litzine, a Senator and member of the Council of the Empire, was appointed

during 1916 the shrinkage was $745,000,

000, in 1915 $1,035,000,000. In the ten Premier and Senator Kulchitsky Minister of Public Instruction.

The new

days immediately preceding the decla

ration of war these securities decreased Premier was born in Wiesbaden, Prussia,

in value $950,000,000. The securities in 1860. This is the third change in the Premiership in

range from British and Indian Governyear; in fourteen

ment bonds to mining shares, comprising months there were eight changes in the Ministry of the Interior. It is the gen

all the representative classes of investeral conviction that the fall of Trepoff

ment. British railway stocks show a demeans a blow at liberalism and the ap

cline of $285,035,000. British and Indian

Government securities lost value to the pointment of Golitzine a triumph for the

extent of $256,930,000. reactionaries, though Protopopoff, who is regarded as the real power, is accredited

N attitude toward

the treaty with the United States.

together with the standard values at The downfall of Herr von Koerber, normal times: 4 marks, 6742 cents, northe Austrian Premier, was unexpected, mally, 95 1-5; sterling, 4.75 13-16, noras he had held office only a few weeks mally, 4.865%; francs, 5.8436, normally following the assassination of Count 5.1848 to the dollar; lire, 7.00, norStuergkh. His retirement is said to be mally, 5.18; Austrian kronen, 10.90, nordue to the influence of the Hungarian mally, 20.3 cents; rubles, 28.95, normally, Premier, Count Tisza, who had found in 51.2 cents; Holland guilders, 40 13-16, von Koerber op to the control normally, 40.2 cents; Swiss, 5.02, norof Austrian affairs by Germany, and to mally, 5.1848 cents.

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