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THE WORLD COURT
A MAGAZINE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRESS
PUBLISHED MONTHLY BY
120 BROADWAY, NEW YORK CITY
FRANK CHAPIN BRAY
GEORGE W. KIRCHWEY CHARLES R. LEVERMORE
G. CZARLES BODGES
WALTER J. SUTHERLAND
ENTERED AS SECOND CLASS MATTER, SEPTEMBER 16, 1912, AT THE POST OFFICE AT NEW YORK
COPYRIGHT, 1915, BY THE WORLD'S COURT LEAGUE, INC.
THE EDITOR'S POINT OF VIEW
NORMAN ANGELL'S highly ments brings together for one con
suggestive article on "How to nected reading permanently importStudy the Problems of the War” ant material that is otherwise lost, represents a type of service to read is merely skimmed in the daily paper, ers of The World Court Magazine or is not readily available as a not duplicated in any American pub- check on misinterpretation. Is a new lication. Attention is here called to variety of peace-making diplomacy the special announcement and re- being evolved? quest printed on page 13. Such spe- By way of perspective on current cial features indicate one line of plans for securing world peace the development for our “Magazine of succinct and illuminating review of International Progress.”
“Historic Proposals for Leagues of To record their official points of World Peace," by Professor Sterling view regarding responsibility for the E. Edmunds, is furnished to this war one government after another number of The World Court Magaissued a Blue Book or a Yellow Book zine. Comments on “The Scheme or an Orange Book or a Red Bookfor a League of Nations," by H. N. or some other colored book. Since Brailsford, throw one British sidethe issue of who shall become re- light at the present time. sponsible for lasting peace has now Plebiscites and purchase instead of come to the forefront of interna conquest bring New West Indian tional discussion, we devote spaer Americans to us. Mr. Myers' article this month to a "Black-and-Whito" on the subject points out the intorBook of Peace Diplomacy. The national setting and significance of collection of extraordinary docu- such a transfer.
How to Study the Problems of the War
By NORMAN ANGELL
Author of "The Great Illusion," "America and the World State” and
other well-known volumes.
HE librarian of one of the Ruthenians, Italians, Czechs, Slov1 Great American public libra- aks, Poles ;
ries stated recently that he Of the issues of the Serbo-Bulhad received for classification more garian war of 1885, the tariff wars than 2,000 books and pamphlets between Austria and Serbia, the andealing with the war or the questions nexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the out of which it had arisen. . An ex- formation of the Balkan League and amination showed that none of these the intrigues which provoked the books or pamphlets was negligible; Second Balkan War, which in turn all had some good claim to attention takes us to the Turkish invasions, and no study of the war and its the emergence of the independent causes could pretend to be exhaus- Balkan nations from Turkish sutive which did not take them into
premacy; account. And when one thinks of And this in turn touches Austrian the subjects that the study of this and Russian policy and Russia's war involves, 2,000 books does not claim to be the leader and protector seem a very large number.
of the Slav peoples, her interference The immediate cause was an in- in Balkan politics and her designs cident of Balkan politics, and Balkan on Constantinople; politics with all its welter of lan- Which brings us to questions of guage and nationality difficulties— the European Alliances, the Balance the relations of Serbs, Bulgars, Rou- of Power; the conflict between Slav manians, Turks, Greeks, Albanians, and Teuton; the development of Gerof the Moslems, the Catholics, man policy since unification; the the Orthodox and Unified Greek
wars of 1864, 1866, and 1870; the Churches; the influence and struggle position of Prussia in Germany; the for prestige within the Peninsula of attitude of the Social Democrats; the Austrian, Russian, German, Ital- the difference between the new Gerian and British foreign policies—has
many and the old; the influence of absorbed the life studies of many the newer German philosophies of students.
