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phia, was torpedoed and sunk without warning thirteen miles south of Waterford, and the crew saw the periscope of a submarine for ten minutes. Two
American negroes were in the crew of thirty-three.
All on board were rescued.
The next day the British steamer Eagle Point was shelled by a German submarine 130 miles south of Queenstown. The Eagle Point gave up her attempt to escape, and her crew of forty-two, which included one American, took to the boats in a heavy swell and a stormy wind. All were saved. The submarine came up and sank the ship with a torpedo.
After Germany gave her promise as the result of the Sussex notes there was a temporary lull in submarine warfare, but within a few weeks it began again. By Oct. 1, 1916, the British Government has stated, 262 vessels had been destroyed by German submarines, following the Sussex case, and at least fifteen had been sunk without the warning Germany had promised she would give. The American State Department compiled reports on all the cases through diplomatic and Consular agencies, and about Oct. 1, 1910, it was stated officially that nothing had been found in any which could be taken as proof of a violation of Germany's promises.
Visit of the U-53 The next development came when Germany carried the submarine war to the American side of the Atlantic. On Saturday, Oct. 7, 1916, the German war submarine U-53 entered Newport Harbor unannounced, delivered a package of mail for the German Embassy, and departed as swiftly, as silently, as she had come. Within forty-eight hours afterward she sank five ships within sight of the American coast-three British, one Duten, and one Norwegian. With the assistance of American destroyers, which witnessed the operations, all lives were saved. In each case the submarine commander gave legal warning and permitted the escape of passengers and crew.
Nothing was developed to show any breach of faith on Germany's part, although there was some discussion of whether the operation did not constitute an offense to the United States and, in fact, a pacific block-. ade of the American coast. There was some talk of asking Germany to keep her ships away from American ports, as had been done in the case of Great Britain's cruisers early in the war. But as the U-53 disappeared without sinking more ships, the matter did not reach a head.
In the meantime, however, the United States declined to accede to the view of the Allies that neutrals should bar their ports to submarines of all kinds, whether war or merchant.
On Oct. 26, 1916, the British merchant ship Rowanmore was attacked by a German submarine. She fled, but was overhauled and destroyed by gunfire. There was no loss of life, although two Americans and five Filipinos, (naturalized Americans,) the only Americans on board, stated that the submarine shelled the lifeboats as they were leaving the ship.
On Oct. 30 the British ship Marina, bound for the United States, was torpedoed and six of the fifty Americans on board were lost. Survivors said that two submarines torpedoed the ship without warning, and that the boats were compelled to leave her more than 100 miles from land in a heavy sea.
Investigation was ordered, and the German Government was asked for its version of the affair. It developed that the Marina had a 4.7-inch gun mounted astern, but survivors said no attempt was made nor opportunity had to use it. It was the first case of loss of American life since the Sussex case.
Then followed the attack on the American steamer Chemung, the
seventeen Americans on the steamer Russian, and, finally, on Jan. 31, a notice that a campaign of ruthlessness was to begin on Feb. 1, irrespective of the consequences.
A Net to Protect New York Harbor
N ingenious contrivance to protect
has been constructed, consisting of a heavy steel wire net stretched between Sandy Hook and Rockaway Point, crossing the three channels—the Swash, the old Main Ship Channel, and the Ambrose Channel.
During daylight, when torpedo boat destroyers, airplanes, and a mosquito fleet, which will be created for the purpose, are sufficient to make it impossible for any
undersea craft to approach the harbor undetected, the net will be lowered so as to permit vessels to pass through the channels. From sunset to sunrise the net will be raised to bar all ingress for submarines at any depth. Similar steps are also being taken for the protection of other harbors on the Atlantic Coast; a net to protect the Norfolk Channel at Hampton Roads was in position by Feb. 20.
Netting is the first and most obvious
method for the defense of a harbor at night and in heavy fogs. It has proved so successful that no submarine has yet been able to operate successfully in any English or French harbor. Hundreds of miles of heavy netting are in use in English waters, and outside of the German coast nets have been stretched for the entanglement and capture of submarines.
Though the Germans say that they have perfected a device for cutting nets which enables their submarines to escape from wire meshes of the weight used by the British during the first two years of the war, no submarine equipped to hack itself through netting has invaded British harbors, and it is concluded that they avoid encounters with nets whenever possible, even if they are sometimes able to extricate themselves. .
