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as a mark of humiliation, and Cook took him by the hand from the lieutenant, and conversed with him.
“ The appearance of our parade both by water and on shore, though conducted with the utmost silence, and with as little ostentation as possible, had alarmed the towns on both sides of the bay, but particularly Kiverua, where the people were in complete order for an onset; otherwise it would have been a matter of surprise, that thongh Cook did not see twenty inen in passing through the town, yet before he had conversed ten minutes with Teraiobu, he was surrounded by three or four hundred people, and above half of them chiefs. Cook grew uneasy when he observed this, and was the more urgent in his persuasions with Teraiobu to go on board, and actually persuaded the old man to go at length, and led him within a rod or two of the shore ; but the just fears and conjectures of the chiefs at last interposed. They held the old man back, and one of the chiefs threatened Cook, when he attempted to make them quit Teraiobu. Some of the crowd now cried out, that Cook was going to take their king from them and kill him, and there was one in particular that advanced towards Cook in an attitude that alarmed one of the guard, who presented his bayonet and opposed him, acquainting Cook in the mean time of the danger of his situation, and that the Indians in a few minutes would attack him ; that he had overheard the man, whom he had just stopped from rushing in upon him, say that our boats which were out in the harbour had just killed his brother, and he would be revenged. Cook attended to what this man said, and desired him to show him the Indian, that had dared to attempt to combat with him, and as soon as he was pointed out Cook fired at him with a blank. The Indian, perceiving he received no damage from the fire, rushed from without the crowd a second time, and threatened any one that should oppose him. Cook, perceiving this, fired a ball, which entering the Indian's groin, he fell and was drawn off by the rest.
“Cook perceiving the people determined to oppose his designs, and that he should not succeed without further bloodshed, ordered the lieutenant of marines, Mr. Phillips, to withdraw his men and get them into the boats, which were then lying ready to receive them. This was effected by the sergeant, but the instant they began to retreat, Cook was hit with a stone, and perceiving the man who threw it, shot him dead. 'The officer in the boats observing the guard retreat, and hearing this third discharge, ordered the boats to fire. This occasioned the guard to face about and fire, and then the attack became general. Cook and Mr. Phillips were together a few paces in the rear of the guard, and, perceiving a general fire without orders, quitted Teraiobu, and ran to the shore to put a stop to it, but not being able to make themselves heard, and being close pressed upon by the chiefs, they joined the guard, who fired as they retreated. Cook, having at length reached the margin of the water, between the fire of the boats, waved with his hat for them to cease firing and come in ; and while he was doing this, a chief from behind stabbed him with one of our iron daggers, just under the shoulder-blade, and it passed quite through his body. Cook fell with his face in the water, and immediately expired. Mr. Phillips, not being able any longer to use his fusee, drew his sword, and engaging the chief whom he saw kill Cook, soon despatched him. His guard in the mean time were all killed but two, and they had plunged into the water, and were swimming to the boats. He stood thus for some time the butt of all their force, and being as complete in the use of his sword, as he was accomplished, his noble achievements struck the barbarians with awe; but being wounded, and growing faint from loss of blood and excessive action, he plunged into the sea with bis sword in his hand and swam to the boats; where, however, he was scarcely taken on board, before somebody saw one of the marines, that had swum from the shore, lying flat upon the bottom. Phillips, hearing this, ran aft, threw himself in after him, and brought him up with him to the surface of the water, and both were taken in.
“The boats had hitherto kept up a very hot fire, and, lying off without the reach of any weapon but stones, had received no damage, and, being fully at leisure to keep up an unremitted and uniform action, made great havoc among the Indians, particularly among the chiefs, who stood foremost in the crowd and were most exposed ; but whether it was from their bravery, or ignorance of the VOL. III. NO. 5.
real cause that deprived so many of them of life, that they made such a stand, may be questioned, since it is certain that they in general, if not universally, understood heretofore, that it was the fire only of our arms that destroyed them. This opinion seems to be strengthened by the circumstance of the large, thick inats, they were observed to wear, which were also constantly kept wet; and, furthermore, the Indian that Cook fired at with a blank discovered no fear, when he found his mat unburnt, saying in their language, when he showed it to the by-standers, that no fire had touched it. This may be supposed at least to have had some influence. It is, however, certain, whether from one or both these causes, that the numbers that fell made no apparent impression on those who survived ; they were immediately taken off, and had their places supplied in a constant succession.”
