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ing, will-ing, etc. The Standard goes far- that we are doing no wrong by dividing ther and refuses to divide such words as "artist" on the t, although we make "expressive," "progressive," etc., on the “artistic”! thus: ar-tis-tic; and think it first s; at the same time it departs from proper to place the hyphen after the d the etymological rule adopted for the dis- in "defendant," "superintendant," and section of the word "active" by dividing words of that class, and in general to turn expensive, defensive, etc., on the n, run- over the endings ing, er, ish, and ed, rathning the sive over. To give one curious er than to make the turn-over begin with example of the lack of phonetic method the second letter of the preceding double in this new candidate for the printer's consonants, as in star-ting, twis-ter, rounfavor, let me cite the words formative and dish, etc. I think we have about exformation : the former it divides on the hausted the list right here, for while we m, the latter on the r. Perhaps no less turn over the "ily'' in heartily and seem remarkable is this contrast: serv-ile, ser- to sanction a few other terminations in vility; we are not surprised at Ser-vian violation of the rule, it will be generally and serv-ice. Evidently the effort of the if not always found that we do so because Standard compilers has been to make the the second letter of the double consonants division give a clue to the meaning of the is necessary in order to decide the sound word, as its two divisions of the word of the vowel—“ hear'' does not spell har former show: for-mer, before; form-er, until we add the t to it, consequently this one who forms. This last example ex- division is no violation of the rule, which hibits the rule in its best light; but when is only applicable, as I have already said, it is sought to apply it universally it when the two consonants are actually comes in frequent and deadly conflict with separated in sound, or can be so separated another and (to my thinking) more im- without marring the pronunciation of the portant rule, namely: Where a consonant word. The reason for turning over ing at the end of an accented syllable is fol- is obvious; words so ending are merely lowed by another consonant without nec- the participle forms of other words; not essarily forming one sound, let the hyphen only is mend-ing proper, but so are illuscome between, as in ar-mor, har-bor, nor- trat-ing, mat-ing, hom-ing, etc., though mal; according to the etymological rule of here again we come in conflict with the the Standard, both armor and normal Standard. As to the ending er,
this someshould be divided on the m, though as a times means one who does—as, reader, one matter of fact that authority divides both who reads; starter, one who starts; and on ther. Division between consonants is sometimes it does not, as in the word illustrated in hundreds of cases: Ar-tifice, "former," above alluded to as signifying bar-ter, car-pet, doc-tor, elec-tuary, fas- before; center, canter, master, are other tidious, glan-dular, hor-ticulture, inves- examples. For the sake of differentiation, titure, jus-ticiary, ker-chief, lis-ten, myr- then, when the er means one who does, it tle, nes-tle, os-tracize, par-ticle, etc., to should not carry the preceding letter of the end of the alphabet. 'The Standard the word with it in the division; if the e is not able altogether to resist the attrac- of the er is a part of the original word, as tion of this law; it occasionally sacrifices in 'meter," we should not divide at this etymology for the sake of it, as in the point at all. This is no concession to the words ar-mor and nor-mal above quoted, Standard's form-ative, which requires no and perhaps not quite so glaringly in differentiation from for-mation, as remoun-tain and foun-tain. Why does it
Why does it gards the meaning of the words. It is not make the practice uniform?
