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been invented and labor rendered many- the history of mankind competition has fold more productive by minute subdi- not been given opportunity to do its pervision.

fect work. In fact, we have had no true Now, in analyzing any abstruse ques- competition. That competition which we tion I make it a point to always go from see all about us, and whose evil effects the complex to the concrete. If any stage are to be deplored, is the competition of of man's material prosperity is shown to industrial slaves, who are compelled to be due to the freedom which he enjoys compete with each other, as to which will in regard to access to natural opportuni- permit the employer to retain the greater ties for production, and later in the course portion of the products of the workers' of development it is shown that the masses toil. True competition is only possible are less independent and less self-reliant, when all men are placed on an equal footand many are unable to find employment, ing with regard to access to natural opalthough the productive powers of man- portunities. There can not be too many kind are augmented in an indefinable workers in the primary industries. Upon ratio, and at the same time we find in these industries is based our whole social connection with this state of affairs a cur- fabric, and that base can never be too tailment of the freedom formerly enjoyed, broad. The more there is produced in is it not a reasonable inference that a re- these industries, the more the workers storation of that freedom would bring back will have to exchange for the products of the former prosperity and independence? other workers, and the more prosperous

Mrs. Russell expresses a fear that the will be the commonwealth. This, of single-tax, by cheapening land, would in- course, in a state of industrial freedom. duce so many people to go into the busi- There are today apparently too many ness of farming that the competition workers in all callings. It seems as between them would become so fierce that though the Creator had made a mistake they would not realize sufficiently on their and so arranged matters that a portion of produce to make a living, and that large His children were foreordained through capitalists and syndicates would under- all generations to suffer the pangs of povsell the small producer, and thus debar erty and hunger. That such seems to him from making a living. This shows be the case is due to the fact that natural how thoroughly imbued she is with the laws-God's laws-have been violated. Malthusian theory and the “protective To assert it as a fact were atheistical ; idea." Competition is not, as Mrs. Rus- yea, worse than atheistical — it were to sell and persons of her bent of mind are make of the Deity an infernal demon. in the habit of asserting, an evil. On the All nature is tributary to man.

He can contrary, it is one of the most beneficent abridge or multiply his wants at pleasure, of natural laws, and is the divinely or- and he always ratify his creature dained method for the saving of labor and desires when he has access to natural opfor increasing its efficiency. Thus far in portunities.

Life is but a short chase ; our game-content,
Which most pursued is most compellid to fly,
And he that mounts him on the swiftest hope,
Shall sooner run his courser to a stand ;
While the poor peasant from some distant hill,
Undanger'd and at ease, views all the sport,
And sees content take shelter in his cottage.


OB PRINTER wants steady situation with reliable

Good workman. "Address "Reliable," care TYPOGRAPH-
IF you want your linotypes to run as they should, hire

an experienced machinist. I guarantee to keep matrices free from whiskers. Best of references. Address HONEST, care TYPOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL.

THE TYPOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL Published semi-monthly on the first and fifteenth of each month, at room 7, De Soto block, Indianapolis, Ind. Subscription price, 25 cents per annum.

Entered at the Postoffice, Indianapolis, Ind., as secondclass matter.

The publisher of the JOURNAL asks for the co-operation of Its readers in the way of information, communications, suggestions, news items, etc. To insure publication, copy for advertisements and communications should be in hand not later than the tenth and twenty-fifth of each month.

Remittances may be made by postoffice money order, draft
or express money order. ADDRESS ALL MONEYS AND LET-
A. G. WINES, Editor and Publisher,
Room No. 7, De Soto Block,





WANT ADVERTISEMENTS. Special “Want" advertisements will be inserted in these columns at the uniform price of ONE CENT A WORD each insertion. Answers can be sent in care of The Typographical Journal, if desired. All letters received will be promptly forwarded to parties for whom Intended, without extra charge.

For Sale.....
One Fifteen-Ton Hydraulic Jack,
In Good Order, at a Bargain.

H. S. Turley,
211 Chestnut St., St. Louis, Mo.

Cripple Creek-—Its History to Date, Illustrated. Just out, with correct map and costly full page views natural as life. This great book will be sent free prepaid with our big 56-col. family paper three months on irial for 25c. (stamps or silver); club of 5, $1. Latest mining news. Mention the JOURNAL, and address IlLUSTRATED WEEKLY, Denver, Colo.

If your Union requires anything in the



press, one job press, one paper cutter, one lead cutter, one ruler, book and display type, cases and stands, twenty-five volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica, one large Webster's unabridged dictionary, some paper for printing and writing purposes, cards and envelopes, the entire outfit of a printing office, for sale. All the articles are of first-class, superior quality and practically new, everything that is necessary and requisite to publish a first-class newspaper. To any person thinking about starting a newspaper this is a rare chance to procure a complete outfit for about one-half of the factory price. Would like to hear from you. JOHN FRIERY, Galveston, Texas. THE BROWNBIERCE COMPANY, Dayton, Ohio, pro

duce best half-tones, zinc etchings, and wood en-
gravings to be had; especially for the printer. Write
for prices.
FOR SALE-Cheap, one Scott pony press, nearly new.