For two years after the return of the expedition to England, Ledyard remained in the British navy; but in what rank or quarter, his biographer could not ascertain. It is only known, says Mr. Sparks, that he refused to be attached to any of the squadrons sent to America, assigning as a reason, that he would not appear in arms against his native country. In 1782, he made his way home, and took lodgings at Southold, with his mother, who then kept a boarding house, and by whom he was not at first recognised, after an absence of eight years. The manner in which she discovered who he was, constitutes an affecting anecdote of maternal yearning. At Hartford, he was welcomed and harboured by an uncle and former guardian; and the nature of the singular being is illustrated by the following extract from one of his letters, written at this period :
“ You will be surprised to hear of my being at Hartford; I am surprised myself. I made my escape from the British at Huntington Bay. I am now at Mr. Seymour's, and as happy as need be. I have a little cash, two coats, three waistcoats, six pair of stockings, and half a dozen ruffled shirts. I am a violent whig and a violent tory. Many are my acquaintances. I eat and drink when I am asked, and visit when I am invited ; in short, I generally do as I am bid. All I want of my friends is friendship; possessed of that, I am happy."
A few months of this kind of happiness more than satisfied Ledyard. He became impatient of ease; conceived the plan of a voyage to the North Pacific Ocean; repaired to New York, but could obtain no coadjutors there; and, after being reduced to the most mortifying distress, by poverty, met, in Philadelphia, with the encouragement which he so anxiously sought for his new project. Robert Morris, the prince of liberal and sagacious mer: chants, instantly took, as he expresses it, "a noble hold of the enterprise;" engaged to contribute a ship and funds for its execution, and provided the sanguine projector with the means of comfortable subsistence until all preparations should be completed. Unexpected difficulties multiplied, however, so as to defeat the hopes and exertions of both, and Morris lost an opportunity of acquiring immense wealth, in a mercantile adventure, which, - when pursued by others several years after, verified, in its lucrative results, all the calculations of Ledyard,—the first, whether in Europe or America, to suggest a scheme of trade with the North West Coast. His views, observes Mr. Sparks, accorded exactly with those acted upon by the first adventurers, who were rewarded with extraordinary success.
Clinging still, enthusiastically, to his project, he determined to try his fortune with it abroad. Robert Morris replenished his purse, and enriched him with letters of introduction to eminent merchants in Europe, particularly in France. He selected Cadiz as his first port; spent upwards of a month there in the best social circles; wrote entertaining descriptions to his friends in America; and then suddenly quitted that scene for Brest and L'Orient. Some of the principal merchants of the latter city signed an agreement, by which they engaged to send him forth on his favourite expedition, in a vessel fully equipped for the new and arduous purpose. They actually provided a fine ship of four hundred tons; and Ledyard, after eight or nine months of buoyant hope and joyful diligence, was nearly at the summit of his wishes; when, from some difficulty with the government, the voyage was entirely abandoned by his patrons. Again cruelly baffled and left pennyless, he shaped his course to Paris, where, he supposed, a better fortune might await his ambition as an explorer. Mr. Jefferson happened to be then Minister from the United States at the Court of France. That illustrious patriot, with his habitual fondness for noble enterprise, animated the intelligent confidence, and relieved the immediate necessities, of his romantic countryman. Ledyard contracted, besides, an intimacy with Paul Jones, who seized the idea of an expedition to the North West Coast; and they concerted a scheme, which, when nearly matured, fell through, as that of the L’Orient merchants had done, chiefly by reason of miscalculation on the aid of the government. After other and very anxious efforts, he was forced to renounce the thought of any voyage by sea to the North West Coast, either for trade or discovery. Thus remaining in Paris, a mere wanderer, his purse, to which Jones had contributed advances, became empty; but he possessed in Mr. Jefferson, the Marquis Lafayette, Mr. Short, the American secretary of legation, and others, munificent friends, who appreciated his merits, sympathized in his disappointments, supplied his personal wants, and by their converse and countenance rendered his residence in the French capital highly advantageous and agreeable to him on the whole. He breathes the warmest gratitude to those friends, in the fragments of his letters from Paris, which Mr. Sparks has introduced.
