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be changed by means of the screws. The When the type is ejected the mold closes mold determines the body and the nick of automatically and returns for another the type, and on its accuracy depends that cast. The process is slow, and is afof body and squareness of the type. It fected by the condition of the temperais made of hardened steel, in two parts, ture, draughts, and metals, and requires each part containing numerous pieces. the utmost vigilance on the part of the

type-casters, with constant supervision and measurements by the foremen. The speed of casting depends on the size of the type, the largest type requiring the longest time to cast.

Fig. 5 shows the type-casting machine in common use in the United States and Europe. It is the invention of the late David Bruce, who perfected it in 1840, up to which time type was cast in hand molds. Mr. Bruce played a very important part in the business. The illustration shows a hand-casting machine. All large

type are cast by hand, but steam-casters Fig. 4.

are used on smaller sizes. The Bruce The mold! maker must be a man of the machine occupies the field almost wholly, highest skill, and all his measurements the exception being an invention of reare made to the ten-thousandth part of cent years (Fig. 6) which casts type autoan inch. The tension of work of this nature may faintly be imagined. Molds are very expensive, and require constant watching and overhauling, as the most infinitesimal wear of one of them affects the body of the type.

The mold and the matrix are next secured to the casting machine (Fig. 5), which consists of a metal pot, beneath which is a furnace; a pump, which ejects the metal through a small orifice in the metal pot (called the nipple); and mechanisms for holding the mold and matrix, for opening the mold so that the cast type may be ejected, and a receiver or box for the type. One part of the mold is fastened to the casting machine and is stationary;

Fig. 5. the other half is movable. When the matically and saves many hand processes, mold is closed the matrix is fastened so hereafter to be described, which are necthat the letter in it is immediately oppo- essary on the old-style machines. The site the opening in the mold which cor- automatic type-casting machine is the inresponds to the body to be cast (see M vention of Henry Barth of Cincinnati. in Fig. 4). The metal is injected from This machine is a marvel of effective the bottom of the letter. When the let ingenuity and accuracy. It not only casts ter is cast it lies in the mold, as shown in type with a greater rapidity, but it breaks, Figs. 4 and 6, and has a wedge-shaped rubs, dresses and sets the type, and deprojection on the bottom called the jet. livers it ready for examination and pag

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Fig. 6.

ing. It will be noted that the three great font. A font of body type as it leaves inventions in use in the best modern the dresser's hands seldom weighs less foundries, the Benton punch-cutter, the than six hundred pounds. This font is Bruce type-caster, and the Barth auto- afterward subdivided by the dividers into matic type-caster, are inventions of citi- fonts weighing twenty-five, fifty and one zens of the United States. Mr. Bruce hundred pounds and upward, according

to the demand. Italic, script and letters which overhang the body are kerned by a kerning machine which dresses the body so that it will not interfere with spaces or leads when in use.

The operations of breaking, rubbing, setting and grooving are done automatically by the Barth machine after it leaves the mold. Many steam casting machines are provided with automatic breakers, the patents for which are owned by two type foundries.

It may enlighten the printer who orders

sorts and wonders why he has to wait for died in 1893, and Messrs. Benton and them if the reason is explained. Sorts Barth are in the prime of life, the recog

are almost always made to order. When nized masters of their art.

the order for a few sorts reaches a founFig. 7 shows the type with a jet on it dry it has left the order clerk and goes to as it leaves the hand-casting machine.

the foreman, who enters it and passes it This jet is broken off by hand by a to the keeper of the matrix vault, who boy or girl, known as a “ breaker." hands it to the caster, who casts it (havIt is then passed to the “rubber,' ing often to lift a steady run on a large who removes a slight bur at the font to do so) and passes it to the breaker, edges by carefully rubbing the sides who gives it to the rubber, who hands it of the type on a special stone or to the dresser, who returns it to the foreover very fine files. The type then man for examination, after which it is degoes to the “ setters,” who set the livered to the shipper in the salesroom. type on long setting sticks about Thus eight people have handled (some of two feet in length, nick out and them twice) a small order for which a face up. The loaded sticks go to Fig. 7. charge of a few cents only is made. The the “dresser," whose duty it is to exam- casting of sorts is one of the greatest acine the type by means of a powerful mag

commodations the typefounder gives the nifying glass, discard all imperfect letters, printer, as a large number of such orders rub the body sides of the type with a fine are filled at a loss, and this without takscraper and cut the groove in the bottom ing into account the obstruction and delay (Fig. 8) with a grooving plane. He then to regular work.

