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No. 2.


An Outline of What to Do and How to Do It if One Would Hope for the Joy of Success

in this Fascinating Occupation.


to book work proper I six-to-pica lead and no more; a long have had but limited ex- primer with not more than two leads, perience; hence can not while a pica may be given three leads, edify others. But with ar- provided the measure is long and the tistic pamphlet work (so margin large. Again, in a long measure,

called), itineraries, leaf- say forty ems pica or over, nonpareil and lets, souvenirs, etc., I am somewhat at brevier should be set in double column, home, and would be glad to see others while pica and long primer should be set so. I believe there is nothing more sat- clear across. If long primer is used and isfying to the job printing mind than double column is wanted, single lead. the consciousness of having turned out Pica never looks well in a short measure a good piece of such work, and to those double or triple leaded. It is much better who have yet to become familiar with to let your final page run short, gracing it, I can promise a fascinating occu- it with an appropriate tail-piece, than to pation. It is unlike job work only in diffuse the type through all pages in an that it is on a more comprehensive scale; unreadable mass. Frequently, too, opporotherwise it requires all the tact and taste tunity occurs at intervals throughout the of good job work. And when, as is fre- book for such graceful breaks. Paraquently the case, the work is in two or graphing may be resorted to with good more colors, and includes some ad work, advantage either in short or long column, the opportunity to do good work embraces but pica matter, double or triple leaded,

needs so much more between paragraphs Much depends, of course, on the body that the effect of compactness is lost. In type in such work and the way it is han- nonpareil or brevier, single leaded, two dled. Observation has taught me that additional leads between paragraphs fretwo extremes should be guarded against, quently greatly help the job. The cusnamely, overcrowding, and excessive del- tom is useful also when a given number icacy. A page of matter should have of pages should be covered and the matter sufficient body to give a restful appear- runs too short. ance, and this result can not be attained In the matter of initials, the range of by too much leading or by too much such useful and ornamental material is crowding. Running the range of type so large that no rule can be set down as sizes, I should say a good rule to follow what will invariably look best. I have is to lead nonpareil and brevier with a noticed, however, that a filled-in initial

every field.

is frequently too prominent on a small running over to accommodate cuts as he page, even when the initial itself is not makes up. Certainly, unless very cerlarge; on the other hand a large fine fila- tain that he has the job well in hand and gree initial on a large page is satisfactory is quite sure of his calculations, running if the head matter is not obscured thereby. over is the cheaper mode in the end, yet,

Such work usually having the folio at to the printer who accurately forecasts the bottom, it should be carefully figured an intricate system of cut work, pages in on in the make-up of the pages.

In a advance, the joy of success is great. It long-measure page, or a long double-col- is something like the satisfaction felt by umn measure, it should stand about a the hunter who aims into the distance pica lower than the last line, and when and don't miss his game. printed should not be taken into account In no class of printing does a good proof in the margin. Hence in making up pay as well as in pamphlet or booklet your pages proportionately more should work. I have followed the rule for years be given to the top slug than the bottom of sending but the best obtainable stone and as no book form should ever be put proof, taking all pages on a uniform size in chase before being made up accurately paper, preferably light linen. On such on the galley, this is easy to supply. paper the proof, if taken wet, will print

Pamphlet work of this class, while dis- clear, and cuts will look much lighter tinct both from book and job work, is, and clearer than if a heavy coated paper nevertheless, properly job work in that it is used.

is used. Color proofs, too, can be taken is usually done by job men. The frequent without more than a very small additionad work in it together with the more or al time, the body being rolled while the less liberal display heads, etc., makes it a display, initials, etc., can be rolled with branch of job work peculiarly fitted to the digit, as I have described in the preemploy the best ability of the tasty job ceding paper on job work. printer. Such work is usually performed A word as to ad work.

