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applied, is essential to perpetual international peace, as clearly declared by President Wilson, and which is the very foundation also of Pan Americanism as interpreted by this Government.

Further Purpose Accompl1shed

The removal of doubts and suspicions and the mutual declaration of the new doctrine as to the Far East would be enough to make the visit of the Japanese commission to the United States historic and memorable, but it accomplished a further purpose, which is of special interest to the world at this time, in expressing Japan's earnest desire to cooperate with this country in waging war against the German Government. The discussions, which covered the military, naval and economic activities to be employed with due regard to relative resources and ability, showed the same spirit of sincerity and candor which characterized the negotiations resulting in the exchange of notes.

At the present time it is inexpedient to make public the details of those conversations, but it may be said that this Government has been gratified by the assertions of Viscount Ishii and his colleagues that their Government desired to do their part in the suppression of Prussian militarism and were eager to co-operate in every practical way to that end. It might be added, however, that complete and satisfactory understandings upon the matter of naval co-operation in the Pacific for the purpose of attaining the common object against Germany and her allies have been reached between the representative of the Imperial Japanese Navy, who is attached to the special mission of Japan, and the representative of the United States Navy.

Ish11 Won Good W1ll Of All

It is only just to say that the success, which has attended the intercourse of the Japanese commission with American officials and with private persons as well, is due in large measure to the personality of Viscount Ishii, the head of the mission. The natural reserve and hesitation, which are not unusual in negotiations of a delicate nature, disappeared under the influence of his open friendliness, while his frankness won the confidence and good will of all. It is doubtful if a representative of a different temper could in so short a time have done as much as Viscount Ishii to place on a better and firmer basis the relations between the United States and Japan. Through him the American people have gained a new and higher conception of the reality of Japan's friendship for the United States which will be mutually beneficial in the future.

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Viscount Ishii will be remembered in this country as a statesman of high attainments, as a diplomat with a true vision of international affairs, and as a genuine and outspoken friend of America.

d. DECLARATION OF THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT CONCERNING NOTES EXCHANGED BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES.1

The Government of the United States and the Government of Japan have recently, in order to silence mischievous reports, effected an exchange of notes at Washington concerning their desires and intentions with regard to China. Copies of the said notes have been communicated to the Chinese Government by the Japanese minister at Peking, and the Chinese Government, in order to avoid misunderstanding, hastens to make the following declaration so as to make known the views of the Government.

The principle adopted by the Chinese Government toward the friendly nations has always been one of justice and equality, and consequently the rights enjoyed by the friendly nations derived from the treaties have been consistently respected, and so even with the special relations between countries created by the fact of territorial contiguity, it is on'y in so far as they have already been provided for in her existing treaties. Hereafter the Chinese Government will still adhere to the principle hitherto adopted, and hereby it is again declared that the Chinese Government will not allow herself to be bound by any agreement entered into by other nations.

Ch1nese Legat1on,

November 12, 1917.

2. Exchange Of Notes Between Japanese And Amer1can SecretaR1es For Fore1gn Affa1rs, May 6-7, I918.j

a. Baron Sh1mpe1 Goto To Secretary LAnSING.

Charged with the direction of foreign affairs in this ministry, owing to the regrettable illness and retirement of Viscount Motono, I need hardly assure you of as firm a determination as ever of this Government to promote and cement in every possible way the relations of mutual regard and confidence between our two nations, holding implicit faith in the final victory of our common cause, to which we are unalterably committed. I am indeed proud of the privilege that is afforded me of associating myself with you in the great task before us.

■ Official Bulletin, November 14, 1917.
■Official Bulletin, May 7, 1918.

b. SECRETARY LANSING TO BARON GOTO.

I have received with gratification your telegram of yesterday, which expresses so frankly the spirit of good will for this country and of devotion to the common cause to which we are pledged.

It is needless to assure your Excellency that your words of confidence and esteem are fully reciprocated by this Government. Candor and friendship in all our relations are our supreme wish and purpose; and we feel confident that, guided by this spirit, the United States and Japan will enjoy an even better understandings—if that is possible—than the understanding which to-day characterizes their intercourse.

I appreciate your words concerning our personal association, and I am highly honored in this relationship, looking forward as I do with confidence to a continuance of the cordial spirit of helpfulness which has been so manifest in these days of conflict when the bonds of mutual interest draw our countries so closely together.

Please accept my expressions of sincere esteem and of earnest desire to co-operate with you in vigorously and successfully resisting our common enemy who menaces the national safety of Japan as well as that of the United States.

RECENT WORKS ON JAPAN

Abbott, James Francis. Japanese Expansion and American Policies. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1016. viii p., 1 1., 267 p., diagr. 20 cm. The author believes in a policy of active co-operation between the two countries.

