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sessed those distinguished powers of knowledge and reflection, which the early history of this wonderful country compels us to assign to its ruling race? Ought we not rather to draw our conclusions from the most prevalent forms, those which are most numerous and abundant in the oldest specimens? If, among a profusion of mummies and figures, bearing the stamp of the Caucasian model, a few should occur with a little dash of the negro character, may we not suppose the individuals who furnished the pattern of the latter, to have been, in Egypt, as they have been every where, slaves to the race of nobler formation?"
In the tomb of Psammis, discovered by Belzoni, there is a representation of a triumphal procession, which completely establishes Mr. Lawrence's opinion. The first in this group are four red men with white kirtles, followed by a hawkheaded divinity, and are Egyptians, returning home, it should seem, under the protection of their national deity. Next come three different sets of prisoners, Jews, Persians, and Ethiopians, whose national physiognomies and complexions are so accurately retained, that of the Jews, the Quarterly Review remarks, they might be taken for the “ portraits of those who, at this day, walk the streets of London.”
Denon states, of the female mummies, that their hair was long, and that the character of the head was mostly in beautiful style; the head of one woman was as beautiful as those of Michael Angelo's Sybylles.
The heads engraved in the great French work, “ Description de l’Egypte,” are in the finest European form.
The testimony of Cuvier on this point, quoted by our author, is worthy of all acceptation.
“ Now that we distinguish the several races by the bones of the head, and possess so many of the ancient Egyptian embalmed bodies, it is easy to prove, that whatever may have been the hue of their skin, they belonged to the saine race with ourselves, that their cranium and brain were equally volumi nous ; in a word, that they formed no exception to that cruel law, which seems to bave doomed to eternal inferiority, all the tribes of our species which are unfortunate enough to have a depressed and compressed cranium.
“I present the head of a nummy, that the academy may compare it to those of Europeans, Negroes, and Hottentots. It is detached from an entire skeleton, which I did not bring with me on account of its brittleness ; but its comparison has furnished the same results. I have examined in Paris, and in the various collections of Europe, more than fifty heads of mummies, and not one amongst them presented the characters of the Negro or Hottentot."'*
The literary merits of the present work, are highly respectable; which those much conversant with the writings of anatomists, know to be no common praise. It ranks far above the compiiations of White and Prichard, and may be considered as going far towards filling the void in the department of natural history, of which we complained in our prefatory remarks. The style, of which the following passage may serve as a specimen, is bold, nervous, and generally elegant, but disfigured by occasional vul garisms, which, though proper enough in the lecture room, are unfit for the public eye.
Mémoires du Museum d'Hist. Nat. t. 3. p. 173.
“ And here I take the opportunity of protesting in the strongest terms, in behalf of the interests of science, and of that free discussion, which is essential to its successful cultivation ; against the attempt to stifle impartial inquiry by an outcry of pernicious tendency ; and against perverting science and literature, which naturally tend to bring mankind acquainted with each other, to the antisocial purpose of inflaming and prolonging national prejudice and animosity. Letters have been called the tongue of the world ; and science may be regarded in the same light. They supply common objects of interest, in which the selfish unsocial feelings are not called into action, and thus they promote new friend. ships among nations. Through them, distant people become capable of conversing ; and losing, by degrees, the awkwardness of strangers, and the morose. ness of suspicion, they learn to know and understand each other. Science, the partisan of no country, but the beneficent patroness of all, has liberally opened a temple where all may meet. She never inquires about the country or sect of those who seek admission ; she never allots a higher or a lower place from ex. aggerated national claims, or unfounded national antipathies. Her influence on the mind, like that of the sun on the chilled earth, has long been preparing it for higher cultivation, and further improvement. The philosopher of one country should not see his enemy in the philosopher of another : he should take his seat in the temple of science, and ask not who sits beside him. The savage notion of a natural enemy, should be banished from this sanctuary, where all, from whatever quarter, should be regarded as of one great family ; and, being en. gaged in pursuits calculated to increase the sum of human happiness, should never exercise intolerance towards each other, nor assume that right of arraigning the motives and designs of others, which belongs only to the Being who can penetrate the recesses of the human heart.”
ART. III. - Private Journal of a voyage to the Pacific Ocean,
and residence at the Sandwich Islands, in the years 18221825. By C. S. STEWART, late Missionary at the Sandwich Islands. New-York : John P. Haven, 1828. pp. 406.
The widely diffused interest which the missionary exertion of the present day has excited, the respectability of the names engaged in its support, and the magnitude of the object to which it is directed, ars, we think, sufficient reasons for devoting, occasionally, a portion of our pages to its passing occurrences. Every one of the numerous sects, into which Christendom is divided, is, in some form or other, committed to its accomplishment; the learned and the ignorant are combining in its aid ; the rich and the poor are replenishing its treasuries; the object which it has in view has been distinctly announced ; the friends of missions have jointly and severally pledged themselves not to desist from their work, until paganism and idolatry shall have been banished from the earth, and every nation shall be universally illuminated with the light of revelation. It is claiming but little to say, that to the mere philosopher, the records of the success or failure of such an undertaking, must be as interesting, and as valuable, as the tariff question, or the poor laws; the South American mining companies, or the last new novel.