Nietzsche, Haeckel, Treitschke, FeuTHE MAZE or ISSUES
erbach, Schopenhauer, as the reacBut the incident leading to the tion against those of Kant, Hegel outbreak of war was also a question and Fichte; of Austrian policy, of the ever- The annexation of Alsace-Lorlasting struggle between Germans, raine and its effect on Franco-GerMagyars, Croats, Serbs, Slovenes, man relations; the problems arising from the partitions of Poland, be- affairs of his life, and with scant tween Prussia, Russia and Austria; leisure for public questions to find
German fear of the Slav menace; his way through this maze of mathe influence of the pan-German terial? How tackle two thousand school; German colonial and naval books? expansion and the course of Anglo
WHY WE MUST HAVE AN OPINION German relations; the formation of the Triple Alliance, the Dual Alli
The readiest solution seems to be ance and the Franco-British Eins to leave it to the expert. But which tente; the guarantee of Belgian neu
expert? Concerning the subjects trality
upon which we have just touched, And now we may add the question
one great statesman like Lord Salisof the Roumanians in Transylvania,
bury, has been of one opinion, and the Italians in the Trentino and
another great statesman, like Mr. Trieste, Italian interests in Dalma
Gladstone, has been of a diametrictia and Albania, the problem of
ally opposed opinion. It is the pubSchleswig-Holstein, the position of
lic who, after all, have to decide beBohemia.
tween rival experts. And even when
we have managed to agree on an exQUESTIONS OF THE SETTLEMENT pert, that expert, in the gravest mat
The settlement raises questions of ters, leaves the final decision to the The principle of nationality,
public. Democracy and self-governThe use of plebiscites,
ment would obviously be a sham unThe value of guarantees,
less he did. The value of indemnities,
Again and again in his dispatches The validity of treaties and of inter- just before the outbreak of war, Sir national law,
Edward Grey insisted that he must The broader questions of the rela- finally be guided in his decision by tions of States,
the general feeling of the public. The bearing upon politics of econom And “the public” is just the aver
ics and of both upon strategy, age man. So that in any case it is The competition of armaments, we who finally decide. Perhaps it is The system of alliances and group as well for our moral health that in ings of the powers,
the gravest questions which concern The alleged rivalry of nations, us we cannot shift our responsibility The effects of absolutism and democ- on to someone else. racy upon national policies,
To say that in a matter like the Imperialism and autonomy,
war of the nations, matters of life The nature and functions of the or death for millions, which are go
State, arbitrations, limitations of ing to affect the whole future of civarmaments, diplomacy and its de- ilization, the mass of men can have tects.
no opinion but must leave it all to How is it humanly possible for the a governing few, is not only to reaverage man concerned with the daily duce self-government and democracy to an absurdity, but is equivalent to No. 1, hoping in years perhaps to saying that the mass of men hade have got through a few hundred? no moral responsibility for their Well, the thing is not quite so gravest acts.
hopeless as it looks at first glance. WHAT IS OUR OPINION TO BE WORTH? It is certain that to read the
So the responsibility is ours and whole two thousand books we have we cannot shed it. Our opinion de referred to is a physical impossibilcides. What is that opinion to be ity, and also that if one only reads worth?
a small proportion, and a very thin Is it to be, speaking quite frankly, proportion is all that one can read blind and ignorant, guided by the
ded by the facts very essential to the right temper of the moment, hypnotized by und
understanding of the subject may some passing feature which may mo- escape you. mentarily have caught its attention
Well, you only read a very tiny to the exclusion of deeper and more proportion of the very excellent and permanent factors?
interesting encyclopaedic dictionary Or will it have grasped such a
that you have upon your shelves. general understanding of the broad
Yet you attach great value to its
completeness, and it would be all but outstanding issues as to disentangle
useless to you if those hundreds of essentials from non-essentials, to know what it wants and why it
pages which you are never likely to wants it, able at least to avoid
read were not included. Anyone who a fundamentally vicious settlement
attempted so to read it through
would find, like the Scotchman that, containing the seeds of further trouble in the future, and able instead
though interesting, it was disconto lay at least the sound founda
nected in its argument. You get
your encyclopaedic dictionary only tions of a better society?
when you know what it is you want So we cannot just run away from
to know; have a definite question the difficulty of having to know some
that needs answer, a definite probthing of these very complex prob
lem to solve, as when, a man having lems. Yet how can the average busy
sued you for libel because you have man—who after all makes up pub
applied a certain word to him, you lic opinion—in the often very press
desire to know what the authorities ing and harassing cares of business
have to say concerning its meaning. and the necessity of providing for
With such a stimulus to research it his family, able to devote a scanty is astonishing how rapidly you will leisure to his public responsibilities, extract from a thousand pages just tackle a subject, the bibliography of
the twenty lines of information that which embraces two thousand books,
YOU which, if he had nothing else to do, years of study would not enable him HOW TO TACKLE A SUBJECT to master? How is he even to set Now although no real book should about it? Does he start with book be treated quite like a dictionary,