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the map will help in converting the sorely tried continent into a peacefully administered unit.

A final glance at the peoples dealt with in these pages as well as at their background shows evidence everywhere of a development Trend to Union towar^ union and harmony. We have seen races and Harmony effecting lodgment on European soil and mingling with one another to form peoples. These peoples throughout the long procession of centuries have been aspiring even when thwarted by their surroundings. Yet nature rarely thwarts. The spectacle of the assistance rendered by geography in the development of union among men is before us. None who follow this growth can fail to realize its significance. Nationality is but a stage in the unfolding of a grander human union which will absorb the whole world. The end is far—very far—from having been achieved. But the process is under way. The welding of races into a single one in which the best of each will be represented, the effacement of particular interests before the common weal, the conquests of natural barriers which tend to promote parochial individuality, are all goals of humanity. We stand on the threshold of a period in which the betterment of peoples will be facilitated by the accumulated toil of scholars. Results of scientific endeavor are available to-day for the fine adjustment of any political balance. Like the blossom on the tree they are the pledges of fruitfulness. A crying need for their application exists.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.1

A1tofp, D. Peuples et langues de la Russie. Ann. de Giogr., Vol. 15, 1909, pp. 92-5

An inquiry based on census data. Andre, L. See Bourgeois, E.

Andreades, Andre. The Near East and the European War. London, AngloHellenic League, 1916.

Presents the views of a Greek liberal (Venizelist).

Andree, R. Nationalitatsverhaltnisse und Sprachgrenze in Bohmen. Ver. Erdk., Leipzig, 1869, pp. 51-88.

A study of the extension of Bohemian language in relation to nationality.

Les Annales des nationalites. Bulletin de l'union des nationalites. Fondateurs:
J. Gabrys et Jean Pelissier. Paris [Imprimerie Chaix], 1911—. 25^ cm.
Contains important articles on subject peoples.

Annua1re International de Statistique, I: Etat de la Population (Europe). Office
Permanent de l'lnstitut International de Statistique. The Hague, 1916.
A standard publication on population statistics.

Auerbach, B. Les Races et les Nationalites en Autriche-Hongrie. Paris, 1898.
Explains the lack of political cohesion in Austria-Hungary.

, . La Germanisation de la Pologne Prussienne. La loi d'expropriation.

Rev. Politique et Parlementaire, Vol. 57, juillet 1908, pp. 109-125.
A revelation of German methods of assimilation in Poland.

Babelon, E. La grande Question d'Occident. Le Rhin dans I'histoire, Vols. 1 and 2, Paris, 1915.

Deals with the Rhine valley considered as a borderland.

Balkan Wars, Causes and Conduct of the, Report of the International Commis-
sion to inquire into the. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division
of Intercourse and Education, Publ. No. 4. Washington, 1914.
Shows, among others, that racial hatred prevails strongly in the Balkans.

Barker, J. Ell1s. The Foundations of Germany. London, 1916.
The transformation of Teutons into Germans is shown.

Batt1st1, C. II Trentino. Novara, 1915.
Summarizes Italy's claim to the region.

Beauvo1s, E. La nationalit£ du Slesvig. Paris, 1864.

The importance of the Danish elements in the population is indicated.

Becker, Jeron1mo. El medio geografico en la historia de Espana. Bol. Real. Soc. Geogr., Madrid, Vol. 58, 1916.

Shows the extent to which Spanish history has been affected by environment.

/ A more complete bibliography is carried in Mr. Dominian's " Frontiers of Language and Nationality in Europe."

BIBLIOGRAPHY 83

Benes, Edward. Bohemia's Case for Independence. London, Allen & Unwin, 1917.

A presentation of the foundations of Bohemian nationality.

Blanchard, R. La Flandre. Paris, 1906.
A thorough study of the region and its development.

