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nal atmosphere ; but on one or two occasions, in calm and warm weather, it rose as high as 60° to 66°, obliging us to throw off a part of our fur dress. After we had slept seven hours, the man appointed to boil the cocoa roused us, when it was ready, by the sound of a bugle, when we commenced our day in the manner before described. “Our allowance of provisions for each man per day, was as follows :Biscuit
10 ounces. Pemmican
99 Sweetened Cocoa Powder .
1 » to make 1 pint. Rum
1 gill. Tobacco
3 ounces per week. “Our fuel consisted entirely of spirits of wine, of which two pints formed our daily allowance, the cocoa being cooked in an iron boiler over a shallow iron lamp, with seven wicks; a simple apparatus, which answered our purpose remarkably well. We usually found one pint of the spirits of wine sufficient for preparing our breakfast, that is for heating twenty-eight pints of water, though it always commenced from the temperature of 32°. If the weather was calm and fair, this quantity of fuel brought it to the boiling point in about an hour and a quarter; but more generally the wicks begin to go out before it has reached 200°. This, however, made a very comfortable meal to persons situated as we were. Such, with very little variation, was our regular routine during the whole of this excursion.”
In this manner they advanced with the greatest labour, meeting frequently with obstacles and difficulties that could not have been anticipated. So early as the 26th June, they had experienced more rain than during the whole of seven previous summers taken together, though passed in latitudes from 70 to 15° lower than this. On the 4th of July he says
“ The rain had produced even a greater effect than the sun, in softening the snow. Lieutenant Ross and myself, in performing our pioneering duty, were frequently so beset in it, that sometimes, after trying in vain to extricate our legs, we were obliged to sit quietly down for a short time to rest ourselves, and then make another attempt ; and the men, in dragging the sledges, were often under the necessity of crawling upon all-fours, to make any progress at all. Nor would any kind of snow-shoes have been of the least service, but rather an incumbrance to us, for the surface was so irregular, that they would bave thrown us down at every step. We had hitherto made use of the Lapland shoes or kamoogas, for walking in, which are excellent for dry snow, but there being now so much water on the ice, we substituted the Esquimaux boots, which had been made in Greenland expressly for our use, and wbich are far superior to any other for this kind of travelling. Just before halting, at six, A. M., on the 5th, the ice at the margin of the floe broke, while the men were handing the provisions out of the boats ; and we narrowly escaped the loss of a bag of cocoa, which felloverboard, but fortunately rested on a 'tongue.' The bag being made of Mackintosh's water-proof canvass,* the cocoa did not suffer the slightest injury.”
The danger they were constantly in from the ice, may be imagined from the description of their crossing some of the floes.
“In crossing from mass to mass, several of which were separated about half the length of our sledges, the officers were stationed at the most difficult places, to see that no precaution was omitted, which could ensure the safety of the provisions. Only one individual was allowed to jump over at a time, or to stand near either margin, for fear of the weight being too great for it; and when three or four men had separately crossed, thic sledge was cautiously drawn up to the
* Made by a solution of caoutchouc placed between two pieces of canvass.
edge, and the word being given, the men suddenly ran away with the ropes, so as to allow no time for its falling in, if the ice should break. In one or two instances this day, we were obliged to have recourse to the still more hazardous expedient of ferrying all our provisions across a narrow pool of water upon a small piece of ice, the situation being such that our boats could not be thus made use of. Wherever the boats could possibly be hauled across with the provisions in them, we preferred this as a safer mode of proceeding; but this very precaution had nearly cost us dear to-day, for while we were thus dragging one of them along, the ice on which she rested began to sink, and then turned over on one side, almost upsetting the boat with the provisions in her. However, a number of the men jumped upon the ice, with great activity, in order to restore its balance, by their weight, and having cautiously unloaded and hauled her back, we got her over in another place. Having at length succeeded in reaching a small floe, we halted at half past six, A. M., much wearied by nearly eleven hours' exertion, by which we had only advanced three miles and a half in a N. N. W. direction."