No details have been made public about the weight of the netting used by the
Navy Department or about the size of the meshes, but it is said that the net is strong enough to bar entrance to the harbor to undersea boats of any type yet known.
The Navy Department has kept closely in touch with the methods of defense against submarines which have been used by the British and French to make vessels safe while resting at anchor. One device which is in general use to give warning of the approach of a submarine to a harbor is a detectaphone which reproduces sounds in the water and indicates the presence of a submarine when the motion of a propeller is caught in water which is not used for ordinary shipping.
The Ambrose Channel, which is the principal entrance to New York Harbor, is 2,000 feet wide and 40 feet deep. The old Main Ship Channel used prior to the Summer of 1913 has a width of 1,000 feet and a depth of 30 feet.
Entente Shipbuilding vs. U-Boats
HE announcement by Berlin of un stands at par after two years of the
restricted U-boat warfare finds the war is shown by Lloyd's figures com
balance even between loss due to paring the tonnage owned in July, 1914, war causes and new construction, in the with that of July, 1916, for the five tonnage of allied merchantmen. Slightly nations. England was the chief sufferer, more than 3,000,000 tons of merchant her tonnage in 1914 being 21,045,049, shipping was the toll exacted by subma and two years later 20,901,999, a net rines up to Feb. 1, while new construc loss of only 143,000 tons. Italy shows tion since the declaration of war in the greatest gain, owing to her late enshipyards of England and her allies, trance into hostilities, from 1,668,296 to France, Russia, Italy and Japan, has to 1,896,534 tons, a net gain of 228,238 taled 2,800,000 tons to Feb. 1, 1917. tons. The Entente nations as a whole Portugal, the newest ally, added about registered a slight gain of 136,000 tons 150,000 tons of confiscated German for this period. shipping, while recent purchases from Since last Summer the U-boat camGreece and other neutral nations have paign has become more severe. Figures swelled the ranks of Entente shipping compiled by the Federal Bureau of Navito a total higher than the losses.
gation from reliable sources give the loss According to Lloyd's Register the from war causes for 1916 as 2,082,683 merchant tonnage built in England, tons, as against a total of new construcFrance, Russia, Italy and Japan in 1913 tion for the year of 1,899,943 tons. Acwas 1,450,908. In 1914 it amounted cording to another trustworthy estimate* to 2,198,765 tons, of which 900,000 was the Entente nations lost 2,000,000 tons launched after the outbreak of war. The during 1916, England losing 1,600,000 as 1915 total fell to 836,946.
against new construction of 600,000 for saw an increase of 965,499.
the year; France lost 200,000 tons, as How nearly the Entente shipping *Journal of erce Statistics.
- STRAIT OF DOVE causes.
against only 39,000 launched; Japan put tion of enemy shipping has made good in commission 246,000 tons, against a completely the depreciation. Even in debit of 16,000.
1916, when the U-boat campaign was at Lloyd's Register gives the allied ship its worst, the loss on the basis of sailping at the outbreak of war as 27,794,000 ings was slightly more than one-half of 1 tons, (exclusive of Belgium.) Of this per cent. For every 180 merchant vestotal 10.8 per cent. has been lost by war sels that left the allied ports one was
New construction and confisca sunk by mines or submarines.
the Norwegian coast. Jan. 27 that the mined area in the Later Germany moved part of the east
North Sea had been enlarged. The ern boundary of its North Sea danger previous district banned as dangerous on
DUNDEE account of mines was a rectangular area
CALAIS coast of Germany.
BRUSSELS COLOGNE By this action the British Government
FRANCE barred to merchant shipping practically
EFRANKFURT all the area of the North Sea east of the Dogger Banks, between a point high on
GREAT BRITAIN'S NEW “ZONE OF DANGER" the Danish coast to a point where the area to the line marked by 4 degrees Dutch coast makes its wide bend east east longtitude. ward, the Danish and Dutch territorial The original British danger area, waters being excluded.
which was established so as to extend The Admiralty on Feb. 13 announced much further west of 4 degrees east a modification of this area, designating longitude, has been changed so that all new limitations “in view of unrestricted of it is east of 4 degrees 30 minutes east warfare carried on by Germany." The longitude.
zone makes important concessions There has thus been established, by to neutrals. The zone, laid out in the England's action as well as by Gerproclamation of Jan. 27, extended in a many's recent modification, an irregufan-like shape from off Flamborough lar lane, the narrowest neck of which Head on the east coast of England to the is thirty miles wide, through which Dutch and Danish coasts, and covered shipping may pass between the Danish, the entire North Sea coast of Germany. Norwegian, and Holland coasts without
After this vast area had been pro skirting their respective coasts. This claimed by England as dangerous, Ger newly established lane restores an open many established its submarine blockade, sea route to and from Holland through the eastern boundary of which in the an irregularly shaped zone, which lies North Sea extended along the line of between the German danger area on the 4 degrees 50 minutes east longitude west and the British danger area on the from Terschelling Lightship to Udsire east.