Bunk, H. Nederland als tuinbouwland. Historisch en economisch-geographisch
beschreven. Tijdschr. xoor Econ. Geogr., Vol. 7, 1916, No. 6.
Deals mainly with economic features.

Block, M. L'lle de France (Les pays autours de Paris). Paris, 1913.
The historical center of French nationality is described.

Blondel, G. La demiire fitape. La paix qu'il nous faut. Marseilles, 1917.
Advocates the annexation of the Rhine valley.

Boas, Franz. Race and Nationality. New York, American Association for International Conciliation. (Special Bulletin, January, 1915.) 14 p. 1g}4 cm. A discussion of the function of race and nationality in international development.

Bonmar1age, A. La Russie d'Europe. Brussels, 1903.
Brief but comprehensive—deals mainly with economic life.

Boue, A. Ethnographische Karte des Osmanischen Reichs, 1: 3,800,000. Gotha, 1847 and 1855

Valuable as showing conditions immediately before the Crimean War.

Bourgeo1s, E., et Andre, L. Les sources de l'histoire de France XVIIn>e siecle
(1610-1715), Vol. 1. Geographie et histoire g£nerale. Paris, 1913.
Of utmost value to students of modern France.

Bouroo1ng, P. De. Les guerres d'idiome et de nationalit£. Paris, 1849.
Emphasis laid on linguistic divergence as a factor in international antagonism.

Bowley, A. L. The Nature and Purpose of the Measurement of Social Phenomena.
London, 1915.

Shows the trend in up-to-date methods of gaging human progress.
Brancoff, D. M. La Mac£doine et sa population Chr£tienne. Paris, 1905.

An excellent presentation of the Bulgarian viewpoint.
Br1ll1ant, O. Roumania. New York, 1915.

A work for the general reader.

Burchner, L. Die neue griechisch-albanische Grenze in Nordepirus. Pet. Mitt., Vol. 61, 1915, pp. 68-69.

Describes the boundary between Greece and Albania.

Cambr1dge Modem History. Vol. XI, The Growth of Nationalities. Cambridge, 1909.

Studies in the awakening and development of national spirit. This volume is one of a standard series.

Cavagnar1, Anton1o. D'un nuovo diritto degli individui e dei popoli. Padova,
Francesco Sacchetto, 1869. viii, 455 p., [1 p. 1.]. 19cm.
A legal study of individualism.

Chamberla1n, H. S. The Foundations of the XTXth Century. London, 1915.
Traces the historical events which have led to present-day international relations.

Chantre, E. Les Kurdes, esquisse historique et ethnographique. Bull. Soc.
Anthropol., Lyon, 1897.
Based chiefly 011 authropjlogical studies.

Charr1aut, H. La Belgique Moderne. Paris, 1910.

A clear picture of modern Belgium and of the social forces at work within the country.

Ch1ld, R. W. Potential Russia. New York, 1916.
Russia's undeveloped condition is exposed.

Choroszewsk1, W. Mapa jezykowa i wyznaniowa Galicji. Lemberg, 1911,
Statistical maps showing distribution of peoples and religions in Galicia.

Clerget, P. La Suisse au XXTM siecle. Paris, 1908.
One of the best descriptions of modern Switzerland.

Cromer, Earl. Political and Literary Essays. London, 1916.

Affords valuable insight into the causes of some of the political events in the Near East during recent times.

Cunn1ngham, W. Western Civilization in its Economic Aspects. Vols. 1 and 2. Cambridge, 1913.

A generalized account of the development of modem economic relations as affecting the growth of civilization.

Cdrzon, Lord. Frontiers—The Romanes Lecture. Oxford, 1907.

Specially valuable for remarks oncolonial frontiers.
Cv1nc, J. L'annexion de la Bosnie et la Question Serbe. Paris, 1909.

The scientific basis of Serbian nationality in Bosnia is shown.

Dascov1c1, N. La Question du Bosphore et des Dardanelles. Geneva, 1915. Deals with political and economic aspects of the problem and gives a sketch of the historical background.