The party frequently had the mortification of finding, after labouring for hours without intermission, that the currents from the north, had taken them as fast to the southward as they were able to travel to the northward, and thus like the ox labouring in the wheel, they found themselves, at the end of a fatiguing day's labour, just at the spot whence they set out in the morning. On the 26th July, in latitude 82° 40' 23", they were more than three miles to the southward of their last observation, at midnight on the 22d, after having used every effort to overcome the difficulties that presented themselves. It had now become too evident, that even the parallel of 83°, near to it as they were, could not be reached. Having pushed on to the northward for thirty-five days, and having expended half their resources, it became absolutely necessary to turn to the southward, which they did on the 27th, after a day's rest.
The highest latitude they reached, was about 7 o'clock on the 230 July, “ a little beyond 82° 45'." No bottom was found with a line of five hundred fathoms; the specific gravity of the water at that depth was 1.0340, being at the temperature of 37° when weighed. Six's thermometer failed to indicate the temperature at this depth, owing to the mercury rising past the index.
“At the extreme point of our journey, our distance from the llecla was only 172 miles in a S. 8° W. direction. To accomplish this distance we had traversed, by our reckoning, two hundred and ninety-two miles, of which about one hundred were performed by water, previously to our entering the ice. As we travelled by far the greater part of our distance on the ice, three, and not unfrequently five times over, we may safely multiply the length of the road by two and a half; so that our whole distance, on a very moderate calculation, amounted to five hundred and eighty geographical, or six hundred and sixty-eight statute miles, being nearly sufficient to bave reached the pole in a direct lino. Up to this period we had been particularly fortunate in the preservation of our health ; neither sickness nor casualties having occurred amongst us, with the exception of the trifling accidents already mentioned, a few bowel complaints which were soon removed by care, and some rather troublesome cases of chilblains, arising from our constant exposure to wet and cold.”
On the 11th August, they finally quitted the ice, having been on it for forty-eight days, and on the 12th landed on the rock,
gainst day, had olution. Doing at 5047
north of Table Island, where their provisions had been deposited. Captain Parry says, “I cannot describe the comfort we experienced in once more feeling a dry and solid footing.” On the 21st they arrived on board the Hecla, after an absence of sixtyone days, “ being received with that warmth and cordial wel. come, which can alone be felt and not described.” Proceeding on their voyage homeward, he arrived at the admiralty on the 29th September, where Captain Franklin, from nearly the opposite side of the globe, made his appearance the same day.
The incidents and observations of a few weeks travelling on the ice, cannot be various or many. We shall therefore take leave of Captain Parry, after selecting a few more facts well worthy of the reader's attention. It is a curious circumstance, as related before, that the sailors and many of the officers could not distinguish which part of the twenty-four hours was day, and which night, owing to the sun being at so nearly the same altitude during his daily revolution. The probability of mistaking midnight for midday, had been foreseen by our traveller, and he guarded against this misfortune, (for it would have been a serious one had they reached the higher latitudes) by causing a chronometer to be made with the hours running to twenty-four, that is, the hour hand made one revolution from meridian to meridian. “An error of twelve hours of time, would have carried us, when we intended to return, on a meridian opposite to, or 180° from the right one." The ice described as having been passed over on the 26th June, was of a very singular appearance and structure. It consisted of “numberless irregular needle-like crystals, placed vertically, and nearly close together.” The upper surface of this ice looked like “greenish velvet.” When compact, it resembled the most beautiful satin spar; when falling to pieces, it resembled asbestos. In latitude 82° 14', snow tinged with red colouring matter was observed in quantities; this we presume must have had the same origin as that described by Captain Ross. We can well believe that beings, living in this atmosphere, must be very rare, when our traveller says on the 16th July, “a mallemucke and a second Ross gull, and a couple of small flies, (to us an event of ridiculous importance) were found on the ice.”
The meteorological and other tables of this narrative are interesting and important. It is a remarkable fact, “that twenty times as much rain fell in the course of this one summer" as during any of those which Captain Parry had passed within the Arctic Circle.
ART. XI.-Précis Historique des Evénemens qui ont conduit
JOSEPH NAPOLEON sur le Trone d'Espagne, par ABEL Hugo.
POLEON on the Throne of Spain, by ABEL Hugo. Paris.
