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psalms, dividing themselves into two parts, and singing by turns.” But it was not general in the Western Church till the time of S. Gregory the Great. S. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, A.D. 374, was the first to undertake to give a fixed constitution to Church music. He introduced in his church at Milan a peculiar method of singing, which received the name of Cantus Ambrosianus. S. Augustine, of Hippo, speaks of the great happiness he experienced by hearing the Psalms sung there.
“How did I weep in Thy hymns and canticles, touched to the quick by the voices of Thy sweetattuned Church! The voices flowed into mine ears, and the truth distilled into my heart, whence the affections of my devotions overflowed, and tears ran down, and happy was I therein." (Aug. Conf. bk. ix. sec. 6.) And again, (bk. ix. sec. 7,) “Not long had the Church of Milan begun to use this kind of consolation and exhortation, the brethren zealously joining with harmony of voice and hearts. For it was a year, or not much more, that Justina, mother to the Emperor Valentinian, a child, persecuted Thy servant Ambrose, in favour of her heresy, to which she was seduced by the Arians. The devout people kept watch in the Church, ready to die with their Bishop Thy servant. There my mother, Thy handmaid, bearing a chief part of these anxieties and watchings, lived for prayer. We, yet unwarmed by the heat of Thy Spirit, still were stirred up by the sight of the amazed and disquieted city. Then it was first instituted that after the manner of the Eastern Churches, Hymns and Psalms should be sung, lest the people should wax faint through tediousness of sorrow. And from that day to this the custom is retained; divers, (yea, almost all,) Thy congregations throughout other parts of the world following herein."
The chant thus established by S. Ambrose, continued in use, with few alterations, till the time of Gregory I., who much improved Church music, and established a singing school in Rome,
which his biographer, John Diaconus, tells us subsisted 300 years after his death.
S. Augustine, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, appears to be the first who introduced choral service into the Church of England, and S. Gregory, who sent him into Britain, is said to have taken under his especial patronage the quires of the church of Canterbury, which he ever regarded as a child of his tenderest affection. We are told by Bede, that “James the Deacon," who was brought into Northumberland by Paulinus, the Roman Missionary, A.D. 633, was a “first-rate singer of church music, and instructed numbers in chanting after the manner of the Roman and Kentish Christians.”
Again, Bede informs us that from the time of Theodore, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury 668, “they began to learn in all the churches of England the method of chanting which had hitherto been known only in Kent." And with the exception of the James above-mentioned, the first singing-master of the Northumbrian churches was Æddi, surnamed Stephen, who had been invited out of Kent by Wilfrid, Archbishop of York, who was the first of the Bishops of English race to introduce the Catholic system of life into the Anglican churches. And in the same chapter of his history, Bede tells us of the ordination of Putta to the Bishopric of Rochester by Wilfrid, a person “especially well skilled in chanting the Church service after the method of the Romans, which he had learned from the disciples of Gregory.” Putta was afterwards driven from his see by the calamities of war, and retired contentedly to the charge of an obscure church in Mercia ; and then he used to go about wherever he was invited to give instructions in church music."
But the most distinguished musical teacher in England at this time, (according to Bede,) was John, Archchanter of the church of S. Peter at Rome, and Abbot of the Monastery of S. Martin, who was invited over to this country by Benedict Biscop, Abbot of Wearmouth, for the purpose especially of training a quire upon the Roman model at his monastery. This same John not only instructed the brethren of the monastery, but was in the highest request throughout the north of England as a quire-master, and it would appear to have been to him that our Church was chiefly indebted for the excellence of its psalmody, for previous to his arrival in this country the ecclesiastical music was somewhat deteriorated with profane additions.
Part-music was not generally introduced until after the Reformation. In the reign of James I. it was much cultivated, and continued to make good progress, until at length Haydn, Handel, Mendelssohn, and Mozart introduced their soul-stirring oratorios, giving a fresh impetus to choral services throughout the whole of Christendom.
“The chanting of the prayers,” says Dean Hook in his 'Church Dictionary,' “has always been observed in our principal cathedrals; and till recent times, it was universal in all those places within the Reformed Church of England where choral foundations existed, and therefore the disuse of this custom in any such establishments is a plain contradiction of the spirit of our Liturgy."
