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east, and doubled the northern extremity of Nova Zembla. On this island, distressed by the weather, they were compelled to pass a “cold, comfortlesse, darke and dreadful winter,” in lat. 76o. The ship having been wrecked, in the spring they made two small boats of her remains, and having set sail, reached Lapland, at the distance of 1000 miles. During the voyage, Barentz and two of his companions died in the open boats.
In 1602, the English again sent out an expedition to make discoveries. Two "flie boats" under the command of Captain Waymouth, penetrated one hundred leagues into Hudson's Strait, but the crew having mutinied, he was obliged to return. Shortly after this, three voyages by Hall, and one by Knight, were performed, but without success. They both eventually lost their lives in an affair with the natives.
Numerous as had been the failures, a society of Merchants, in 1607, determined to send out Henry Hudson, a most skilful and experienced seaman. He sailed for the east coast of Greenland, which he made in 73° north latitude, and gave to this part of the coast the name of “Hold with Hope.” Pursuing his voyage to the north, he attained, it is said, the parallel of 82°, where meeting with much ice, he was compelled to return. In latitude 78°, he found warm weather, an open sea, and much drift-wood. A second voyage was made the following year, and a passage between Spitzbergen and Nova Zembla attempted. His third voyage was undertaken for the Dutch in 1609. In this
he first sailed to the eastward of North Cape, and then westward towards Newfoundland. Falling in with the Continent of America, he coasted it to the southward. On this occasion he discovered that noble river, since known by his name. His fourth and last voyage was made in the following year, from England, in the service of the Russian company of England, in a vessel of fifty-five tons. In this small hull he pushed through the strait, which now is called Hudson's Strait, but which he called Wolstenholme and Digges, and passed into the bay, or rather sea, at present known as Hudson's Bay. In the southern part of this, unprepared as he was, he determined to winter. Scantily supplied with provisions, they were fortunate in taking an immense quantity of white partridges, -about one hundred and twenty dozen. “ These left them at the spring, and other succeeded in their place, swan, goose, teale, ducke, all easie to take,” and “at the opening of the yeare there came to his ship's side, such abundance of all sorts of fish, that they might therewith have fraught themselves for their returne.” Soon after the ice permitted their recommencing operations, a mutiny, headed by a person by the name of Green, and whom Hudson had treated as his own child, broke out, fatally for this worthy commander, who was forced with his son and some others, into a small boat, with few provisions and
amid fields of ice. In this boat they must have perished, never having been heard of after. Green and three others of the mutineers, shortly afterwards, were overtaken with a just retribution, in being killed by some of the natives. The remainder of the crew returned home, in a miserable condition, having been compelled to live on sea weeds, fried with candle ends, &c. Humanity required that an effort should be made in favour of the deserted Hudson and his companions, and Sir Thomas Button was sent out in 1612, to search for the lost commander, as well as to make discoveries. Sir Thomas wintered at Nelson's river in 57°, where the Hudson's Bay Company have now their principal establishment. They suffered much here, from hunger and cold, notwithstanding it is said they killed 1800 dozen white partridges.
In the following spring he made extensive examinations round this bay. Near Digges’ Island, “hee found the comming in of the great and strong tide from the North-West, which feedes both these huge Bayes and leaves great assurance of nothing now left, but a little sayling to the North-West for the finding of that passage ; or reason to looke no further for it."
Soon after this period, several voyages took place, the results of which were unimportant. Gibbons, in 1614, went out in the Discovery, and soon returned, without effecting any thing; and, in the following year, Bylot, who had been with Hudson, Button, and Gibbons, accompanied by the celebrated Baffin as mate, attempted further discoveries in Hudson's Bay, but was not successful. In the following year, Bylot again set sail, and Baffin accompanied him, in the capacity of pilot. They were still in the Discovery, of fifty-five tons, this being her fifth voyage to these dangerous seas. Baffin, with great confidence, carried his little bark through Davis's Strait, as high as 78°. They found here an extensive sheet of water, to which they gave the name of Baffin's Bay; and, having coasted its northern boundary, they stood to the southward. During this investigation of the coast, they passed a Cape, which they called Cape Dudley Digges. They also passed Whale Sound and Sir Thomas Smith's Sound; the latter they reported to be choked up, not with ice, but whales. In 70°, he discovered Sir James Lancaster's Sound, since rendered so famous by the failure of Ross, and success of Parry. This voyage is one of the most remarkable in the history of navigation. Baffin's discoveries, until confirmed by Ross and Parry, after a lapse of two hundred years, were considered by most persons as fabulous. In latitude 70° 20', Baffin anchored in a “fair sound," where they remained two days, but could obtain no intercourse with the natives, who fled at their approach. This should not surprise an European; for the pledged faith of the strangers was frequently broken, and the natives carried off
orders of the English nation.” This paper is a return of the funds levied by parishes under the poor rate system for the year ending in March 1827. It is with grief, and is no slight alarm," the Editor finds the poor rate, during that year, amounted to nearly eight millions of pounds sterling; and this in the thirteenth year of peace; and that the increase since the preceding year, was seven hundred thousand pounds. Now all the travellers and journals of the United Kingdom” may combine their zeal and labours to calumniate this country, by picking up private scandal in ale-houses, and heaping ridicule and contempt upon our public character and institutions; on our President, Congress, Courts, and Elections, and we will rest the comparison of our national prosperity and happiness on the single fact above mentioned. To reproach us with the licentiousness of our elections and press, is really an effort of audacity we did not expect. What is so gross, so turbulent, so openly corrupt, as an English election ? Our “Congress candidates” have no such “serious ordeals to go through,” as peltings with mud and stones ; spitting in their faces, and compelling them to save their limbs and life, by flight and concealment.