And, even aside from the consideration of what has been done, or what may yet be accomplished, the observer of human nature will behold much in the present state of the Christian world, with reference to this subject, well deserving an attentive consideration. A very little reading directed to it, will enable him to trace the outline of one of those revolutions in public opinion, which is merely the precursor of a wide spread transformation of the manners of the age. Every one knows, that the first step towards a revolution in empire, is the clear and unquestionable demonstration of some simple and elementary truth, or the presenting of such truth in language that shall place it within the intellectual grasp of every class of the community. When once this has been done, its progress among a nation of readers is irresistible. The new principle may appear at first, in the splendid quarto ; it soon finds its way into the stately octavo, and the humble duodecimo ; and, before the generation to whom it was first announced, has passed away, it may be found the motto of a newspaper, or the ornament of a sign post. It has become incorporated with the intellectual fibre of the age. It is a part of every man's fundamental belief. No man thinks of proving it; for, having been once distinctly seen, it is, ever after, self evident; and no one can deny it, without subjecting himself to the charge of idiocy.
But, moral truth has always an important bearing upon practice, and, when a new moral principle has been fully developed, it will be at once discovered, that much which has been done in a previous age, has been done wrongly. The inconsistency of the new belief, with the old practice, becomes every day more glaring. Some spirit, more venturous than the rest, begins to suggest the carrying out of this generally received truth into the business and affairs of the every day world. Or, perhaps, some incidental occurrence, as in the case of John Hampden, leads to the trial of the question, whether the nation will act upon the principles they believe, or upon those they have long since exploded. Then commences what is, in the ordinary language of historians, termed a revolution, that period which is distinguished by battles and sieges, or which is recorded in constitutions and acts of parliament. And, when once the practice has been so altered as to conform to the theory, then, and not till then, is the revolution terminated.
That a change of this sort cannot be effected without very considerable opposition, no one who is at all acquainted with the present imperfect condition of human nature, could ever presume to expect. Monarchs are not the only men whom fear of change perplexes. There is a strong tendency in all of us, rather “ to bear the ills we have, than fly to other that we know not of.” And, even if the change be evidently for the better, and the VOL. III. —NO. 6.
judgment be calmly and entirely completed, it requires a moral courage, not by any means universally possessed, to carry that judgment out into action.
“Between the acting of a dreadful thing
And the first motion, all the interim is
The nature of an insurrection.” Now, all that portion of a community, and it is always a large one, in this state of betweenity, will be more or less at variance with the class of prompt and efficient actors from principle. They are afraid of being decidedly committed ; they cry out, not so fast, gentlemen ; they will allow the thing ought to be done, but it is impossible to find out any way of doing it which does not seem to them exceedingly ill timed and imprudent. They are the Sir Oracles of a party, who are sure to be absent when any thing is to be done. After, however, success shall have been triumphant, they are by no means unwilling to be very familiar with the leaders, to nod and wink as if deeply in the secret, and to have it fully understood that all this is owing to the profoundness of their wisdom, and the shrewdness of their sagacity.
This is, however, all internal. There are, as must be supposed, very many who will be, from interest, or prejudice, or ignorance, opposed to any thing which shall vary a hair's breadth the present state of the social relations. Their habits, and offices, and distinctions, and pleasures, are the creatures of the forms that now are. A certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines for Diana, when on a former occasion he called together the workmen of like occupation, spake the language of all this part of the community, from the year of our Lord 60 to the end of time. 6 Sirs, ye know that by this craft we have our wealth. Moreover, ye see and hear that, not only at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned away much people, saying that there be no gods which be made with hands, so that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at nought, but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth.” The effect of such an appeal has been always irresistible. The argument which cannot be answered by logic, may be overborne by clamour. Defeat is provoking, and rage is vociferous. “ And, when they heard this, they were filled with wrath, and cried out, for the space of two hours, great is Diana of the Ephesians.”
But, magna est veritas et prevalebit. Opposition directs the minds of men to the question at issue. The paroxysm of rage itself, is succeeded by an interval of reflection, candid, not unfre
quently, in the very proportion of its former excess. And, above all, death, the mighty queller, speaks peace to the turbulence of passion, and palsies the struggles of interest. A generation of men very quickly passes away, but truth is like her author, immortal; another race succeeds, whose prejudices are less inveterate, or whose interest may be subserved by yielding to the changing times, and thus, a new bias is given to the destinies of man. Now, if we mistake not, very much of all this may
be observ. ed in the present state of the Christian world, when viewed in connexion with philanthropic effort. The principles on which the whole system of exertion is based, are very simple, and are not generally controverted. The command of the author of our religion is, thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. And he has taught us that he is our neighbour, whether fellow-citizen or stranger, whom it is in our power to render happier. This is the general principle ; but it is in the New Testament carried out into more minute specifications. We are commanded to give proof of our discipleship, by feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, visiting the sick and in prison, the widow, the fatherless and the afflicted, and in a word, to employ every talent which has been intrusted to us, in some way or other, for the benefit of our fellows of the human race. And still more, as it is evident, that by far the greater part of the misery of this life is the immediate effect of moral pravity, the religion of Jesus Christ commands us to carry its precepts to every son of man under the face of the whole heaven. And yet again, the religion of the New Testament, viewing men in general under subjection to those passions which must of necessity be incompatible with the happiness of a moral creature in any state of being, and declaring the present life to be the only period of probation, urges its disciples to make known the way of salvation as the only mean of securing the everlasting well-being of their fellow immortals. The command on this subject is authoritative. Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. And, lest this should be misunderstood, every page of revelation contains, expressly or by implication, an assurance that effort in this direction, shall in the end be successful, and that this world, at length reclaimed from its vices, shall yet become in all its habitations the abode of innocence and peace.
That such are the precepts of our religion, has never, we believe, been controverted. It has not, however, been the case, until lately, that general effort has been made to carry them into practice. The Moravians, if we remember aright, in the midst of poverty, persecution, and exile, about the middle of the last century, set the first example of this sort of benevolence, to the Protestant denominations, and while they were every where the friends of the friendless, devoted themselves with their charac