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error. As the governor general contemplates this fact, therefore, he can only blink and say: "The character of the Belgian people is a psychological enigma."
The enigma, as M. Passelecq says, is "so simple that it takes a German not to understand it." In truth the "enigma" was long since easily solved by Ernest Maurice Arndt, a German contemporary of the Revolution of 1830. "The fundamental principle of the Belgian Revolution," he said, "that which gives it character and distinguishes it from other events of the same order, resides in the most intimate essence of the people. It is the aspiration to an independent national existence, . . . which, during many centuries, the Belgians have labored for." 1 But in speaking of national aspirations, we have to do with an influence of the moral and spiritual order—thus rising above the level along which the Prussian mind travels.
1 Revue des deux mondes, June I, 1918, 527, quoted from Van Langenhove, La volonte nationale beige en 1830, 93.
A VICTORY PROGRAM
At the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees of World Peace Foundation, November 30, 1918, it was unanimously voted "that the World Peace Foundation approves the principles of which a statement1 is here subjoined":
The war now happily brought to a close has been above all a war to end war, but in order to insure the fruits of victory and to prevent the recurrence of such a catastrophe there should be formed a league of free nations, as universal as possible, based on treaty and pledged that the security of each state shall rest upon the strength of the whole. The initiating nucleus of the membership of the league should be the nations associated as belligerents in winning the war.
The league should aim at promoting the liberty, progress and fair economic opportunity of all nations, and the orderly development of the world.
It should insure peace by eliminating causes of dissension, by deciding controversies by peaceable means, and by uniting the potential force of all the members as a standing menace against any nation that seeks to upset the peace of the world.
The advantage of membership in the league, both economically and from the point of view of security, should be so clear that all nations will desire to be members of it.
For this purpose it is necessary to create:
X. For the decision of justiciable questions, an impartial tribunal whose jurisdiction shall not depend upon the assent of the parties to the controversy; provision to be made for enforcing its decisions.
•This program was prepared with a view to its being generally adopted by organizations by a special committee of the League to Enforce Peace consisting of William H. Taft, A. Lawrence Lowell, Oscar S. Straus, Theodore Marburg, Hamilton Holt, Talcott Williams, William H. Short and Glenn Frank. It was adopted by the Executive Committee of the League to Enforce Peace and by the League of Free Nations Association on November 23, 1918, and by other organizations. A joint committee for Massachusetts to promote a league of free nations in accordance with this program has been formed to conduct an active co-operative campaign.
2. For questions that are not justiciable in their character, a council of conciliation, as mediator, which shall hear, consider and make recommendations; and, failing acquiescence by the parties concerned, the league shall determine what action, if any, shall be taken.
3. An administrative organization for the conduct of affairs of common interest, the protection and care of backward regions and internationalized places, and such matters as have been jointly administered before and during the war. We hold that this object must be attained by methods and through machinery that will insure both stability and progress, preventing, on the one hand, any crystalization of the status quo that will defeat the forces of healthy growth and change, and providing, on the other hand, a way by which progress can be secured and necessary change effected without recourse to war.
4. A representative congress to formulate and codify rules of international law, to inspect the work of the administrative bodies and to consider any matter affecting the tranquility of the world or the progress or betterment of human relations. Its deliberations should be public.
5. An executive body, able to speak with authority in the name of the nations represented, and to act in case the peace of the world is endangered.
The representatives of the different nations in the organs of the league should be in proportion to the responsibilities and obligations they assume. The rules of international law should not be defeated for lack of unanimity.
A resort to force by any nation should be prevented by a solemn agreement that any aggression will be met immediately by such an overwhelming economic and military force that it will not be attempted.
No member of the league should make any other offensive or defensive treaty or alliance, and all treaties of whatever nature made by any member of the league should at once be made public.
Such a league must be formed at the time of the definite peace or the opportunity may be lost for ever.
BOOKS ON A LEAGUE OF NATIONS
BOOKS ON A LEAGUE OF NATIONS
(This list is supplementary to one published in No. 1 of A League of Nations, 51-53.)
Bassett, John Spencer. The Lost Fruits of Waterloo. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1918. zx, 289 p. 19 V1 cm.