The circumstances of the emigration to this country of Napoleon Bonaparte's brother, who had possessed successively the crowns of Naples and Spain; of his long, contented, and munificent residence among us; and of the esteem conceived for him by all his American acquaintance, cannot fail to enter into our public annals, and awaken curiosity and reflection through a long tract of aftertime. By reason of Napoleon's renown, and the share which was assigned him in the administration of the concerns of the European continent, a considerable interest adheres to his personal character, past career, and present position.
sition. On these accounts our attention was particularly attracted to the volume designated above, and we infer that whatever may be deem-. ed authentic concerning the individual, in connexion with the history of the era, will be acceptable to the American world. Abel Hugo was originally in the train of Joseph, as a page,
and afterwards one of his staff in the Spanish campaigns. Though devoted servant of “ the principle of legitimacy and the august family of the Bourbons," he has not hesitated to publish at Paris the highest praise of his old master; and he exults, at the end of his Summary, in the weight which his tribute to justice and gratitude is likely to have from the notoriety of his loyal opinions, and his independence on the favour of him whose merits he commemorates. The lamented General Foy, in the second volume of his History of the War in the Peninsula under Napoleon, has borne similar evidence to the excellent private dispositions, generous and enlightened public intentions and acts, liberal attainments and salutary ends, which distinguished Joseph in all the vicissitudes of the Bonaparte family. In adopting him as the subject of an article, we think it well not to confine ourselves to the authentic and honourable narrative of M. Hugo, but rather to furnish, from materials which we regard as having the stamp of full knowledge and authority, a sketch of his political life in general, and especially his scheme and course of government in Naples and Spain, and his important agency during the final struggles of Napoleon in France. These latter topics possess signal historical consequence in themselves, and are recommended here by a digest of striking particulars, now for the first time brought together so as to warrant confidence in their accuracy.
Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Corte, in the island of Corsica, in the year 1768. His father being deputed to Paris by
VOL. III.--NO, 6.
the states of that province, carried him to the continent and placed him at the College of Autun in Burgundy, where he completed his course of studies with great distinction. His own predilections were in favour of a military life, but in obedience to the last wishes of his father, who died at Montpelier in the prime of life, he abandoned these views, and returned in 1785 to his native country, where he became in 1792 a member of the Departmental Administration under the presidency of the celebrated Paoli. When the English, availing themselves of the distractions and troubles of France, took possession of Corsica, Joseph retired to the continent, and in 1794 married one of the daughters of M. Clari, one of the richest capitalists of Marseilles.
At this time he united with his colleagues of the department, * some of whom had become members of the convention, in urgent entreaties for the supplies requisite to drive the English out of.the island, but their application was disregarded until 1796, and it was only after the occupation of Italy by the French army that their wishes were crowned with success. In that campaign Joseph accompanied his brother. Circumstances rendering General Bonaparte anxious to conclude a peace with the king of Sardinia, he dispatched him from Piedmont to demonstrate the necessity of this measure to the Directory.
Appointed minister plenipotentiary, and afterwards envoy extraordinary to the court of Rome, he entered directly on a negotiation with his Holiness Pope Pius VI. the object of which was to obtain the good offices of the pontiff in bringing the Vendeens to peace. And for that purpose his holiness engaged to employ all those means of authority and persuasion, with which the confidence of that people had invested the visible head of the catholio church. This treaty was in progress, and he had good reason to hope a successful issue to the negotiation, but the favourable dispositions of the Papal Court were counteracted by the intrigues of the Austrian party as well as hy the imprudence of the revolutionists, some of whom were shot by a battalion of the Roman soldiery in the court-yard of the French palace, where they had taken refuge. It is known that at Rome the residences of envoys of the great powers enjoy the privilege of sanctuary in common with most of the churches. In the present instance, however, this immunity was disregarded, and Duphot, one of the French generals, in the suite of the ambassador, was killed at his side whilst engaged in endeavouring to bring the two parties to reason.
• It is not true, as has been alleged in a work published at Paris, that he was secretary of the representative of the people, Saliceti, in the National Convention. That deputy, the only one from Corsica who voted for the death of the king, had been his colleague in the department of Corsica, as most of the other deputies of that department had at different periods been, all of whom voted in favour of the king.