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JAPAN AIDED ANGLO-AMERICAN PEACE

and how long we have listened to lies about the ambitions and ideals of the East and West.

For more than ten years propaganda has been carried on in this country, in Japan, and in fact throughout the world for the one and sole purpose of keeping the nations of the Far East and Far West as far apart as possible, to create distrust, suspicion and unkindly feelings, all in order that Germany might secure advantage in the confusion. The world was flooded with tales of Japan's military aspirations and Japan's duplicity. Have these been borne out by history? Even now the German publicity agent whispers first in your ear and then in mine. To the accompaniment of appeals to the human heart, he tells to me stories of your duplicity and to you of mine.

These agents have been supplied with unlimited resources. No wonder we have been deceived. A short time ago a bad blunder gave us a clew. The Zimmermann note to Mexico, involving Japan, was a blunder. It made such a noise that we were disturbed in our slumbers and so were you. This gave a check for a time, but since then the agents have been hard at work; they were at work yesterday and they are at work to-day. Every prejudice, every sympathy, every available argument has been appealed to and used to show to your people and to ours what a low, cunning enemy we have each in the other, and how much dependent we are upon the future friendship, support and good will of—Germany.

Let me tell you a piece of secret history. When it became known to us that the American and British Governments were alike desirous of entering into a general treaty of arbitration, but that they found the making of such a treaty was precluded by the terms of the British alliance with Japan, as they then stood, it was not with the consent of Japan, but it was because of Japan's spontaneous offer that the stipulations of the alliance were revised so that no obstacle might be put in the way of the proposed treaty. As you know, Art. IV of the new Anglo-Japanese treaty, now in effect, excludes the United States from its operation. This is a true account of the genesis of that clause. It was Japan's own idea—her own contribution to the cause of universal peace.

Now, if Japan had the remotest intention of appealing to arms against America, how could she thus voluntarily have renounced the all-important co-operation of Great Britain? It would have been wildly quixotic.

There is, one may surely be safe in saying, only one way to interpret this attitude of Japan. It is a most signal proof—if indeed any proof is needed—that to the Japanese Government and nation anything like armed conflict with America is simply unthinkable.

V. Relat1ons Between The Un1ted States And Japan Dur1ng

The War.

1. Exchange Of Notes Respect1ng Ch1na, November 2, 1917.1

O. SECRETARY LANSING To V1scount 1sh11.

Department Of State, Wash1ngton, November 2, 1917.

Excellency: I have the honor to communicate herein my understanding of the agreement reached by us in our recent conversations touching the questions of mutual interest to our Governments relating to the Republic of China.

In order to silence mischievous reports that have from time to time been circulated, it is believed by us that a public announcement once more of the desires and intentions shared by our two Governments with regard to China is advisable.

The Governments of the United States and Japan recognize that territorial propinquity creates special relations between countries, and, consequently, the Government of the United States recognizes that Japan has special interests in China, particularly in the part to which her possessions are contiguous.

The territorial sovereignty of China, nevertheless, remains unimpaired, and the Government of the United States has every confidence in the repeated assurances of the Imperial Japanese Government that, while geographical position gives Japan such special interests, they have no desire to discriminate against the trade of other nations or to disregard the commercial rights heretofore granted by China in treaties with other powers.

The Governments of the United States and Japan deny that they have any purpose to infringe in any way the independence or territorial integrity of China and they declare, furthermore, that they always adhere to the principle of the so-called "open door," or equal opportunity for commerce and industry in China.

Moreover, they mutually declare that they are opposed to the acquisition by any government of any special rights or privileges that would affect the independence or territorial integrity of China or that would deny to the subjects or citizens of any country the full enjoyment of equal opportunity in the commerce and industry of China.

• Official Bulletin, November 6, 1917; Treaty Series No. 63a

RECOGNIZES SPECIAL INTERESTS IN CHINA

I shall be glad to have Your Excellency confirm this understanding of the agreement reached by us. Accept, Excellency, the renewed assurance of my highest consideration. (Signed) Robert Lans1ng.

His Excellency V1scount K1kuj1ro Ish11, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan, on Special Mission.

b. REPLY OF SPECIAL AMBASSADOR.

The Spec1al M1ss1on Of Japan,

Wash1ngton, November 2, 1917.

S1r: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of to-day, communicating to me your understanding of the agreement reached by us in our recent conversations touching the questions of mutual interest to our Governments relating to the Republic of China.