only where confusion is liable to arise There seems to be, however, necessary in the reader's mind that the division of exceptions to this rule. Many of us feel a word should have anything to do with
the meaning of the word. Of course the c or g with a soft sound comes at the er and est of comparative forms, as in end of a line, compels the reader to go "richer," "grandest," etc., go over un- over to the beginning of the next line accompanied by a consonant. But how before he can associate the proper sound are we to distinguish between “ish" and with the letter he sees before him; and “ive"? If we write “small-ish,” why this is, it seems to me, poor printing. may we not write "express-ive"? Sim- Electric- in the word "electricity" does ply because “ish” is a natural and com- not spell electris, but electrik, and it is plete termination, with a distinct meaning not electrikity we are trying to print, but which qualifies the preceding portion of electrisity. The same with relig- in the the word-a sort of compound-word-end- word “religious.” If we take the other ing-while “ive" is never the complete alternative and divide on the i, it may be termination; you will always find it “sive" objected that this depends for its short or or “tive,” even though the s or the long sound upon the letter that follows. has to be supplied, as in “extensive," Very true; therefore the good compositor “conservative," "explosive," "destruc- will divide the word somewhere else if he tive." We must pay some respect to the can conveniently do so—better turn over terminations, as well as to what is left in the "ty" or the "tricity,” the “ligious," the line above; and by keeping these in or possibly the “ous' as Stormonth does. mind, as tion, sion, ture, ing, ish, tive, But to come back to the Standard : it has size, ed, the rule to divide between double no deadly aversion to ending a line with consonants becomes pretty well clarified, a short i; it authorizes mali-cious, propiand it will be unnecessary to make so tious, etc., and for equally good reasons many pilgrimages to the dictionary to should authorize “reli-gious” and “elechelp us out of our tight places—this is tri-city." Whether in either of these all the more important as we find the dic- cases we choose the i or the consonant tionaries do not always help us out. that follows as the point of division, we
With regard to the words “artist,” compel the reader to suspend the pronun“absorbent," "defendant," "superinten- ciation of the word until he glances at dent,'' etc., I would apply the rule and the beginning of the next line.
But a divide on the r or the n. This is not in vowel is a flowing sound ; the speaker itself a matter of importance, however, simply lets it flow until the consonant but I think the best rules are those that shows up. A consonant, on the other have the fewest exceptions. The Stand- hand, is different : you can not begin to ard sanctions such divisions as practi-cal, say it without finishing—or, if you can politic-al, cervi-cal, methodic-al, radi-cal, allow some consonants to flow a little bit, medic-al. This is almost too fine for the hard c and hard g are not among the ordinary intelligent compositor. If any number; if you give them the sound rule were necessary in such cases, a sim- which they naturally have at the end of ple one to turn over the ending “cal” a word or the end of a line, and then find would produce just as good work as re- out that they ought to have the other sort to the Standard Dictionary, and in sound because of the vowel that follows, my opinion much better.
there is no redress but to repeat the word. There are certain letters, as
For this reason the short i should end the know, that depend for their sound upon line rather than a g or a c with a hard the vowels that follow : c and g at the sound. end of a word are always hard ; when The Standard Dictionary has many exfollowed by e or i they are sometimes cellences, but I do not think its method soft. Now, to divide a word so that a of dividing words is one of them.
THE CHILDS-DREXEL HOME QUESTION.
The Bright Side Presented-Suggestions to Aid Offered-Abandonment of the
Home Dismally Drawn.
BY ONE OF THE OLDER INMATES.