His peculiar temperament did not suffer him to remain long satisfied with a life even such as he passed there. “As fate,” says his biographer,“ seemed to throw difficulties insurmountable in the way of a passage by sea, he bethought himself of the only expedient by which. a part of his original design might be carried
into execution; and that was, to travel by land through the northern regions of Europe and Asia, cross over Behring's Strait to the American continent, and pursue his route thence down the Coast, and to the interior, in such a manner as the exigencies of his condition might point out to him when on the spot.” Such an expedient could be adopted, only by a man whose bias for roving was the most decided and immutable, with a character generally the boldest and most sanguine. Yet we find him, at this time, representing himself, in one of his letters, as by nature “a voluptuous, pensive animal, intended for the tranquil scenes of domestic life, for ease and contemplation.” He contended that there was ever a great difference between the manner of life he had led, and that which he would have chosen. So much may we mistake our vocation ! Mr. Jefferson applauded his present design, and applied to the Empress of Russia, soliciting permission for Ledyard to pass through her dominions in the character of an American citizen. He was kept at Paris, in daily and fruitless expectation of an answer, for more than five months; and at the end of this term, accepted an invitation from London, to repair thither, and embark in an English ship, which was in readiness to sail for the Pacific Ocean, and of which the owners undertook to have him set on shore at any place on the North West Coast that he might choose. In six days he was in London. Sir James Hall, of Edinburgh, presented him with twenty guineas—to use Ledyard's phrase on the occasion--pro bono publico: Sir Joseph Banks and other distinguished men of science entered warmly into his plan, which was to land at Nootka Sound, and thence strike directly into the interior, and pursue his course, as fortune should guide him, to Virginia. Colonel Smith, then Secretary of the American legation in London, described him, in an official letter, in these terms:-.“ He is perfectly calculated for the attempt; robust and healthy, and has an immense passion to make discoveries which will benefit society, and insure him, agreeably to his own expression, a small degree of honesl fame."
He embarked, with no other equipment than two dogs, an Indian pipe, and a hatchet; he thought himself now secure of his object; but the vessel was not out of sight of land, before it was brought back by an order from the government; and the voyage was finally relinquished! This miscarriage might be deemed enough to have weighed upon his heart with invincible pressure; to have paralysed the energies of the stoutest spirit; but in a very short time after, Ledyard was prepared to “make the tour of the globe, from London east, on foot.” He called himself “the slave of fortune and the son of care,” remarking, how. ever, that “the near approach which he had so often made to each extreme of happiness and distress, had rendered him so hardy, that he could meet either with composure.” Sir Joseph Banks,
Dr. Hunter, Sir James Hall, and Colonel Smith, subscribed a small sum for his viaticum, and contributed also the most flattering letters of introduction. At Hamburg, to which city he immediately went, he unfortunately learned that an American major, whom he wished to enlist as the companion of his enterprise, had repaired to Copenhagen, and fallen there into the severest pecuniary embarrassments. Our enthusiast hastened to the Danish capital, in order to sacrifice his ten guineas for the relief of one whom, in fact, he had never seen, -to whom he owed no assistance. He travelled far aside from his direct route, and exposed himself to all the evils of a winter journey through Sweden and Finland. The major took his money; but, after they had passed an amicable fortnight together in Copenhagen, answered his wish of further companionship by saying,-“ No; I esteem you, but I can travel in the way I do with no man on earth.” The simple generosity of Ledyard submitted ; he drew a bill on his friend, Colonel Smith, for a small sum, and, in the depth of winter, “ set out for Tornea, alone, without friends, on a road almost unfrequented at that season, and with the certainty that he must travel northward six hundred miles, before he could turn his steps towards a milder climate, and then six or seven hundred more, in descending to St. Petersburgh, on the other side o the Gulf of Bothnia." He chose, too, a different direction from the common one, and passed far into the most unfrequented pars of Finland. Before the twentieth of March, he reached St. Petersburgh! that is, within seven weeks of the time of leaving Stockholm, making the average distance per week, which he travelled, about two hundred miles. No part of his Journal, during this dreadful tour, has been preserved ; and his sufferings can therefore only be conjeetured.
At St. Petersburgh, his letters procured him eminent acquaintance, among whom the learned Professor Pallas and Count de Ségur proyed his ehief patrons. After waiting there nearly three months, he obtained at length his passport for the prosecution of his journey to Siberia. Just at this time, a Scotch physician was going to the province of Kolyvan, in the employment of the Empress. Ledyard joined him, and thus had a companion for more than three thousand miles of his route. They passed through Moscow, Kazan, Tobolsk ; and our adyenturer remained a week at Barnaoul, the capital of Kolyvan, and the term of his companion's journey. The extracts from his journal and letters, written here, which are quoted in his biography, show that he continued firm and ardent in his original purpose. 6 My health,” said he, 46 is perfectly good ; but notwithstanding the vigour of my body, my mind keeps the start of me, and I anticipate my future fate svith the most lively ardour. Pity it is, that, in such a career, one should be subjected, like a horse, to the beggarly impedi