I am happy to be able to confirm to you, under authorization of my Government, the understanding in question set forth in the following terms:

In order to silence mischievous reports that have from time to time been circulated, it is believed by us that a public announcement once more of the desires and intentions shared by our two Governments with regard to China is advisable.

The Governments of Japan and the United States recognize that territorial propinquity creates special relations between countries, and, consequently, the Government of the United States recognizes that Japan has special interests in China, particularly in the part to which her possessions are contiguous.

The territorial sovereignty of China, nevertheless, remains unimpaired, and the Government of the United States has every confidence in the repeated assurances of the Imperial Japanese Government that, while geographical position gives Japan such special interests, they have no desire to discriminate against the trade of other nations or to disregard the commercial rights heretofore granted by China in treaties with other powers.

The Governments of Japan and the United States deny that they have any purpose to infringe in any way the independence or territorial integrity of China, and they declare, furthermore, that they always adhere to the principle of the so-called "open door," or equal opportunity for commerce and industry in China.

Moreover, they mutually declare that they are opposed to the acquisition by any government of any special rights or privileges that would affect the independence or territorial integrity of China or that would deny to the subjects or citizens of any country the full enjoyment of equal opportunity in the commerce and industry of China.

I take this opportunity to convey to you, sir, the assurances of my highest consideration.

(Signed) K. Ish11,
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Japan on Special

Mission.
Hon. Robert Lans1ng,
Secretary of State.

C. STATEMENT BY SECRETARY LANSING.

The announcement of the exchange of notes was accompanied by the following statement from the Secretary of State:

Viscount Ishii and the other Japanese commissioners who are now on their way back to their country have performed a service to the United States as well as to Japan which is of the highest value.

There had unquestionably been growing up between the peoples of the two countries a feeling of suspicion as to the motives inducing the activities of the other in the Far East, a feeling which, if unchecked, promised to develop a serious situation. Rumors and reports of improper intentions were increasing and were more and more believed. Legitimate commercial and industrial enterprises without ulterior motive were presumed to have political significance, with the result that opposition to those enterprises was aroused in the other country.

Sees German Intr1gue

The attitude of constraint and doubt thus created was fostered and encouraged by the campaign of falsehood, which for a long time had been adroitly and secretly carried on by Germans, whose Government, as a part of its foreign policy, desired especially to so alienate this country and Japan that it would be at the chosen time no difficult task to cause a rupture of their good relations. Unfortunately there were people in both countries, many of whom were entirely honest in their beliefs, who accepted every false rumor as true, and aided the German propaganda by declaring that their own Government should prepare for the conflict, PROPAGANDA OF YEARS UNDONE

which they asserted was inevitable, that the interest of the two nations in the Far East were hostile, and that every activity of the other country in the Pacific had a sinister purpose.

Susp1c1on Was Increas1ng

Fortunately this distrust was not so general in either the United States or Japan as to affect the friendly relations of the two Governments, but there is no doubt that the feeling of suspicion was increasing and the untrue reports were receiving more and more credence in spite of the earnest efforts which were made on both sides of the Pacific to counteract a movement which would jeopardize the ancient friendship of the two nations.

The visit of Viscount Ishii and his colleagues has accomplished a great change of opinion in this country. By frankly denouncing the evil influences which have been at work, by openly proclaiming that the policy of Japan is not one of aggression, and by declaring that there is no intention to take advantage commercially or industrially of the special relation to China created by geographical position, the representatives of Japan have cleared the diplomatic atmosphere of the suspicions which had been so carefully spread by our enemies and by misguided or overzealous people in both countries. In a few days the propaganda of years has been undone, and both nations are now able to see how near they came to being led into the trap which had been skillfully set for them.

Candor Shown By Isb11

Throughout the conferences which have taken place Viscount Ishii has shown a sincerity and candor which dispelled every doubt as to his purpose and brought the two Governments into an attitude of confidence toward each other which made it possible to discuss every question with frankness and cordiality. Approaching the subjects in such a spirit and with the mutual desire to remove every possible cause of controversy the negotiations were marked by a sincerity and good will which from the first insured their success.

The principal result of the negotiations was the mutual understanding which was reached as to the principles governing the policies of the two Governments in relation to China. This understanding is formally set forth in the notes exchanged and now made public. The statements in the notes require no explanation. They not only contain a reaffirmation of the "open-door" policy, but introduce a principle of noninterference with the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China, which, generally

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