This is the way I long have sought, bazoo, the same shall not be tooted.” And mourned because I found it not. Let that be taken as an apology for what
-Old Hymn. Four years have come and gone since The coming meeting of the Internathe opening of the Home for the recep- tional will be looked forward to with tion of inmates, and today it is in suc- more than ordinary interest. The incessful operation, ministering to the wants terest manifested in the selection and of the afflicted and proving a “haven of election of delegates at all points is strong rest” to aged craftsmen. It is fulfilling evidence that the ensuing convention will the purposes for which it was founded in
have a larger attendance than usual. That an eminent degree, and in sheltering a our best thinkers and most eloquent oralarge number who are entirely incapaci- tors will be among the delegates present tated from earning a livelihood or who is evident. That the coming congress of are even without hope of health sufficient typographical statesmen will be a credit to enable them to provide the means of a to our organization is almost assured. meager existence, the Home, as a retreat, The subjects needing additional legislais a great blessing. The experiment of a tion will be many, and prominently will four years' trial has demonstrated that the be the question of the maintenance of the institution is not a failure in accomplish- Home. Many plans will be submitted, ing a great deal of good, while the ex- and out of many certainly one will be perience of the past has gone far toward found satisfactory and worthy of the supestablishing the feasibility of perpetuat port of the majority. If an assessment ing the Home in the future. But it is for Home purposes of 50 cents per year, not the purpose of this article to discuss less than one cent a week, should be made the beneficent features of the Home ques- on each member of the craft under Intertion. Our craft at large is well informed national jurisdiction, and to run for two on those points. Neither will it be nec- years, it would produce a fund sufficient essary to reproduce figures explanatory to build an annex and finish the upper of disbursements in the past, for that story of the building, with a good-sized would be merely a tautological tabulation reserve left in the treasury of the Home heretofore printed in the JOURNAL. The fund. This reserve, with the five cents object now is to arouse a sympathetic per month per capita as now collected off sentiment favorable to the providing of the membership, would provide amply for funds for the future. That is the ques- running the Home up to 1900. Close tion now open for discussion, and it is figuring on the assumption that the memone that will engage the attention of the bership does not fall below 20,000 in the membership from now until the meeting next two years, will sustain this proposiof the International convention next fall. tion. The building of the needed annex It may be said that the recipient of a and finishing of the upper story would bounty should not suggest the mode of provide comfortable accommodations for obtaining it, but that objecting argument one hundred inmates. Would the assessis easily met with the unique western re- ment of one cent, or a little less, per week, joinder of
he who tooteth not his own be too heavy a burden, in addition to the per capita tax now imposed? If this plan different purposes. The liberality of typoshould be presented and defeated, some graphical unions in extending aid to laother plan easier of enforcement will bor unions is well known, and at nearly probably be presented and adopted. The every monthly meeting, in one part of increase from five cents per month to the country or the other, a union votes seven and a half cents per month on or donates a sum to some worthy organithe membership might, possibly, provide zation struggling to maintain a scale of enough revenue, and that could be done wages. This is to be commended, not by taking two and a half cents per month deprecated, by no one who believes in off one of the other funds, without in- upholding labor objects. But the prescreasing the amount of per capita tax at ent depleted condition of the Home fund present collected, but it would not pro- would seem to call for a suspension for vide a sum of money to make any im- the time being, of such donations, and provements. Other plans will undoubt- "let charity begin at home.” The Home edly be brought forward, and hence these fund is low now, and it will take close suggestions are made to open the question figuring to make even on the receipts up to discussion.
and expenditures for Home purposes unHeretofore the revenues for sustaining til the meeting of the next convention. the Home have come from inside the In- It is more than probable that there will ternational organization. No outside help be a deficiency before October. It will has been solicited-no outside help has be “nip and tuck,” with the odds in been given. It is true that the generous favor of “tuck," i. e., an empty treasury. action of the noble Philadelphia philan- In that case the officers would have to thropists, George W. Childs and Anthony resort to a “borrowing from Peter to pay J. Drexel, in depositing the $10,000 nest Paul'' process, by taking from one Interegg, was the starting point toward found national fund a sufficient sum to square ing the Home, which was built and has the deficiency, and then rely on the next been successfully conducted for four years convention to indorse their action and with money raised through assessments sanction the transfer. To prevent such or per capita tax on the whole member- a dilemma is practicable, and hence, the ship. There may be some of our craft presentation of a proposition for considwho would not approve of receiving out- eration is admissible. There are inside side aid, but their objections will not hold, the International jurisdiction, 370 local for it must be conceded that a beneficent unions, big and little in membership. institution like the Home is worthy of Let the smallest unions in membership any contributions from those whose gen- vote or denote $5 each to the Home fund; erous impulses are governed by humani- the unions of the next class in membertarian motives. But this phase of the ship, $10; the next largest, $15; the next question need not be enlarged upon. So, class, $25 and the larger class $50 apiece let us look at something easier of solution to the fund. Some of the unions, possiand of immediate benefit, provided the bly, might not be in a financial condition proposition meets with fraternal favor. to respond, but an average of $10 for the Hear once again a needed call ;
370 local unions would turn into the From trembling hoary age;
Home treasury $3,700. That sum would In pleading tones the accents fall, place the Home finances in such shape Thy pity to engage.
