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north of Table Island, where their provisions had been deposited. Captain Parry says, “I cannot describe the comfort we experienced in once more feeling a dry and solid footing.” On the 21st they arrived on board the Hecla, after an absence of sixtyone days, “being received with that warmth and cordial wel. come, which can alone be felt and not described.” Proceeding on their voyage homeward, he arrived at the admiralty on the 29th September, where Captain Franklin, from nearly the opposite side of the globe, made his appearance the same day.
The incidents and observations of a few weeks travelling on the ice, cannot be various or many. We shall therefore take leave of Captain Parry, after selecting a few more facts well worthy of the reader's attention. It is a curious circumstance, as related before, that the sailors and many of the officers could not distinguish which part of the twenty-four hours was day, and which night, owing to the sun being at so nearly the same altitude during his daily revolution. The probability of mistaking midnight for midday, had been foreseen by our traveller, and he guarded against this misfortune, (for it would have been a serious one had they reached the higher latitudes) by causing a chronometer to be made with the hours running to twenty-four, that is, the hour hand made one revolution from meridian to meridian. "An error of twelve hours of time, would have carried us, when we intended to return, on a meridian opposite to, or 180° from the right one.” The ice described as having been passed over on the 26th June, was of a very singular appearance and structure. It consisted of “numberless irregular needle-like crystals, placed vertically, and nearly close together.” The upper surface of this ice looked like “greenish velvet.” When compact, it resembled the most beautiful satin spar; when falling to pieces, it resembled asbestos. In latitude 82° 14', snow tinged with red colouring matter was observed in quantities; this we presume must have had the same origin as that described by Captain Ross. We can well believe that beings, living in this atmosphere, must be very rare, when our traveller says on the 16th July, “a mallemucke and a second Ross gull, and a couple of small flies, (to us an event of ridiculous importance) were found on the ice.”
The meteorological and other tables of this narrative are interesting and important. It is a remarkable fact, that twenty times as much rain fell in the course of this one summer" as during any of those which Captain Parry had passed within the Arctic Circle.
ART. XI.-Précis Historique des Evénemens qui ont conduit
JosEPH NAPOLEON sur le Trone d'Espagne, par ABEL HUGO. .
Paris. Historical Summary of the Events which placed Joseph NA
POLEON on the Throne of Spain, by ABEL Hugo. Paris.
The circumstances of the emigration to this country of Napoleon Bonaparte's brother, who had possessed successively the crowns of Naples and Spain; of his long, contented, and munificent residence among us; and of the esteem conceived for him by all his American acquaintance, cannot fail to enter into our public annals, and awaken curiosity and reflection through a long tract of aftertime. By reason of Napoleon's renown, and the share which was assigned him in the administration of the concerns of the European continent, a considerable interest adheres to his personal character, past career, and present position. On these accounts our attention was particularly attracted to the volume designated above, and we infer that whatever may be deemed authentic concerning the individual, in connexion with the history of the era, will be acceptable to the American world.
Abel Hugo was originally in the train of Joseph, as a page, and afterwards one of his staff in the Spanish campaigns. Though a devoted servant of “ the principle of legitimacy and the august family of the Bourbons," he has not hesitated to publish at Paris the highest praise of his old master; and he exults, at the end of his Summary, in the weight which his tribute to justice and gratitude is likely to have from the notoriety of his loyal opinions, and his independence on the favour of him whose merits he commemorates. The lamented General Foy, in the second volume of his History of the War in the Peninsula under Napoleon, has borne similar evidence to the excellent private dispositions, generous and enlightened public intentions and acts, liberal attainments and salutary ends, which distinguished Joseph in all the vicissitudes of the Bonaparte family. In adopting him as the subject of an article, we think it well not to confine ourselves to the authentic and honourable narrative of M. Hugo, but rather to furnish, from materials which we regard as having the stamp of full knowledge and authority, a sketch of his political life in general, and especially hisscheme and course of government in Naples and Spain, and his important agency during the final struggles of Napoleon in France. These latter topics possess signal historical consequence in themselves, and are recommended here by a digest of striking particulars, now for the first time brought together so as to warrant confidence in their accuracy.
Joseph Napoleon Bonaparte was born at Corte, in the island of Corsica, in the year 1768. His father being deputed to Paris by VOL. III.30. 6.
the states of that province, carried him to the continent and placed him at the College of Autun in Burgundy, where he completed his course of studies with great distinction. His own predilections were in favour of a military life, but in obedience to the last wishes of his father, who died at Montpelier in the prime of life, he abandoned these views, and returned in 1785 to his native country, where he became in 1792 a member of the Departmental Administration under the presidency of the celebrated Paoli. When the English, availing themselves of the distractions and troubles of France, took possession of Corsica, Joseph retired to the continent, and in 1794 married one of the daughters of M. Clari, one of the richest capitalists of Marseilles.
At this time he united with his colleagues of the department," some of whom had become members of the convention, in urgent entreaties for the supplies requisite to drive the English out of the island, but their application was disregarded until 1796, and it was only after the occupation of Italy by the French army that their wishes were crowned with success. In that campaign Joseph accompanied his brother. Circumstances rendering General Bonaparte anxious to conclude a peace with the king of Sardinia, he dispatched him from Piedmont to demonstrate the necessity of this measure to the Directory.