Details of Chief Vessels Sunk, With Diplomatic Developments
ERMAN methods of submarine
warfare, which have at last caused the breaking of friendly
relations between the United States and Germany, have a record extending from October, 1914, to the present time. According to a statement published by the German Admiralty, 1,303 merchant vessels had been sunk by the Teutonic allies up to June 30, 1916. A later statement, issued officially at Berlin, claimed a total of 4,000,000 tons of Entente shipping destroyed up to the beginning of 1917, including 3,000,000 tons under the British flag. These figures, however, are believed to be in excess of the facts. According to Lloyd's Register, the total to. Feb. 1 was a little more than 3,000,000 tons.
According to Germany's official claims, the month of December, 1916, brought the destruction of 152 merchant ships of the Entente Powers and 65 neutral vessels, “sunk because of their tranportation of contraband to the enemy,” making 415,000 tonnage destroyed in that month alone. The record for January was on a similar scale. That for the first two weeks of February—under the policy of “ intensified warfare "-was 101 ships of 208,010 tonnage sunk.
A valuable summary of the leading cases of this kind from the beginning of the war to the end of last October, with dates, details, and diplomatic developments, recently appeared in the semiofficial Nouvelles de France, from which it is here translated for CURRENT HISTORY MAGAZINE. All direct quotations from diplomatic notes have been verified from the official text:
Period Preceding the Lusitania Case Oct. 26, 1914-The French steamship Amiral Ganteaume is torpedoed without warning while transporting from Calais to La Pallice 2,500 refugees from the North of Belgium. Thirty sailors and passengers are killed or drowned; the others are saved,
thanks to the proximity of the coast and the swiftness of the aid furnished.
Jan. 29, 1915—The French Government addresses to the neutral powers a memorandum protesting against the torpedoing of the Amiral Ganteaume. This memorandum states the facts ascertained after a carefal investigation, " The attack upon the French steamer and its passengers," it says, committed by a vessel of the Imperial German Navy: (1) Without daring to show its colors; (2) without visit, order, or warning; (3) upon a defenseless passenger ship loade: with women, children, and old men; (4) without any military, strategic, or naval utility, and without any other possible result than the murder of inoffensive persons ani the destruction of a merchant vessel outside of all possibility of capture and subsequent judgment in a prize court." The Gorernment of the republic brings these facts to the knowledge of the powers which at the second peace conference (session of Oct. 9. 1907) had received, as the memorandum recalls, from Baron Marshal von Bieberstein, first German plenipotentiary, the following declaration : "The officers of the German Navy, I say it emphatically, will always fulfill in the strictest manner
the duties based on the unwritten law of humanity and civilization."
Jan. 30, 1915—Torpedoing by German submarines of the English
steamships Take Maru and Icaria in the North Sea, and of the English steamships Linda Blanche and Ben Cruachen in the Irish Sea.
The two former were torpedoed without the required warning; the others after
an examination of papers and a notice to the crews to leave the ships.
Jan. 31, 1915—Protest of the French Minister of Marine against these acts.
Feb. 1, 1915-A German submarine fires a torpedo at the English hospital ship Asturias without hitting it.
Feb. 3, 1915—Note from the French Minister of Marine protesting against the ato tack on the Asturias and invoking the immunity guaranteed to hospital ships by Convention X., signed at The Hague on Oct. 18, 1907.
