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A Course which sets a New Standard

“The Best Introductory Treatise

in the English Language.”

Outlines of European History


The two volumes which make up the Outlines of European History have been prepared to meet the need expressed in the Report of the Committee of Five urging a two-year course in general history for high schools. In placing emphasis throughout on the conditions and institutions most essential to an understanding of subsequent history, rather than on unrelated events, these books are in full accord with the new spirit in the teaching of history. Moreover, the authors' reputation for sound scholarship is international, and a guaranty of the entire fitness of these texts for class use.

Part I, by James Harvey Robinson, Columbia University, and James Henry Breasted, the University of Chicago, covers Oriental, classical, and mediaeval history to the beginning of the eighteenth century, and includes a wealth of original illustrative materialnotably several "pen etchings"- of immense value to a proper understanding of the text. 730 pages, illustrated, $1.50.

Part IT, by James Harvey Robinson and Charles A. Beard, Columbia University, covers European history from the eighteenth century to the present time, with emphasis on those movements and policies that have à direct, present-day significance. 555 pages, illustrated, $1.50.


December 1, 1914. GARNER'S POLITICAL SCIENCE is unquestionably the best introductory treatise in the English language, and is excelled only by few of the more advanced treatises on the subject. One especially pleasing characteristic is the author's wide acquaintance with the European literature on the subject. I was particularly interested in the chapter on the Origin of the State. I have gone over that ground in great detail myself and was glad to note that our views are substantially the same and that Prof. Garner had noted all the main stages in the development of the theory. On the other parts of the book I can speak with less authority, but it seems uniformly good throughout.

HARRY E. BARNES, Instructor, Department of Sociology.

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By Herbert Adams Gibbons, Ph.D., Professor of History at Robert College, Constantinople. Author

of "The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire." IS

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Dr. Gibbons has been for years in close touch || with the affairs of which he writes, and he has condensed the political history of Europe for the past ten years into this volume — showing the exact bearing of each crisis and incident from the Kaiser's famous visit to Morocco in 1905 up to the outbreak of hostilities in August, 1914.

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Volume VI. Number 1.


$2.00 a year. 20 cents a copy.

The Founding of the Principate and its Development

into a Monarchy

The Teaching of Roman History. V.

the benefit, later to the detriment, and ultimately to The fundamental work on this whole subject is Momm- the destruction, of the cities or municipalities of which sen's “ Römisches Staatsrecht,” II, 2, 3d edition, 1887, pp. the empire was composed. For motived, though it 743 ff. It has not been translated into English. It appears was, in a different set of causes, this triumph of cenin French under the title, “Le droit public romain,” Vol. 5, tral over local authority belongs properly to our 1896. Its ideas are taken into account in every section of theme, since every aggrandizement of the central govthis article.

ernment, being in fact a gain for the prince alone, The old constitution of Rome, when strengthened disturbed the balance which Augustus had sought to and modified by an organic union between the senate create between the first citizen and the senate. and the first citizen of the republic, we call the prin- The theory of the principate, to resume, was cipate. It was at once a new kind of government abandoned only in Diocletian's time; the fundamental and the creator of a new administrative system-in institutions of the principate were abandoned gradboth of which aspects it must be considered in this ually in the preceding three hundred years. The article.

principate itself, however, as a system of government Brought into being by Augustus in 27 B. C., the in which the prince took orders from the senate and principate was changed profoundly by him four years people of Rome in domestic or Italian affairs, and enlater. Thereafter, during his lifetime, it was sub- joyed full discretion of action only in the group of jected to many minor alterations before being trans- provinces assigned to him, existed only in the mind, mitted at his death (14 A. D.) to the scrupulous care or, at most, in the practice of its founder; for from of Tiberius, his personal as well as his political heir. the outset the prince was given rights and powers, In theory, this curious compromise between aris- not more considerable than the situation demanded, tocracy and monarchy for the government of the re- but so extensive that his will was supreme in all matpublic continued to exist till the reign of Diocletian, ters, even in those in which the decision was reached when the monarch ceased to rule in virtue of a sena- ostensibly by the senate and people alone. To show torial mandate and a popular election, and came to that this was the case--that from the very beginning derive his authority simply from a nomination by his the conditions of which Augustus had to take account predecessor or a tumultuous acclamation by the army. were more monarchical than he was himself—is the

Therewith the republican substructure was with first task to which we have to give attention. drawn definitely from the government. Long since B. The Fight of AugUSTUS for VENGEANCE AND the partnership formed by Augustus between the

FOR ITALY. senate and the prince had been dissolved. By a Firth, “Augustus Cæsar,” 1903; Shuckburgh, “Augustus,” series of apparently disconnected actions, the prince 1903; Ferrero, “ The Greatness and Decline of Rome,” Vols. bad squeezed first the senate as a corporation, and III, IV and V, 1908-9; Gardthausen, “Augustus und seine then its members individually, out of the business of Zeit," 1891-1904; Domaszewski, “ Geschichte der römischen government, so that the last real senatus consultum Kaiser," Ist edition, 1909. was passed in the reign of Septimus Severus (193- The conditions which Augustus faced in 27 B. C. 211 A. D.); and in the reign of Gallienus (253-268 were partly the results of a long historical developA. D.), the senators, to whom Augustus had reserved ment, and partly of his own creating. The long all high offices, were excluded specifically from the historical development which tended to evolve the military administration of the state, and were set monarchy in Rome has been traced in a preceding apart in the empire simply through the possession of article. Hence we may confine ourselves here to a fatal social and fiscal privileges. It is our purpose consideration of Augustus's own share in laying the in this article to review this series of encroachments foundations of the principate. on aristocratic power; but we have also to notice, Nearly four years before he took the matter in what is often confused with it, but is really something hand, as a consequence of his victory at Actium (31 quite distinct, the corresponding series of steps by B. C.), he had brought under his jurisdiction the which the power of the prince was increased, first to eastern provinces of the Roman empire and had con

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