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A. THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE.
1. Treaty Of All1ance Between Austr1a-hungary And Germany October 7, 1879.1
Inasmuch as their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and the German Emperor, King of Prussia, must consider it their imperative duty as monarchs to provide for the security of their empires and the peace of their subjects, under all circumstances;
inasmuch as the two sovereigns, as was the case under the former existing relations of alliance, will be enabled by the close union of the two empires to fulfill this duty more easily and more efficaciously;
inasmuch as, finally, an intimate co-operation of Germany and AustriaHungary can menace no one, but is rather calculated to consolidate the peace of Europe as established by the stipulations of Berlin;
Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, and the Emperor of Germany, while solemnly promising each other never to allow their purely defensive agreement to develop an aggressive tendency in any direction, have determined to conclude an alliance of peace and mutual defense,
For this purpose their most exalted Majesties have designated as their plenipotentiaries:
His most exalted Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, his actual privy councillor, minister of the imperial household and of foreign affairs, Lieutenant-Fieldmarshal Count Julius Andrassy of CsikSzent-Kiraly and Kraszna-Horka, etc., etc.,
His most exalted Majesty the German Emperor, his Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Lieutenant-General Prince Henry VH of Reuss, etc., etc.,
Who have met this day at Vienna, and, after the exchange of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles: Art. I. Should, contrary to their hope, and against the loyal desire of
'Reprinted from Pribram, Secret Treaties of Austria-Hungary (edited by Coolidge), Vol. I, 25-31.
the two high contracting parties, one of the two empires be attacked by Russia, the high contracting parties are bound to come to the assistance one of the other with the whole war strength of their empires, and accordingly only to conclude peace together and upon mutual agreement.
Art. II. Should one of the high contracting parties be attacked by another power, the other high contracting party binds itself hereby, not only not to support the aggressor against its high ally, but to observe at least a benevolent neutral attitude toward its fellow contracting party.
Should, however, the attacking party in such a case be supported by Russia, either by an active co-operation or by military measures which constitute a menace to the party attacked, then the obligation stipulated in Art. I of this treaty, for reciprocal assistance with the whole fighting force, becomes equally operative, and the conduct of the war by the two high contracting parties shall in this case also be in common until the conclusion of a common peace.
Art. III.1 The duration of this treaty shall be provisionally fixed at five years from the day of ratification. One year before the expiration of this period the two high contracting parties shall consult together concerning the question whether the conditions serving as the basis of the treaty still prevail, and reach an agreement in regard to the further continuance or possible modification of certain details. If in the course of the first month of the last year of the treaty no invitation has been received from either side to open these negotiations, the treaty shall be considered as renewed for a further period of three years.
Art. IV.J This treaty shall, in conformity with its peaceful character, and to avoid any misinterpretation, be kept secret by the two high contracting parties, and only communicated to a third power upon a joint understanding between the two parties, and according to the terms of a special agreement.
The two high contracting parties venture to hope, after the sentiments expressed by the Emperor Alexander at the meeting at Alexandrovo, that the armaments of Russia will not in reality prove to be menacing to them, and have on that account no reason for making a communication at present; should, however, this hope, contrary to their expectations, prove to be erroneous, the two high contracting parties would consider it their loyal obligation to let the Emperor Alexander know, at least confidentially, that they must consider an attack on either of them as directed against both.
•The text as heretofore made public (G. F. von Martens, Nouveau recueil general de traites, 2d series, xv, 478; British and Foreign State Papers, Ixxiii, 270) does not contain this article.
1 This article corresponds to Art. Ill, as heretofore published.
Art. V.1 This treaty shall derive its validity from the approbation of the two exalted sovereigns and shall be ratified within 14 days after this approbation has been granted by their most exalted Majesties.2
In witness whereof the plenipotentiaries have signed this treaty with their own hands and affixed their arms.
Done at Vienna, October 7, 1879.
Andrassy. H. VII v. Reuss.
L. s. L. s.
2. Ma1n Treaty Of Tr1ple All1ance, As Rev1sed m 1912.3
Their Majesties the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic-King of Hungary, the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia, and the King of Italy, firmly resolved to assure to their States the continuation of the benefits which the maintenance of the Triple Alliance guarantees to them, from the political point of view as well as from the monarchical and social point of view, and wishing with this object to prolong the duration of this alliance concluded on May 20, 1882, renewed a first time by the treaties of February 20, 1887, a second time by the treaty of May 6, 1891, and a third time by the treaty of June 28, 1002, have, for this purpose, appointed as their plenipotentiaries, to wit:
His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic-King of Hungary: Count Leopold Berchtold von und zu Ungarschitz, his minister of the Imperial and Royal Household and of Foreign Affairs, president of the Common Council of Ministers; His Majesty the Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia: the Sieur Heinrich von Tschirschky und BSgendorff, his ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to his Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and ApostolicKing of Hungary; and His Majesty the King of Italy: Duke Giuseppe d'Avarna, his ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc., and Apostolic-King of Hungary, who, after exchange of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles:
Art. I. The high contracting parties mutually promise peace and
■ This article is not found in the text heretofore published.