Feb. 3, 1915—Memorandum from Germany to the neutral powers declaring "all the waters around Great Britain and Ireland, including the whole of the English Channel. a war zone," and announcing that on and after Feb. 18 Germany “ will attempt to destroy every enemy ship found in that war zone, without its being always possible to
avoid the danger that will thus threaten the importation of war materials into England neutral persons and ships." Germany gives and the allied countries. She asks the Amerwarning that “ it cannot be responsible here ican Government to advise merchant ships of after for the safety of crews, passengers,
that nationality to avoid the war zone. and cargoes of such ships," and it further
Atlempt at Modus Vivendi more calls the attention of neutrals to the
Feb. 22, 1915—American note containing fact that it would be well for their ships to
certain suggestions for the establishment of avoid entering this zone, for, although the
a modus vivendi among the belligerents; one German naval forces are instructed to avoid
of the articles of this modus vivendi proposes all violence to neutral ships, in so far as
that no Government should use submarines to these can be recognized, the order given by
attack merchant vessels of any nationality the British Government to hoist neutral flags
except to enforce the and
of visit and of the contingencies
right naval warfare
search; on the other hand, England should might be the cause of these ships becoming
allow foodstuffs to pass through to the Gerthe victims of an attack directed against the
man civil population. vessels of the enemy."
Feb. 28, 1915—Germany replies to the preThe War Zone Controversy
ceding note. She declares herself favorable Feb. 10, 1915—American note in reply to the
to the establishment of a modus vivendi, but German memorandum. It states that the
with modifications. She subordinates the obAmerican Government views the possibilities
servance of general rules of international law referred to in this memorandum“ with such by submarines to the condition that merchant grave concern, that it feels it to be its privi
ships shall not be armed; she exacts, besides, lege, and, indeed, its duty, in the circum
that Germany be permitted to import articles stances to request the Imperial German Gov of prime necessity indicated in the free list ernment to consider before action is taken
of the Declaration of London, (cotton, rubthe critical situation in respect of the relation ber, ores, &c.;) she suggests, likewise, that between this country and Germany which
the importation of war munitions from neumight arise were the German naval forces,
tral to belligerent countries be forbidden. in carrying out the policy foreshadowed in March 1, 1915—Declaration of France and the Admiralty's proclamation, to destroy any England criticising as contrary to internamerchant vessel of the United States or cause tional law the German policy of torpedoing at the death of American citizens.
sight, in the war zone, every merchant ship declare and exercise a right to attack and under every flag, without regard for the destroy any vessel entering a prescribed area safety of the crew and passengers.
The of the high seas without first certainly deter declaration announces the purpose of the mining its belligerent nationality and the Allies to employ methods of reprisal concontraband character of its cargo would be sistent with the principles of humanity, and an act so unprecedented in naval warfare consisting in the interception of merchandise that this Government is reluctant to believe destined for Germany or proceeding from that the Imperial Government of Germany Germany. In this case contemplates it as possible."
March 10, 1915-Declaration from the GerAfter stating that the destruction of Amer. man Ambassador at Washington attributing ican ships or American lives on the high seas to an error the attack on the hospital ship would be difficult to reconcile with the Asturias. friendly relations existing between the two March 13, 1915—British memorandum to the Governments, the note adds that the United United States. It indicates that, as the GerStates “ would be constrained to hold the mans refuse to renounce the use of mines for Imperial Government of Germany to a strict offensive purposes, and are not disposed to accountability for such acts of their naval discontinue their attacks on merchant ships, authorities, and to take any steps it might it is useless to examine the terms of the probe necessary to take to safeguard American posed modus vivendi. lives and property and to secure to American March 13, 1915—Torpedoing of the Hanna, a citizens the full enjoyment of their acknowl Swedish vessel; six victims. edged rights on the high seas."
March 28, 1915--Torpedoing of the British Feb. 15, 1915—Note from the German Ad steamer Falaba by a German submarine. miralty indicating that after Feb. 18 Germany The torpedoes are fired while the crew and will make war by all the means in her power passengers are entering the small boats. against the British merchant marine in the More than 100 persons, including Mr. war zone, and warning neutrals not to enter Thrasher, an American citizen, perish with that zone because they would expose them the ship. selves to the same risks “as if they sailed. April 8, 1915—A German submarine torthrough the midst of naval battles "-risks pedoes the steamer Harplyce, in the service • for which Germany disowns all responsi of the American Commission for the Aid of bility."
Belgium, and provided with a safe conduct Feh. 17, 1915—Germany answers the Amer issued by the German Minister at The Hague; ican note. She holds that the creation of a fifteen victims. war zone is a reply to the war methods of May 1, 1915—Americain steamer Gulflight England, which are contrary to the law of torpedoed by a German submarine, entailing nations, and that it is a means for hindering the death of two Americans.