pages up the type in lines six inches Quotation furniture is cast by hand in long, ties it with cord, wraps it molds, and so also is metal furniture, in paper and labels it, if it is body the latter being afterward planed to size. type ; but if it is job type he passes

Leads and slugs are cast in hand molds, it to the "divider," who carefully usually in gangs, and afterward shaved counts and assorts the number of down to size.

each letter required to complete the When the difficult, expensive and tediFig. 8. font, and pages and labels each ous process of making type and the great

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cost of presenting the specimens of it to quota to the reputation our jobbers have the trade are understood, printers may well gained of surpassing their brethren on the wonder that the price is so low. Although other side of the water in this branch of the wages paid to employes in type foun- printing. There is no boastfulness in asdries in the United States range from serting that we lead the world in every three to four times higher than in Great department of printing. Let anyone inBritain and Europe, type made here is terested in this matter compare advertisesold at about the same net prices as in ments set here and used, say, in a highEurope. This is largely due to the im- class trade paper, with those printed in provement in machines and processes similar journals in either Great Britain or used in American typefoundries, the most the continent and he will be at once conof which are used exclusively here. vinced. Both type and display will be

The faces of job type cast in the United found in the van. Of course much of States are clearer than those of the old this excellence is due to the better pressworld, a fact which doubtless adds its work done in the United States.

THE SINGLE-TAX THEORY.

Non-Access to Natural Opportunities a Hinderance to its Presentation with the Other

Industrial Issues of the Day-Reply to "A Printer's Wife.

BY CHARLES H. KOHLMAN, ST. PAUL, MINN.

Since the appearance in THE TYPO- me, knocks the foundation from under GRAPHICAL JOURNAL of the article of her entire structure. She admits that Mrs. Frances Eldridge Russell, over the under the single-tax there would be work signature of "A Printer's Wife," I have for all. frequently been asked to write an article Now, the reason that men will work showing how the single-tax would secure for an employer today for less than they to the worker the full products of his ought to receive is because they are shut toil. Although this letter was published off from natural opportunities for selfover a year ago, Mrs. Russell has of late employment, and consequently are comcontributed a series of articles in the pelled to bid against each other for the Arena magazine in which she reiterates privilege of working. Is it not perfectly her former opinions and contends that plain that where the avenues for selfthe single-tax will not do what its advo- employment are open to all alike no man cates claim for it, and that, of itself, it will work for another unless by so doing will not prove a solution of the labor he can earn more than if he worked for problem. The great inventions in labor- himself? A very little reflection, it seems saving machinery of the past fifty years, to me, will show that such is the case. and the consequent subdivision of labor, In cases of strikes it is always the unshe contends, have had the effect of pre- employed who take the places of the discluding the securing by the worker of gruntled workmen and reduce wages and the full result of his toil by any other the standard of living. As long as men method save state supervision of all in- have a job which assures them of even a dustries. She makes a lengthy argu- hand-to-mouth existence, they will not ment in support of her position, but take the places of other men who are makes an admission which, it seems to seeking to better their condition.

Let me cite a few instances as to how came more and more irksome for him to opportunities for employment operate to get to and from his work. His employer keep up wages. I have often refused to was intimate with him and professed to take positions in a printing office in other be his friend.

be his friend. He had frequently adthan the mechanical department without vised that he sell his few acres and buy a an increase in pay over what I could earn place in the city. To this the elderly as a compositor. And I have done this gentleman had always turned a deaf ear. even at times when I had no regular work Finally, the employer found him a purand no immediate prospect of securing it. chaser, a man who had a nice place in the Why did I do so? Simply because there city to exchange for the little acre plot, was a reasonable assurance that I would offering quite a sum of money in addition. at least earn enough to meet my running The offer was so advantageous as hardly expenses. Had I not had my trade, or to be resisted. The exchange was made. this opportunity of employment to "fall When the old man came home to his new back on," so to speak, I should have abode with the money in his pocket, his been much less independent, and should wife asked him to expend a goodly pordoubtless have taken such employment tion of it in the purchase of new furnias was offered at the wages tendered. ture, and in otherwise embellishing the

In the fall of 1874, if my memory serves home. This he refused to do, but deme rightly, I was one day standing on a clared his intention of buying a piece of street corner in Pittsburg, talking with woodland which one of the neighbors was Tom Tinney and the business manager of offering for sale. To his wife's remonthe then Commercial. We were joined