De Lucch1, G. Trentino e Tirolo. Bull. No. 16, Ministerio d. Affari Esteri, Rome, 1915.

Modern methods of German penetration are revealed.

De Martonne, E. La Valachie. Paris, 1902.

A sound regional study taking in both the physical and human phase.

—, . Rcchcrches sur la Distribution geographique de la Population

en Valachie. Bull. Soc. Geogr. Rom., Vol. 23, 1902.

, . La Roumanie et son role dans l'Europe orientale. La Gcdgr.,

Vol. 3c, 1914-1915.

Both these articles supplement the previous work.

Destree, Jules. Belgium and the Principle of Nationality. Translated by H.
Clay. Foreign Series, No. 5, Council for the Study of International Relations.
A pamphlet containing much information and many useful generalizations.

D1amandy, V. Statistica comunelor romanesti din Turcia. Bull. Soc. Geogr.
Rom., Vol. 25, 1904, pp. 136-147.
Describes the Rumanian communities of northern Greece.

D1rLOMATE, Un. Essai sur le principe des nationalites. Paris, E. Plon et de., 1887. 239 p. 19>£ cm.

A discussion from the point of view of international politics.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 85

Drachma Nn, P. The Industrial Development and Commercial Policies of the
Three Scandinavian Countries. Oxford, 1915.
The modern economic status of Scandinavia is investigated.

Ensor, R. C. K. Belgium. New York, 1915.
Valuable for the 19th century history of Belgium.

Erdeljanovte, J. Broj Srba i Khrvata. Belgrade, 1911.
The unity of Serbians and Croats as a people is shown.

Errera, Paul. Notions modemes de l'fitat. Discours prononoS a la seance de
rentree des cours de l'Universit£ libre de Bruxelles le 12 Octobre 1908. Bruxelles,
fimile Bruylant, 1908. 29 p. 24 cm.
A clear discussion by a political scientist.

Eversley, Lord. The Partition of Poland. New York, 1915.
An account of the last years of Polish independence.

Fayle, C. Ernest. The Great Settlement. London, 191S.

An analysis of European history undertaken with a view of establishing the principles on which peaceful international intercourse may be established in Europe.

Fedortchouk, Y. Memorandum on the Ukrainian Question in its National
Aspect. London, 1914.
Sets forth the claims of Ukrainians.

Fernau, Hermann. The Coming Democracy. London, Constable, 1917.

The translation of a brief by a German liberal for the overthrow of the dynasty in his country as the only means of insuring the success of German democracy.

F1ore, Pasquale. Delle aggregazioni legittime secondo il Diritto internazionale. Torino, 1879.

A philosopico-legal study by an able Italian.

Forbes, Nev1ll. The Balkans. A History of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Rumania, Turkey. By Nevill Forbes, Arnold J. Toynbee, D. Mitrany, D. G. H> garlh. Oxford, 1915.

Essential topics in the history of Balkan nations.
Freeman, E. A. The Historical Geography of Europe. London, 1903.
Divides Europe into geographical groups and deals with the history of each.

Freshf1eld, D. W. The Southern Frontiers of Austria. Geogr. Journ., Dec., 1915.
Carefully describes the contested zone between Austria and Italy.

Fr1eder1chsen, Max. Die Grenzmarken des Europaischen Russlands. Hamburg, 1915.

A study from the German standpoint of Russia's northwestern provinces.
Gasparotto. II Principio di NazionalitA. Torino, 1898.

A scientific study.
Gassel1n, L. La Question du Schleswig-Holstein. Paris, 1009.

A historical account of German policy in these provinces since their annexation. Gayda, V. Modern Austria, Her Racial and Social Problems. New York, 1915.

Discloses fundamental incompatibilities among the elements of the population. Gjerset, K. History of the Norwegian People. New York, 1915.

A comprehensive history.

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