that when the delegates assembled at “Let charity begin at home." In the Colorado Springs they would not be concourse of a year, the local unions, under fronted with inmates fed on economic the International jurisdiction, vote sums rations or an institution ready to go into of money for other organizations and for bankruptcy. This method of raising a
temporary and needed Home revenue
We'll rattle their bones over the stones; would not work a hardship on any local
Only paupers, whom nobody owns. union. It would be merely cutting off
It is not unkind to picture the pessidonations for other purposes and apply- mists thus, for that is the role they are ing such donations to the Home. In playing in. Having disposed of the inother words, it would simply be apply
mates, the disposal of the Home property ing the principle of “'letting charity be
would come next. The "white elephant,” gin at home” in a practical manner.
the “$75,000 prairie palace," the “monThis suggestion is not made as a begging
ument of misspent philanthropy," would emergency appeal. Far from it. It is be offered for sale, that a dividend might presented to the membership for conserv
be distributed among the surviving stockative consideration and because its adop- holders, i. e., the membership of the late tion would bring forth a substantial and International. If offered for sale as a needed result.
sanitarium, no purchaser could be found, Having presented a few suggestions
for it is not located in fashionable quarcovering the bright side of the Home ters, and capitalists do not invest in dead question, the black side should be drawn, property. The state of Colorado, being even if the result should be dismal. In
provided with public buildings of all doing so, however, the case will have kinds, and with revenues inadequate to to be painted hypothetically, in order to
support its present institutions, could not bring a speedy and final collapse of the
be induced to buy the premises, even for Home prominently in view. Suppose
a reformatory for bad boys. The county that the next meeting of the International
in which the Home is situated has hosUnion, at Colorado Springs, ends the or
pital and poor-house and would not offer ganization, and that petty organizations
a bid. No speculative investor would spring up out of the disrupted Interna
touch it, and no dividend on the original tional ? One might be the machine ope
investment would be forthcoming. It rators, another the book and job printers,
would stand on the prairie knob abanwhile a third, independent of the larger doned, and the upper stories would fill up city organizations, might dub its order
with spiders, scorpions and cockroaches, "the country compositors'' or "hand type
while the basement would become the renstickers.” The disruption of the parent
dezvous of scampering prairie dogs and organization having been accomplished, long-tailed mountain rats. Then there and each branch "going it alone,” the
would settle around the edifice a glamour Home question would be settled, for the
of gloom, so dense, so impenetrable, that small organizations, jealous and antago
the bright noon-day rays of God's sun nistic in interests, could not be brought
would not penetrate it, and a cold would together in support of the Home, and for
creep over the deserted structure so inlack of " proper support and nutritious
tense that an avalanche of ice from the nourishment” the establishment would be
north pole would feel warm in compariclosed. The first act in the closing scene
son. Then, methinks, some faithful folwould be the disposition of its dependent lower of Faust, some devoted disciple of inmates. This is a wicked old world, and
Ben Franklin, would steal his way up to there is a great deal of “man's inhuman
the summit of the south tower and plant ity to man” in it. To shut up the Home
thereon a plate, with a raised inscription would delight a few pessimistic growlers, reading
“Erected by-and deserted by-the great International who have been malevolently opposing it
Typographical Union of North America." from the start, and in scattering the in- Your correspondent will come no more. mates, here and there, to await the time He has accomplished his mission, and the of dissolution, that class could shout with role that knew him once will know him ghoulish glee