Blakeslee, George Hubbard, editor. Japan and Japanese-American Relations. New York, G. E. Stechertand Company, 1912. xi,348p. 24 cm. (Clark University Addresses.)

Twenty-two addresses delivered at Clark University by leading authorities on Japan.

Brinkley, Frank, and Kikuchi, Dairoku, Baron. A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era . . . with 150 illustrations engraved on wood by Japanese artists; half-tone plates and maps. New York, Encyclopaedia Britannica Co., 1915. xi, 784 p. 23 cm.

Best history of Japan in English.

Crow, Carl. Japan and America; a contrast. New York, Robert M. Mc-
Bride and Company, 1916. 4 p. 1., 316 p. 21^ cm.
A superficial study by an American journalist.

Dyer, Henry. Japan in World Politics; a study of international dynamics.
London, Blackie & Son, limited, 1909. xiii, 425 p. 23 cm.

Foster, John Watson. American Diplomacy in the Orient. Boston,
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1904. xiv p., 1 1., 498 p. 22>£cm.
Ablest treatment of the subject, by a former American secretary of state.

Gulick, Sidney Lewis. The American Japanese Problem; a study of the racial relations of the East and West. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. x, 349 p., front., plates, diagrs. 21 cm.

The author was for 27 years a missionary and teacher in Japan. Proposes a new American Oriental policy.

Hornbeck, Stanley Kuhl. Contemporary Politics in the Far East. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1916. xxi, [2], 466 p., fold. map. 22% cm.

A scholarly study of recent political developments.

The Imperial Japanese Mission, 1917. Washington, Carnegie Endownment for International Peace, 1918.

A record of the reception throughout the United States of the Special Mission headed by Viscount Ishii.

International Conciliation Pamphlet No. 124. The United States and Japan. Documents, addresses by Elihu Root and James L. Slayden, and an article by Professor Latourette.

Iyenaga, Toyokichi, editor. Japan's Real Attitude Toward America; a reply to Mr. George Bronson Rea's "Japan's Place in the Sun—the Menace to America." New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1916. viii p., 1 L, 94 p. 21y£ cm.

A critical study of some typical anti-Japanese propaganda.

"Japan to Aid Her Allies Against Germany," Outlook, March 13, 1918.

Jones, Jefferson. The Fall of Tsing-Tau, with a study of Japan's ambitions in China. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915. xvi1, [1], 214, [2 p.] ill. 21 cm.

A journalist's account of Japan's military effort.

Kawakami, Kiyoshi Karl. American-Japanese Relations; an inside view of

Japan's policies and purposes. New York, Fleming H. Revell Company,

1912. 3 p. 1., 9-370 p. 21Xcm. , Asia at the Door; a study of the Japanese question in continental United

States, Hawaii and Canada. . . . New York, Fleming H. Revell Company,

1914. 4 p. L, 7-269 p. 21>4cm. , Japan in World Politics. New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917,

zzvii p., 11., 300 p. 20 cm. , "Japan's Attitude Toward the War," Review of Reviews, February,

1918.

, "Russia and Japan," Review of Reviews, April, 1918.

, "Japan's Difficult Position," Yale Review, April, 1918.

The author was educated in America and, as the representative of several Japanese newspapers, has unusual opportunities for understanding the Japanese point of view. His books and articles serve to present the attitude of thoughtful Japanese toward contemporary problems.

Kinnosuke, Adachi, "Why Japan's Army will Not Fight in Europe," Asia, February, 1918.

Latourette, Kenneth Scott The Development of Japan. Published under
the auspices of the Japan Society. New York, The Macmillan Company,
1918. xi p., 1 1., 237 p., map. 2oyi cm.
One of the best brief histories of Japan—clear, scholarly, suggestive.

Longford, Joseph Henry. The Evolution of New Japan. New York, G. P.
Putnam's Sons, 1913. 4 p. 1., 166 p. ill., maps. 17 cm. (Half-title: The
Cambridge manuals of science and l1terature.)
A brief resume by a British consul and scholar.

McCormick, Frederick. The Menace of Japan. Boston, Little, Brown and
Company, 1917. vi p., 1 1., 372 p., fold. map. 21 cm.
Typical of the extreme anti-Japanese propaganda.

McLaren, Walter Wallace. A Political History of Japan During the Meiji Era, 1867-1912. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916. 380 p. 21>£ cm.

A detailed study. Very critical of the bureaucracy, but overlooks other potent forces.

Millard, Thomas Franklin. Our Eastern Question; America's contact with the Orient and the trend of relations with China and Japan. New York, The Century Company, 1916. 6 p. 1., 3-543 p. ill., maps. 21K cm. The author is an American journalist in China. Sympathetic treatment of Chinese problems, but critical of Japanese.

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