Brailsford, Henry Noel. "Foundations of Internationalism," The English Review, August, 1918, XXVII, 87-101.
Has subtitle "The League of Nations Prize Essay."
Burns, Cecil Delisle. The World of States. London, Headley Bros., 1917. [vii], 145 p. 19 cm.
I diritti dei popoli. Rivista trimestrale per 1' organizzazione guiridica della societi internazionale. Direttore, Guiseppe Cimbali.
Roma, Tipografia del senato, 1917- . Quarterly. 2$y4 cm.
Vol. 1, No. 1, is dated May, 1917.
Draft Convention for League of Nations by group of American jurists and publicists. Description and comment by Theodore Marburg. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1918. vi, 46 p. 17 cm.
Dunlop, Hendrik. The Supreme Will, or the danger of a premature peace. The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff, 1916. [ii], 191 p. 20 cm.
Frangulis, Antoine F. "Unc ligue des nations comme garantie d'une paix durable est-elle possible?" Revue generate de droit international public, XXIV, 437-4S1
Institutions judiciaires et de conciliation. Rapport presentf par M. le Dr. B. C. J. Loder, . . . president de la commission internationale d'£tudes No. v. La Haye, [Organisation centrale pour une paix durable], octobre 1917. 182 p. table. 22yi cm.
Jacobs, A. J. Neutrality versus Justice. An essay on international relations. London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1917. 128 p. 18 cm.
Lammasch, Heinrich. Das VClkerrecht nach dem Kriege. Kristiania, H. Aschehoug & Co., 1917. [viii], 218 p. 2dyi cm.
League of Nations Society. Monthly Report for Members. London, League of Nations Society, 1918- . Monthly. 2■ y& cm.
No. 1 is dated January, 19x8.
Marburg, Theodore. League of Nations. A chapter in the history of the movement. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. [vii], 139 p. 17K cm.
Marburg, Theodore. League of Nations. Its principles examined. Volume II. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1918. I1ii], 137 p. 17^ cm.
Nederlandsche Anti-Oorlog Raad. Internationale Sanktionen. Haag, Martinus Nijhoff, 1917. 47 p. 23^ cm. (Zentralorganization fur einen dauernden Friedcn . . . Interaationaler Studien-Kongress. Bern, 1916.)
Otlet, Paul. Constitution mondiale de la soci£t£ des nations. Le nouveau droit des gens. Paris, G. Cres & tie., 1917. 253 p. 19 cm.
A Reference Book for Speakers, . . . Part I, The Things against which we are Fighting; Part II, The World for wh1ch we are Fighting; Part III, Keeping the World Safe. New York, League to Enforce Peace, 1918. 64 p. cm.
Sacerdoti, Adolfo. Progetto americano di una Lega internazionale per il rafforzamento della pace. Firenze, Tipografia Domenicana, 1918. 12 p. 21^ cm.
Taylor, Charles Fremont A Conclusive Peace, presenting the historically logical, and a feasible, plan of action for the coming peace conference, which w1ll co-ordinate and harmonize Europe, and the world. Philadelphia, The John C. Winston Company, 1916. 173 p. 17X cm.
War and Peace—The International Review. London, The Nation.
"War and Peace, which is published monthly, aims at contributing to the creation of a public opinion equipped for the major problem of the settlement and the succeeding peace. The proposal for a League of Nations will be discussed in all bearings each month by the most authoritative writers on the subject in Britain and America."
Wells, Herbert George. In the Fourth Year. Anticipations of a world peace. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1918. xi, 1S4 p. 20 cm.
Win the War for Permanent Peace. Addresses made at the national convention of the League to Enforce Peace, in the city of Philadelphia, May 16th and 17th, 1918. Convention platform and governors' declaration. New York, League to Enforce Peace, 1918. 2S3 p. 23 cm.
The World Court. A magazine of international progress supporting a union of democratic nations. New York, The World's Court League, 1915Monthly. 24^ cm.
Vol. 1, No. 1, is dated August, 1915. This magazine began publication as the organ of the International Peace Forum and succeeded The Peace Forum (1912-1915).