We were joined strance and inquiries for an explanation by a well-dressed man who called at- of his strange desire, he merely returned tention to a rough-looking individual the stereotyped answer, I want it.” across the way, and asked the business The woodland was bought. The old man manager, with whom he seemed to be had been ensconced in his city domicile well acquainted, if he knew him. Upon

Upon but a few weeks when, one Saturday the latter replying in the negative, he evening, his employer came to him and said, prefacing his remarks with an oath: told him that times were not what they “That is one of my workmen who is out used to be, that he was very sorry, etc., on strike. What do you think he is do- but that circumstances over which he ing now?" No one ventured a guess, had no control, etc., would compel him and the speaker continued with another to reduce wages, taking effect the followoath: He is digging a well for me at ing week, twenty-five cents a day. The a dollar and a half a day. I let the work old man received the communication in to the lowest bidder and he got the con- silence. On his way home that evening, tract, and I guess that's about what he he stopped in at a hardware store and is earning. He's one of my best work- purchased a fine ax and handle. The men, and he could earn about five dollars following Monday he did not “show up" a day if he would come back to work." at the shop, and the place that had known This well digger was an iron worker, and him so long missed his presence for many the opportunity for work afforded by tak- days. In about a fortnight he was called ing the contract enabled him to stand out upon by his erstwhile employer. After longer for the wages he thought himself an interchange of the usual compliments, entitled to in his trade.

comments on the weather, etc., the exThree or four miles out from a city in employer asked how he was getting on. Connecticut lived an elderly man, a wood “Oh, very well,” was the reply. “What turner, who was employed in one of the are you doing these days?“Cutting factories. As age crept upon him, it be- cordwood on my woodland.” “I didn't

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efforts. Then the workers would no longer it all the time.” “Oh!” Before taking be compelled to underbid each other for his departure the ex-employer said that the mere privilege of obtaining employtimes were slightly improving and that ment. Neither capital nor labor would the old gentleman might return to work then have an advantage over the other. at the old wages.

So the natural oppor- Strife between them would be at an end. tunity for work presented by the old The ground would be cleared for volunman's ownership of woodland prevented tary co-operation. Each for all and all his suffering a reduction in wages at his for each," the motto of the socialists, trade.

would then for the first time be capable All workers have a definite idea of the of realization. value of their labor—of the

wage

which Mrs. Russell asks how a printer or a they in justice ought to receive. In a watchmaker, or any of the workers in state of industrial freedom this would be factories whose individual part in the the pay they would demand and secure- production of an article constitues probaand this would solve the labor problem. bly not one-hundredth part of the labor All men being at work, as Mrs. Russell required for its production, will, under admits would be the case under the sin- the single-tax, be assured the full prodgle-tax, when a misunderstanding between uct of his toil. She assumes that this employers and employes in regard to wages result could only be brought about by took place, there would be none to take means of state socialism, which would the places of the strikers, and consequent- have all mankind share alike in the prodly the contending parties would be com- ucts of labor, regardless of what each pelled to confer together and come to actually contributed to the productions some amicable agreement. The reason of the country. This, on the face of it, that there is today friction and enmity is manifestly unfair and unjust. It would between labor and capital is because one not bring about the desideratum desired. party to the controversy (capital) occu- Justice decrees that he who works hardpies a position, because of monopoly of est and most wisely should enjoy most of natural opportunities, which enables it to the things produced-in short, that each refuse to treat with the other. Free soil should enjoy what he produces. Any inwould free mankind from the domination dustrial regulation which would interfere of capital. The soil is the source from with this natural and just course would which capital is evolved, and when man- be very harmful in its results, doing away kind has easy access to that source it will with incentives to thrift and individual produce capital (which is but a tool to development and excellence. Freedom facilitate production) in such quantities is the only thing that will bring about a and at such times as it is required. No just distribution of the products of labor man, nor set of men, can possibly mo- —will secure to each man that which he nopolize the tools of production (capital) produces. Mrs. Russell admits that this when the source from which such tools are is true in the most rudimentary employderived are open to all upon equal terms. ments—such as gathering berries, hunt

In a state of industrial freedom which ing, catching fish, tilling the soil, cutting would be brought about by the single-tax, wood, etc., while the country is yet in a when one man worked for another it state of nature, before the soil has become would be because he could earn more- private property and men are fenced off produce more-than he could by working from natural opportunities by their revfor himself. Then would be inaugurated erence for paper deeds. But she is una system of true co-operation, in which able to perceive how freedom will bring all would share in the exact ratio of their about the same result after machines have

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