Good typesetunder the supervision of one man, while ting varies; many printers have many others are delegated to assist him. He styles, but it should be the aim of the will find his time fully occupied in fur- man in charge to secure a uniformity of nishing the heads to the straight matter style if possible. To do this, it is not set by his colleagues, and it is eminently necessary for him to arbitrarily say this advisable that he set them all himself. or that shall or shall not be used, but Uniformity of style and type in his heads simply to see that the central idea of style need not act as a check to his originality shall be followed. In souvenir work, for if he possess any; on the other hand noth- instance, the panegyric on the particular ing looks more unsatisfactory than a book- occasion is usually followed, sometimes let with a range of head styles reaching alternated, with ad pages. Now, if the from Gutenberg to the present day. gentleman in charge will lay down the

This class of work, as a rule, is inter- rule to his assistants that straight lines spersed with cuts, and when this is the are the desired style, the book's ad pages case, the printer who runs the job is a will likely present a more uniform excelmean fellow indeed if he complains of lence than if every man is allowed to go lack of opportunity to do himself justice. as he pleases. If group work is desired, In a booklet of some size, having a dozen with a liberal splashing of grotesqueries, or more cuts, his ingenuity will be taxed let it be so understood, and if the artistic to the utmost to prevent overrunning. aspirations of the compositor in charge Perhaps, in view of the almost certainty will not be satisfied with anything less of eventually doing so, it would be better than rule twisting, with all its time-eatto set all matter to full measure first, ing concomitants, it should be clearly understood, as also whether the man who the trade have the same tastes. What pays for the job is willing-to pay. This in the hands of any one man of excellent latter point is very important--to the pro- taste might become a beautiful whole, prietor—and unless the rule twisters are under the erratic manipulation of three of one mind and one soul (artistic) the or four becomes a weird tangle of twisted result is more apt to be a nightmare than rule, without rhyme or reason, looking a thing of beauty. The reason for this like nothing so much as a system of teleis perfectly obvious when it is remem- graph wires struck by a cyclone. bered that no two out of ten artists at St. Louis, Mo.


Underlying and Fundamental Principles for the Intelligent Comprehension of the Good

Intentioned Labor Legislators.


That it requires something more than the defrauding of the workers, and in the good intentions to legislate intelligently hands of scoundrels only become the most in the interests of labor is abundantly efficient means for defrauding them. proved by a glance at the history of labor Labor shouts for protection, and gets it legislation. I'ntil voters and legislators —the same protection we accord to a cow, grasp the scientific formula that like and for about the same purpose. Antiforces acting on like units produce like trust laws are passed-with what effect? effects: like forces acting on unlike uits As to labor organizations, ought not produce unlike effects; unlike forces act- the favor with which such bodies are reing on unlike units produce such an in- garded by certain of the more intelligent finite variety of effects that no man can among the great employers of labor show trace them," such legislation is vain. that monopoly has little or nothing to Labor legislation can never be successful fear from them? Such organizations until directed by an intelligent compre- might be made a power for good to labor, hension of the underlying and funda- but so long as they are conducted on their mental principles of political economy, for present lines aggregated capital can afford the laws of the universe are fixed, un- to be patronizing changeable, immutable.

If happiness is the object of human exThe statute books of our states and of istence there must be a way to attain that the nation are burdened with acts and object, a way that is ethically right. Man amendments to acts passed avowedly in can find happiness only in the proper exthe interest of labor, but the average con- ercise of all his faculties, and he can only dition of labor grow's worse. Factory exercise his faculties when he has freedom laws are passed for the protection of em- to do so. If all men are to have freedom ployes, only to be a dead letter; or, if for the exercise of their faculties, there enforced, to be in some instances such a must be the limitation of equal freedom; charge on the employer as to decrease his no man must have more freedom than his ability to pay wages in competition with fellows, for that would be unequal freeother employers less scrupulous. Me- dom. The conditions of happiness, then, chanic's lien laws are passed to prevent are that all men must have equal freedom

to pursue the objects of their desires. But on no one's freedom in so doing, and that all the so-called labor legislation that I to prevent him from so doing is to deknow anything about consists of acts and cidedly infringe on his freedom. Tariffs, amendments to acts restricting men in the being wrong in morals, must work evil, pursuit of their desires-equal repression for like causes produce like effects. having evidently been mistaken for equal Equal freedom condemns the taxation freedom.

of rightful individual property. When a So long as men continue to strive for man has built a house, or a bicycle, or the objects of their desires along the lines made himself a pair of boots, or purof least resistance, so long will the exist- chased these things with the products of ing class of labor legislation be worse his labor, they belong to him alone. The than useless.

state has no shadow of right to them or Men have a right to equal freedom, to any part of them. Especially is this and any measure impairing that right is true when we see that the state has an wrong, and, being wrong, will work evil ample revenue in the rental of the cominstead of good; for like forces produce mon property of all—the land. like effects.