Appointed minister plenipotentiary, and afterwards envoy extraordinary to the court of Rome, he entered directly on a negotiation with his Holiness Pope Pius VI. the object of which was to obtain the good offices of the pontiff in bringing the Vendeens to peace. And for that purpose his holiness engaged to employ all those means of authority and persuasion, with which the confidence of that people had invested the visible head of the catholio church. This treaty was in progress, and he had good reason to hope a successful issue to the negotiation, but the favourable dispositions of the Papal Court were counteracted by the intrigues
Not receiving the satisfaction due to him for this outrage, the Minister withdrew and proceeded to Paris, where the government fully sanctioned his conduct, and offered him the embassy of Prussia. But Joseph had been recently named a member of the Council of Five Hundred, and he preferred showing his gratitude for the confidence of his fellow-citizens by entering the legislative body. He was there soon distinguished for sound sense and moderation. Upon one occasion, when, in a joint committee of the two councils, the Directory made an attack upon his brother, General Bonaparte, who was absent in Egypt, Joseph addressed the body with so much energy and conclusive argument that his accusers were confounded, and an unanimous yote obtained in his favour. A few days after this occurrence he was appointed secretary of the Council of Five Hundred.
Under the consulate, he was a member of the council of state. Being nominated with Messieurs Ræderer and De Fleurien to discuss and terminate the differences which existed between France and the United States of America, he was one of the negotiators of the treaty of the thirtieth of September, 1800, which was signed at his estate of Mortefontaine.
On the ninth of February, 1801, he signed, with the Count de Cobenzel, at Luneville, the treaty between France and Austria; and it has been remarked as a singular circumstance during that negotiation, that although Mantua had been left in the hands of the Austrians by virtue of an armistice agreed upon between the commanders in chief in Italy, a convention concluded at Luneville by the plenipotentiaries put the French arıny in possession of that important post.
The treaty of Amiens, which was signed on the twenty-fifth of March, 1802, was also conducted under his management and direction. The instructions of the British plenipotentiary required that each government should discharge the expenses of its own prisoners. A balance of several millions of francs appeared against France, and this circumstance threatened to arrest the progress of the negotiation, when Lord Cornwallis assured Joseph confidentially, that the question of a few millions should not prevent the conclusion of peace. But some days after, the British government had changed its views, and the plenipotentiary received orders to insist upon the payment
of this balance as a condition sine qua non. Lord Cornwallis, however, not choosing to be put to the blush before a man whose character and conduct had inspired him with esteem, openly declared that his word had been given, and should not be forfeited for the sum in dispute. Whilst engaged in diplomatic pursuits, Joseph was the first to suggest a plan of concert among the contracting parties, France, England, Spain, and Holland, for the suppression of that system of rapine and piracy, whereby, to the disgrace of the Great Powers of Christendom
the smaller states were annoyed by the corsairs of Barbary. This liberal project was communicated in a letter to his brother, then First Consul, by whom it was adopted. In the year 1803, he was created a senator, and member of the grand council of the legion of honour.
The concordat with the Court of Rome was signed by Joseph, by the Abbe Besnier, since Bishop of Orleans, and by the Minister of the Interior, Cretet; the Cardinals Caselli, Spina, and Gonsalvi, signed on behalf of the Holy See. By this important measure the peace of the Church was consolidated, the liberties and immunities of its Gallican branch were secured, and a fearful volcano which had been lighted up by fanaticism in the departments of the west was extinguished. Nearly at the same time the treaty of guarantee was signed with Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Bavaria, which recognized and confirmed the various political changes which had taken place in the Germanic empire. In this negotiation also, Joseph was invested with the full powers of France.
The camp at Boulogne was formed in 1804. Napoleon invited his brother to take part in that expedition. He accepted the command of the fourth regiment, and repaired to the camp, where he contributed his full share to the spirit of concord and union which so remarkably distinguished that large body of officers, whose opinions and prejudices upon most subjects were far from harmonious. But Joseph was now summoned to a more exalted sphere of action, and the residue of his public life was passed in the midst of those striking revolutions which so remarkably characterized the early part of the present century.
The senate and people of France, on calling Napoleon to the empire, declared Joseph and his children heirs of the throne, on failure of issue of Napoleon. In the same year, the crown of Lombardy was offered to him. Not choosing, however, to renounce the new political bonds which attached him to France, nor to enter into engagements which appeared to him to press hard upon Lombardy, he refused it. During the campaign of Austerlitz, he remained in the direction of affairs at Paris. A few days after that battle he received an order from the Emperor to proceed to Italy, and assume the command of the army destined to invade the kingdom of Naples, whose sovereigns had violated the treaty which bound them to France. The Neapolitan forces had been augmented by fourteen thousand Russian, and twelve thousand English auxiliaries. On the eighth of February, 1806, forty thousand French troops entered that kingdom. Joseph, at the head of the corps of the centre, arrived before Capua, which, after making a show of resistance, opened its gates. Eight thousand men were there made prisoners of war. The English and Russians effected their retreat, and king Ferdinand embarked for