Of the vast strides made in the cultivation of ecclesiastical music during the last half century, when our Church roused from the long Protestant slumber in which she had sunk, awoke again to Catholic activity, I need not speak.
On the introduction of organs I have but to refer WINNIE to an admirable paper which appeared in your Magazine for March.-Yours, &c., R. S.
Sir,-Humphrey in his Treatise on the Book of Common Prayer, referring to the Te Deum says: “The method of singing this hymn was from very ancient times different from the mode in which the Psalms were recited. Boethius has given a specimen of the music to which it was set in his time-the end of the Queries.
fifth century. It cannot strictly be called a chant, but is rather a succession of chants, the first continuing down to ‘Also the Holy Ghost,' the second to • We believe that Thou,' &c., after which several changes are introduced. This irregular chant was the origin of those arrangements of the Canticles peculiar to the Church of England technically called Services, consisting of a series of varied airs, partly verse, partly chorus, to which the Canticles in all regular choirs are sung. The Canticles have been set to services' from the time of Edward VI.”
Pliny says it was the custom in his time to meet upon a fixed day before light and to sing a hymn. An ancient writer attributes the rise of chanting to S. Ignatius, who when he had heard the angels in heaven singing and answering one another in hymns to God, ordered that in the Church of Antioch, psalms of praise should be composed and set to music, &c.
The above practice was followed by the whole Church, and has obtained ever since.-Yours, &c. J. M. M.
BOOKS FOR FACTORY GIRLS. SIR, I would recommend BEATRIX to obtain " Tracts on Church Principles”' (Masters.) There is also an admirable little tale, entitled “The Strange Preacher” in the August number of the “Penny Post,” 1880, showing the errors of schism. I know not if it has been reprinted; it is a pity if it has not; it should be scattered broadcast.-Yours, &c., R. S.
NAME OF JESUS.
SIR,—The festival of the “Name of JESUS” appears to have been instituted in commemoration of the appearance of the Angel to S. Joseph in a dream announcing to him that the Child which should be born of his betrothed was conceived of the Holy Ghost, and that he should call His Name JESUS. The ancient Church set apart this day with the devout intention of animating the sensibility of converts by reference to the
name of the SAVIOUR of mankind, as crosses were formerly erected in Christian countries to commemorate the manner of His death. The dedication of the 7th of August was introduced into our Church calendar at the Reformation, from the Office Books of the Sarum use, expunging for that purpose the anniversary of S. Donatus, which was before held on that day. In the Roman Church the Feast of the Holy Name is now observed on the Second Sunday after the Epiphany.-Yours, &c., R. S.
SIR, -In answer to your correspondent WINNIE, I may say that the 7th of August was formerly dedicated to Afra, a courtesan of Crete, but how it came afterwards to be dedicated to the commemoration of the name " at which every knee should bow," no authorities on the Book of Common Prayer satisfactory explain.--Yours, &c., J. M. M.
[A correspondent advises WINNIE to obtain “Lives of the Saints,” published by the Church Printing Company. -Ed. C. C.]
SIR,-I beg to thank F. B., for so kindly answering my query in the number for August. I should be glad to know the price and publisher of the “Ritual Reason Why."
Will any one be good enough to tell me the price of the Rev. W. E. Scudamore's “ Words to take with us?”
Will some reader inform me what answer should be given to Dissenters who vindicate their separating from the Church because our Lordin answer to His disciples when they told Him of others who cast out devils in His Name, and yet followed Him not, said, “Whoso is not against us is for us ?”.
I should also like to know about the rules for admission to a London Sisterhood, and what are the chief duties, also what sum would be required on enter. ing ?-Yours, &c., HILDA.
MONTHLY MANUSCRIPT MAGAZINE.
BOOKS FOR LEARNERS.
Members wanted for a Monthly Manuscript Magazine. Address Miss WALTER, George Lane, Snaresbrook.
SIR,-Seeing no one has answered LEARNER's inquiry, I venture to mention Greene's “Shorter History of the English People” and Morell's ** Essentials of English Grammar," as useful text books. I have some free vacancies in classes conducted by correspondence, which have been very successful, if “ LEARNER" or others wishing to join will write for particulars to E. 0. 0. B., 6, Belgrave Villas, Lee, S. E. (Cam. Cert.)