■ Ratification of Emperor and King Francis Joseph I, G0d8llS, October 17, 1879; of Emperor William I, Baden-Baden, October 16, 187o; protocol of exchange of ratifications, Vienna, October 21, 1879. The treaty was renewed in 1884.
> Reprinted from Pribram, toe. cif., 244-259.
ITALY TO RECEIVE AID
friendship and will enter into no alliance or engagement directed against any one of their states.
They engage to proceed to an exchange of ideas on political and economic questions of a general nature which may arise, and they further promise one another mutual support within the limits of their own interests.
Art. II. In case Italy, without direct provocation on her part, should he attacked by France for any reason whatsoever, the two other contracting parties shall be bound to lend help and assistance with all their forces to the party attacked.
This same obligation shall devolve upon Italy in case of any aggression without direct provocation by France against Germany. 1
Art. III. If one or two of the high contracting parties without direct provocation on their part should chance to be attacked and to be engaged in a war with two or more great powers nonsignatories of the present treaty, the casus fcederis will arise simultaneously for all the high contracting parties.
Art. IV. In case a great power nonsignatory of the present treaty should threaten the security of the states of one of the high contracting parties and the threatened party should find itself forced on that account to make war against it, the two others bind themselves to observe toward their ally a benevolent neutrality. Each of them reserves to itself, in this case, the right to take part in the war, if it should see fit, to make common cause with its ally.
Art. V. If the peace of one of the high contracting parties should chance to be threatened under the circumstances foreseen by the preceding articles, the high contracting parties shall concert with one another in ample time as to the military measures to be taken with a view to eventual co-operation.
They engage, henceforth, in all cases of common participation in a war, to conclude neither armistice, nor peace, nor treaty, except by common agreement among themselves.
Art. VI. Germany and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall on the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and ^Egean Seas any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the powers signatory to the present treaty. To this end, they will communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other powers.
Art. VII. Austria-Hungary and Italy, having in mind only the maintenance, so far as possible, of the territorial status quo in the Orient, engage to use their influence to forestall any territorial modification which might be injurious to one or the other of the powers signatory to the present treaty. To this end, they shall communicate to one another all information of a nature to enlighten each other mutually concerning their own dispositions, as well as those of other powers. However, if, in the course of events, the maintenance of the status quo in the regions of the Balkans or of the Ottoman coasts and islands in the Adriatic and in the ^Egean Sea should become impossible and if, whether in consequence of the action of a third power or otherwise, Austria-Hungary or Italy should find themselves under the necessity of modifying it by a temporary or permanent occupation on their part, this occupation shall take place only after a previous agreement between the two powers, based upon the principle of reciprocal compensation for every advantage, territorial or other, which each of them might obtain beyond the present status quo and giving satisfaction to the interests and well-founded claims of the two parties.
Art. Vin. The stipulations of Arts. VI and VH apply in no way to the Egyptian question with regard to which the high contracting parties preserve respectively their freedom of action, regard being always paid to the principles upon which the present treaty rests.
Art. IX. Germany and Italy engage to exert themselves for the maintenance of the territorial status quo in the North African regions on the Mediterranean, to wit, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Tunisia. The representatives of the two powers in these regions shall be instructed to put themselves into the closest intimacy of mutual communication and assistance.
If unfortunately, as a result of a mature examination of the situation, Germany and Italy should both recognize that the maintenance of the status quo has become impossible, Germany engages, after a formal and previous agreement, to support Italy in any action in the form of occupation or other taking of guaranty which the latter should undertake in these same regions with a view to an interest of equifibrium and of legitimate compensation.
It is understood that in such an eventuality the two powers would seek to place themselves likewise in agreement with England.
Art. X. If it were to happen that France should make a move to extend her occupation or even her protectorate or her sovereignty, under any form whatsoever, in the North African territories, and that in consequence thereof Italy, in order to safeguard her position in the Mediterranean, should feel that she must herself undertake action in the said North African