Time to good parties.
SITUATION WANTED-A pressman with 25 years

experience on rotary and platen presses of all standard makes; well up on color, blank, mercantile, block-stand, book, wood-cut and half-tone work; understands combination and harmony of color, lights and shades, care of printing machinery and management of press room ; 20 years a foreman on the floor. Wants foremanship of press room turning out first-class work only; member of union. Address MCA. Roni, care TypOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL.

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"TRopkey=Mason og har ingen Indianapolis

, Engraving Company


SUCCESSORS TO Tbe Baker-tRandolpb Co's Art and Engraving Dep't

Designers and Engravers of printing
Plates in copper, Zinc and wood

Technical Topics

100 lbs. 15 5

To Get and Preserve an Even Color. One of the greatest difficulties in printing a pamphlet or book of several forms is to obtain and maintain an even color throughout the work. It frequently happens that part of the finished work is darker than the rest ; sometimes even the backing-up pages are a different shade from those they register when the work is bound. To avoid this, a color key should be made and kept handy until the job is off. But the key should be applied to every page in every form, in order to insure perfect results. The best plan is to follow the method adopted by the printers of playing cards - a specialty in which perfect regularity of color is of the utmost importance. The sheet of cards is cut up into sections, not merely of separate cards, but cross-sections also. These are then transposed and compared with one another in every possible arrangement, until perfect evenness is arrived at. Such a proceeding takes time and patience, but the result obtained is worth all it costs.

Type Metal. Little information can be obtained concerning the composition of the metal of which the first type was cast. In the cost book issued by the directors of the Ripoli Press in Florence for the years 1474 to 1483, the cost of lead and tin is given, so that there is scarcely any doubt that these metals were used. A third metal is vaguely mentioned, which was probably antimony, but this is only conjecture. In Just Amman's “Book of Trades,” published in Frankfurt in 1568, the ingredients are given as bismuth, tin, and lead. Inasmuch as this composition would have resulted in an alloy which would melt at an extremely low temperaturein proper proportions, as that of boiling water -and also be very soft, there could be no advantage in using the first named metal unless the matrices were made of lead, in which case the fusing point of the alloy, being lower than that of the matrix, would tend to lengthen its life. But as bismuth is very expensive, it is more than probable that the chronicler confused it with antimony.

In mixing his metal, the modern typefounder usually calculates the amount of tin, antimony, and copper used in proportion to 100 lbs. of lead. For the sake of uniformity this method

will be followed. The type cast at the beginning of the century probably contained


Tin.. This mixture is about the same hardness as modern electrotype metal.

Since then the progress has been steadily upward, and the printer who has occasion to compare the type of twenty-five years ago with that of today can at once see the improvement. Until recently it was the practice of the founder to make several grades of metal, soft for the large type, and gradually harder for the small ones. Thus, some foundries had nonpareil, bourgeois, pica, and job metals, besides quad and script. It is however only reasonable to suppose that if hard metal renders small type more durable, it is preferable for larger ones, and most of the type foundries have adopted a standard metal for general use.

To Transfer Printing Upon Glass. Thoroughly clean and dry a plate of glass and pour upon it a mixture of turpentine and Damar varnish in even parts, and allow this mixture to dry; but before it is entirely dried the preparation of print which is to be transferred should be begun. It is to be placed face downward upon a smooth sheet of thick paper, and to be saturated by means of a sponge applied to the back of the print with a three per cent. solution of nitric acid, whereby the cohesion between the paper and ink is reduced, and the transfer made easy. The glass plate is then placed upon felt or flannel, and the print is carefully put upon the glass plate and smoothed down upon it in such a manner that no air bubbles remain. After it has entirely dried, the paper is slowly rubbed off with dampened fingers, and the picture will remain upon the glass plate, and may afterward be protected by giving it a light coat of varnish.

When electrotypes are out of use and require to be stored they should be kept in a dry place, and the surface of the plates should be oiled in order to prevent verdigris. When they become clogged with hard dry ink, which the brush and benzine fail to remove, they may be cleaned and made equal to new in few minutes by covering their surface with a little creosote, and afterwards brushing the surface with benzine.

New Type Faces

Compounding Borders. Whenever it is desirable to use two or more borders in one piece of display work, such as in placing a panel or square so as to break in the outside border, a better effect is produced by using the same series in different sizes than in mixing up different styles of border. Particularly is this apparent when the panel is enclosed by face rule. A fancy border in this case would be incongruous; a border of face rule, whether the same or heavier, would preserve the uniformity of the whole. A fairly good effect is sometimes produced with a rule panel and fancy border by running a rule inside the border, thus harmonizing, as it were, the two contrasting factors of plain and ornamental.