The pious Reviewer deplores the state of religion in the United States, and our want of a National Church. We thank him for his concern, so far as it is sincere. We are, however, content, without such an establishment; we get along without it, pretty well, in this world, and hope we shall not feel the loss of it in the next. The persecuting and malignant animosities produced in Great Britain, by this ecclesiastical pre-eminence, offer no encouragement to us to adopt it. We even imagine, that the good will, equality, and harmony that subsist here, among the various sects of Christians, are a recommendation to the whole system, and present the character of our religion in its true purity and beauty.
The Reviewer surpasses all preceding effrontery, in asserting, that “the Court is as low as it possibly can be, and the Bar not much higher.” The refutation of this calumny, at large, would require more time than can now be given to it. An occasion may, and ought to be taken, in a review of Mr. Brougham's late speech on the administration of the law in England, to show how many of the evils and abuses complained of, have already received correction and amendment in the United States ; in part by our legislatures, but more by the Courts and Bar. There is not a Court on earth of more learning, intelligence, independence, purity, and industry, than the Supreme Court of the United States. The Superior Courts of the several states are also entitled to the highest respect; and the subordinate tribunals, generally, afford no ground of complaint. The volumes of Reports issued from our Courts, will altogether satisfy any lawyer, capable of appreciating them, of the ability of our Judges, and of our Bar; and we securely commit their reputation to their works. That some changes in the organization of the federal Courts might be beneficially made, as is suggested by Mr. Adams, is, we think, true; but they are required by the immense increase and extension of our population, and not from any opinion entertained by Mr. Adams, or by any body, that “the Bench is as low as it possibly can be," or that it needs any improvement in the character or qualification of the Judges. Nothing was ever more uncandid, or pitiful, than the indistinct reference to Mr. Adams's suggestion, as if it would support the accusation against our Courts.
We now take our leave of the Reviewer, without any feeling of hostility to him, or his country, beyond the fair limits of a warranted self-defence; which, we think, no American should ever surrender to the arrogance of an adversary, or decline, from diffidence or indifference. We have pleasure in repeating, that, on many subjects treated in this article, we find more liberality and intelligence ; more knowledge of the real condition of our country, than has ever before been exhibited in the “ London Quarterly."
Art. X.-Narrative of an attempt to reach the North Pole,
in boats fitted for the purpose, and attached to His Majesty's Ship Hecla, in the year 1827, under the command of Captain WILLIAM EDWARD PARRY, R. N., F. R. S., and honorary member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh. Illustrated by Plates and Charts. Published by authority of His Royal Highness, the Lord High Adiniral. London : 1 vol. 4to. pp. 229. 1828.
THERE has been no geographical problem more interesting, since that which led to the discovery of the continent we inhabit, than the discovery of a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, along the northern coast of America, or a passage over the pole.
Malte Brun justly asks, “Is not geography the sister and rival of history?” The importance of this branch of learning has been acknowledged in all ages, and so vigorously have discoveries been pushed, within the last three or four hundred years, that we are now left but with one point, if we except part of Africa, and the islands off the Antarctic Sea, whither to direct our attention. The great and rapid discoveries made in this science within sixty years, have contributed much to physical science. Expeditions to the polar regions, have added very many new objects in Natural History, and thrown much light on magnetism, which has been recently proved to be nearly allied to electricity. Important observations have also been made on various atmospheric phenomena.
The author we have just quoted, with truth says: “These voyages have expanded the bounds of geographical knowledge, added greatly to the resources of the whale fishery, and above all, they have thrown a new splendour over the nautical glories of Great Britain, and enhanced the dignity and value of human nature. They have proved that man, enlightened by the arts, is more than a match for the obstacles of nature, in her wildest ferocity.”
On entering into an investigation of discoveries to the North, we are naturally led to the consideration of the voyages made at an early period, which had the remotest relation to those which subsequently took place. The hardy and adventurous sailors of Scandinavia, a country now known under the names of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, first carried their researches to the northward. A pirate, of this nation, by the name of Naddodd, pursuing his profession, which was actually regarded as honourable among his countrymen, was, perhaps, the first who made discoveries within the Arctic Circle. In the 9th century, about 861, while in pursuit of plunder, he was driven, by continued storms from the east, upon an uninhabited coast, which, from the quantity of snow visible on its mountains, he called Schneelund, (Snowland.) Fourteen years afterwards, this country was visited by a Swede, named Flocke, who, it is said, carried out ravens with him, which, when he approached that part of the ocean where the island lies, he set at liberty, and by their flight, was directed in his course to the land. To this country he name of Iceland, which it has retained ever since that time. The Icelandic Chronicles mention, that wooden crosses, and some other pieces of workmanship, supposed to be British and Irish, were found there by the Norwegians, which, if true, would prove it to have been visited previously to 861. The activity and energy
of the settlers soon enabled them to carry their commerce to most parts of the north of Europe, and the island became celebrated for its learning; and the geography, as well as the history of the North, is much indebted to its writers.
Forster informs us, that about the middle, or near the end of the tenth century, Gunbiorn, a Colonist, discovered an extensive country to the west of Iceland, which was a few years afterwards visited by Eric Rauda, who had fled from justice in Norway, to Iceland. After spending part of three years in exploring it, he returned to Iceland, where he gave a most extravagant account of the country, and called it Greenland. Soon after