Only by obeying the law of equal freeIf men have a right to equal freedom, dom can the true rights of all men be oblet us see what it involves. The right of tained. When the rights of man are sethe individual to freedom abrogates the cured, a reasonable inference is that there right of the state to interfere with that will be no wrongs to be redressed, and freedom. The right of the state extends mankind will have a chance for developno farther than to preserve equity-to ment that they have never had before, see that no individual oppresses or inter- and will refute the slander that human feres with the freedom of any other in- nature is essentially evil. dividual. The law of equal freedom con- "We honor liberty in name and form. demns the ownership of the planet by in- We set up her statues and sound her dividuals, for if part of the earth can be praises. But we have not fully trusted owned it all can be, and those so unfortu- her. And with our growth so grow her nate as to own none of it have no rights demands. She will have no half service. in it-a condition we can not conceive of. Liberty! It is a word to conjure with, Exclusive occupation of any part of the not to vex the ear in empty boastings. planet can only be reconciled with equity For liberty means justice, and justice is by the rendering of an equivalent value to the natural law—the law of health, and those excluded.

symmetry, and strength, of fraternity and Equal freedom condemns the regula- co-operation. Only in broken gleams and tion of trade by governmental tariffs. partial light has the sun of liberty yet The right of the individual to trade where beamed among men, but all progress he will is sacred, seeing that he infringes hath she called forth."

Thouglı we break our father's promise, we have nobler duties first,
The traitor to humanity is the traitor most accursed;
Man is more than constitutions; better rot beneath the sod,
Than be true to church and state while we are doubly false to God.

We owe allegiance to the state, but deeper, truer, more,
To the sympathies that God has set within our spirit's core;
Our country claims our fealty; we grant it so, but then
Before mau made us citizens, great nature made us men.

- Lowell.


The Difference Between Out-of-Work Benefits and Those for Sick Relief-Reduction

of Scale No Remedy.


How to provide for the unemployed is idle machinery. An effort is to be made a leading question with the typographical to remedy this injustice, still there must unions of today. Some people believe that always be considerable transient work. it can be done by reducing the scale, but There are offices printing law briefs and these would probably be both surprised abstracts, for instance, in which but few and disappointed at the results should find steady work, while there will be octheir wishes prevail. The employers who casional periods when all they can find claim that they could put so many more room for have to work overtime. For men at work if the scale was lower would that reason the introduction of machinery, find that their competitors kept pace with by giving more certain employment, will their figuring, and it would be a will-o'- finally result in good, though the period the-wisp chase to endeavor to underbid of transition is very trying. them. Not but that in some cases there In the absence of a satisfactory method might be temporary advantage; it is the of giving employment to the idle, it is permanent effect which is reasonably cer- felt that other ways must be found to tain to prove disastrous to the workman provide for them.

provide for them. This is done either without benefiting the employer. Only by means of a relief fund or out-of-work something that creates work is likely to benefit, or by both. Out-of-work benefits be of real value, and the reduction neces- are often confounded with relief meassary to accomplish this would be so large ures, though they are entirely separate as to be a lasting injury, and ultimately and distinct. The difference is that one defeat its own purpose. For a material provides for sickness and distress, while reduction of wages in one branch of labor the other is simply insurance against lack is likely to be followed by lower wages in of employment. It is because some recother branches, and business in general ognize this that they insist on married can not be very good whenever the peo- and unmarried unemployed members each ple are compelled to exercise close econ- receiving the same sum. A factor overomy. In the same way any attempt to looked, however, is that typographical keep out successful machinery is to sacri- unions in this country have only of late fice a long future to a brief present. The years had to face the problem of the unintention of such measures is good—it is employed. Therefore the funds of the always better to give work than money, union have never been accumulated for but the practical working is defective. insurance purposes, except in case of

By way of parenthesis it may be re- strikes. It is the distress of the unemmarked that many book and job offices in ployed that has led to the attempt to Chicago will not have typesetting ma- establish out-of-work benefits. So that chines very soon because it would not pay in reality it is a mistake in name, as only them even if it is reported that orders relief is contemplated by the majority. for seventy more are yet unfilled. While An erroneous idea is occasionally exany number of men can be kept standing pressed when an old union man says he around at beck and call without compen- is entitled to relief because he has paid sation for lost time, they are cheaper than dues so long. Anyone who has been a

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