It is difficult for a printer to understand the care and time required in developing a new type face. A practical knowledge of the printer's needs and how to best impress upon the artist an appreciation of these needs that they may be embodied in graceful lettering of proper weights, proportions and shapes, are two essentials of success. So-called big sellers come slow and hard, but the fancy and requirements of the printer are occasionally struck, as in the De Vinne, Jenson, Bradley, etc. While there is a continued and large demand for these faces, they have been unscrupulously imitated, and the expectant printer has found a new favorite in the

Pad Composition Recipes. No. 1. One pound of glue, well boiled ; when hot, add four ounces of glycerine, one ounce of Venice turpentine ; color with aniline as desired.

No. 2. Dissolve glue in vinegar in a glazed vessel ; color to suit ; thin with vinegar ; apply



Flexible composition for pads and for binding music.-Bisulphide of carbon, two ounces ; crude gutta percha, three ounces ; mix. You will nose this stuff when mixed-it smells worse than limburger. Don't put it near a fire, or it will explode. To use it: Shape your book, cut the leaves and rasp them roughly with a file ; then apply the liquid cold, and bind as usual.

Series, which has bounded into a popularity that overtaxes even the extensive facilities of the American Type Founders' Company to supply. Duplicate matrices, however, are being prepared for casting this series in the west (it originated in Boston) so that all sections of the country can be supplied without exasperating delays. The face has the legibility of Roman type, the letters being modeled so as to avoid every surplus line, adhering to simplicity and strength in shapes and proportions. It is a charming letter for display, equally adapted for the advertising columns of the magazine and the daily paper. For job work every printer should endeavor to secure the series, emptying the hell-box promptly, to purchase the Satanick before a competitor compels him to follow in its

The Satanick marks a new departure in type modeling as definitely as the Jenson did a year or so ago. A companion series to the Jenson is found in the


A Common but Often Costly Habit. Many compositors have acquired the habit of inserting type between their teeth when correcting. They may be the cleanest men in other respects in the office, and would strongly resent any imputation of dirtiness. It is not merely a dirty habit, however ; it is a dangerous one to health. Painters and printers are the chief sufferers from lead-poisoning, and nearly every city hospital contains one or more of its victims. To one whose constitution renders him peculiarly susceptible to the influence of lead, the most thorough cleanliness is urged, and as much fresh, pure air as possible. Doctors recommend a complete change of clothing for the home from that worn at work, and forbid the practice of eating anything in the office.

Jenson Italic

HARD sized paper requires quicker drying ink than soft sized, as it does not absorb the oils, and the ink must perforce dry on the surface. A medium soft sized paper is preferable, as cuts will come up easier on it, and if good ink is used there will be no offset.

In which has been preserved all the Jenson weights and shapes. The addition of the ornamental or swash capitals enlarges the usefulness of this face which is to be extended into a series from 8-point to 72-point, and include thirteen sizes. It is a distinctive, stylish letter, and will be appreciated by those printers who delight in strong and rugged letters and desire a return to what Theodore L. De Vinne calls "masculine printing."

Edward H. Feltus

conducted for ten years. Returning to LitWas born near Brandon, Miss., in 1853, tle Rock, he was working on the Gazette and is now rounding up his forty-third when the lockout of 1888 occurred, and year, and his thirty years' connection was one of the founders and first editorwith the printing business. His family in-chief of the Daily Call, the strike jourmoved to Arkansas in 1855. First sell- nal. On suspension of this paper he went ing “war” dailies at 25 and 50 cents a to Memphis, and, securing a position on copy, he next entered a district printing the Appeal in 1889, has continued with its concern, publishing a newpaper and do- fortunes, now operating a linotype on the ing all legal publications and blank work Commercial Appeal. Without his knowl

[graphic][subsumed][merged small][merged small]

for the old sixth judicial district. With

With edge he was elected vice-president of the fortunes of this plant he remained Memphis Typographical Union No. 11 in until, as a result of the “Brooks-Baxter'' 1894, serving two terms, and was in 1896 war, all institutions of the “reconstruc- made president. He first belonged to tion" regime were dissipated, among Little Rock Union No. 92. them the district printing office.

Feltus & Goss launched the Laborer, Within the past sixty days Messrs. recorded in Rowell's directory (1872) as

Walker & Co., of Madison, Wis., have the only labor journal in the south. The shipped their celebrated Prouty and MoLaborer survived and Feltus & Goss re- nona presses into eleven different states. tired, leaving the paper in other hands. The Prouty is becoming more and more Shiortly afterward Feltus acquired owner

popular, apparently, with printers every ship of the Lewisburg State, which he year.

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