C. H. R. begs to acknowledge, in answer to her appeal, a parcel of leftoff clothing from Miss H. Harrison Strayside, Harlow Road, Harrowgate; a parcel of books and tracts for library from Miss Walker, Elm Hall, Essex. Further contributions are most earnestly solicited.
Notices to Correspondents. J. H. S.-We could not spare sufficient space for the article you propose to write,-a brief letter occasionally is all we can insert.
Accepted : “He upbraided them ;" “ The Light of the World ;" “ S. Paul's Cathedral ;" “ Westminster Abbey."
BY THE AUTHOR OF "THE WYNNES ; OR MANY MEN, MANY MINDS,” “PHIL'S
“In the course of restoration two early Decorated windows of considerable beauty were brought to light ...one a trefoiled 'low side window.' . . . It is conjectured that 'low side windows' were used for confessional purposes; as we read in a letter from Beddyll to Lord Cromwell at the visitation made at the suppression of religious houses and chantries : 'We think it best that the place wher thes freres have been wont to here outwerd confession of all commers at certen times of the yere be walled up, and that use to be fordoen for ever.'”-HARVEY'S “ Stevington.”
“In that craving of the heart which gives the system of the Confessional its dangerous power, there is something far more profound than any sneer can fathom.” -F. W. ROBERTSON.
As Mr. Erle and Dulcibella neared the Rectory that evening something strange in the appearance of the house struck first Dulcibella, then her father. All the blinds were down. “Oh, I trust there has been no fresh telegram ! that Arthur has not lost his wife as well as child,” was Dulcibella's thought, her father's also ; although each kept silence, hoping the other had not shared the apprehension.
"Any fresh tidings, Sarah ?” was Mr. Erle's first question as they alighted
No, sir. Sir Charles and Lady Wollaston have been—but Miss Kathleen told me they knew nothing more."
“That was Miss Amy's order, sir; as soon as she came in and heard of poor-poor Mr. Arthur's loss.” What a favourite Arthur was, and ever would be, with all those in any way dependent on or inferior to him in position ; so courteous, so debonnaire had ever been his demeanour to them as well as to all others; nor did his deeds belie his words.
“I thought Miss Dulcie would have remembered it before she went out.” Sarah had already been in tears; but for master's sake ceased speaking to drive back their threatened return, and was soothed by Ducibella, as she passed her laying her hand in gentle kindness on her arm, and saying, “I am so glad Miss Amabel did think of it, and you do it.”
Still this dimming out of the sweet bright June evening light did much to silence even the young life in the house, and help them to realize the grief and loss of which this was but the faint outward presentment. Amy came out from the shadowed drawing-room, tall, fair, serene as ever, but full of a sweet true sympathy. For a time, at least, fully returned to the every-day family life of joys and sorrows, from which, since Captain Lawson's ship had been so unexpectedly ordered off two years ago, she had, if all unconsciously, held mentally aloof : and whilst outwardly pursuing her old daily rounds of duty and duties, yet lived in a world apart, in most unconscious selfishness; if also with a pathetic selflessness and non-expectation of sympathy from those around her, whom she would not for the world draw into the shadow of her own daily life of
and heart-starvation. Now she came forward gently, and kissed each in silence, already in a simple black dress, with white mourning frillings about it. And when Dulcibella went up stairs,—this kiss, these actions, of her once pet companion, inseparable sister having touched her to the heart, and made her feel “ If only Amy has come back to me, I can still bear all things,”— she found her own fellow dress laid out ready for her, its former creamy lace rufflings replaced in exactly the same way.
She heard the three girls go quietly down stairs when the bell rang, and, following them, found all the party waiting silently for her in the drawing-room; Freda sitting on the floor beside her father, her pretty head upon his knee, and his beautiful old hand-artist, musician, surgeon's hand, as you will,—laid tenderly upon her shoulder. But he removed it gently as Dulcibella entered, and saying, “Let me give you an arm, dear, you look fagged,” offered his arm to his "älteste" and led her to the dining-room.
It was half-past seven; the room looked east; some of the beautiful old yews on the Rectory lawn grew very near the large bow window at its end ; and now, with Venetian blinds drawn closely down, the room had seemed so dark that Sarah had at the last moment lighted the heavy silver candlesticks which seldom saw the light in summer