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Germany "reinsures" with Russia against Austria-Hungary . 190

France and Russia make friends 192

Alliance signed after naval fraternizing 195

Treaty relations between allied groups 197

Austro-Russian effort to keep Balkan peace 197

France and Italy compose Mediterranean rivalry 201

Anglo-Japanese Alliance takes form 202

Origin of the Entente Cordiale 204

Anglo-Russian convention respecting Asia 205

How the Triple Entente ripened 207

Effects of the Agadir crisis 208

Naval and military arrangements within the Entente .... 209

"Turns of the Italian waltz" 212

The world's oldest alliance 214

APPENDIX

A. The Tr1ple All1ance:

1. Treaty of alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany, October

7, 1879 , ;. 2«5

2. Main treaty of Triple Alliance, as revised in 1912 218

3. Protocol 221

4. Protocol _ 222

5. Military and naval conventions 223

6. Instructions of Count Guiccardini to the Duke of Avarna, December

15, 1909, handed by the latter to Count Aehrenthal on December

19, 1909 I 223a

7. Rumania and the Triple Alliance: Fourth treaty of Alliance, signed

at Bukharest, February 5, 1913 223b

8. Treaty of formal alliance between Germany and Turkey, August 2,

1914 223d

9. Treaty between Bulgaria and Germany, Austria-Hungary and Tur-

key, concluded at Sofia, July 17, 1915 223c

B. All1ances Opposed To The Central Powers:

I. Franco-Russian Alliance:

1. Exchange of letters, August 27, 1891:

a. Russian ambassador at Paris to French minister for foreign

affairs 224

b. French minister for foreign affairs to the Russian ambas-

sador 225a

c. Further understandings 225b

2. Military convention, August, 1892:

a. General Boisdeffre to the French minister of war, inclosing

project 225c

b. French minister for foreign affairs to the French ambassador

to Russia, August 27, 1892 225e

e. Report respecting interview with General Obruchev . . . 22sf

d. Russian minister for foreign affairs to the French ambas-

sador, December 27, 1893 22jf

e. French ambassador to Russia to Russian minister for foreign

affairs, January 4, 1894 225g

PAGE

The Monroe Doctr1ne After The War 253

By George Grafton W1lson,

Projessor of international law, Harvard University.

APPENDIX

I. The European Background Of The Monroe Doctr1ne:

Historical note on the principle of "legitimacy" 266

1. The Holy Alliance, September 26, 1815 269

2. Declaration of the five cabinets of Austria, France, Great Britain,

Prussia and Russia, signed at Aix-la-Chapelle, November 15, 1818, 271

3. The conferences of Troppau:

a. Circular of the Austrian, Prussian and Russian missions to foreign

courts, December 8, 1820, declaring their policy toward revolu-

tions 273

b. Circular dispatch to British missions at.foreijp courts, January 21,

1821, dissenting from foregoing and protest1ng its "principles" . 275

4. Declaration of the monarchs of Austria, Prussia and Russia at the

conclusion of the conference of Laibach, May 12, 1821, relative

to the suppression of revolutions in Italy 278

5. Final circular of the Congress of Verona, December 14, 1822, relating

the result of measures taken in Italy and declaring policy toward

the struggle for freedom in Greece, Spain and her American

colonies 281

6. Europe's attitude toward intervention on behalf of Spain in the

Latin-American revolution: Invasion of Spain by France; restora-

tion of the king; his circular note to Europe relative to aid in

Spanish America; Great Britain's dissent and its program in re-

lation to the origin of the Monroe doctrine 283

II. The Monroe Doctr1ne:

1. President Monroe's annual message, December 2, 1823 286

2. President Polk's annual message, December 2, 1845, declaring against

any future European colony or dominion in North America . . . 288

3. President Johnson's annual message, December 9, 1868, advocating

republican institutions in West Indies 289

4. President Grant's messages:

a. First annual message, December 6, 1869, declaring against the

transfer of American colonies from one European power to

another 290

b. Special message, May 31, 1870, repeating the foregoing .... 290

c. Special message, June 13, 1870, discussing effect of American

freedom from designs of conquest 290

d. Special message, April 5, 1871, declaring it the duty of the United

States to prevent North American territory becoming dependent

upon any European power 291

5. President Hayes' special message, March 8, 1880, declaring policy of

an Isthmian canal under American control 291

PACE

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