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it will drift itself into tyranny, and will oppose this program, for no fail to win the loyalty of nations. mind which thinks at all can supThe alternative (not an exclusive pose that we can combine “the war alternative) is that it should aim at after peace” with a League of Nawinning and keeping adherents by the tions. But if we go so far, why not advantages it conveys—that nations use these advantages-immense, conshould join it for the positive good crete, tangible advantages—to hold it offers. There must clearly be cer- the League together? Let the Extain elementary economic privileges ecutive (subject to due safeguards -e. g., a most favored nation clause and rights of appeal) have the power in home markets, free trade (or tariffs to expel a disloyal Member-State, for revenue only) in non-self-govern- and let expulsion involve the loss of ing colonies, some organic regulated these privileges. With such a sancdevelopment of the cooperation of tion the League would rarely, if ever, exported capital in such areas as require to use force. No civilized naChina, and some guarantee (through tion could afford to stay outside it, an international commission) against and to step outside or to challenge oppressive monopolies of raw ma- expulsion would mean economic suiterials. No honest friend of peace cide.

University Teachers’ Conference on

International Relations

By JOHN MEZ

N informal conference of uni- The significance of this small and A versity teachers was held at informal conference resides in the

Cincinnati, Ohio, December 30, fact that here was gathered for the in connection with the meetings of first time a group of young and the American Historical Association forward-looking college professors, and the American Political Science representing the most advanced Association, under the auspices of thought in the field of International the American Association for Inter- Politics, who had assembled for the national Conciliation. The purpose purpose of discussing the disseminaof the conference was to discuss the tion of the new Science of Internawork being carried on by the Associa- tional Affairs. tion with the International Polity The conference was turned into a Clubs, and the Courses on Inter- sort of experience meeting; each national Relations and similar sub- member made an informal report of jects given in various institutions his own experiences and made specific with the support of the Association. suggestions for the future with re

gard to the work in the International given to the promotion of internaPolity Clubs.

tional thinking among university The conference was attended by men was considered to be one of the the following men:

most important influences of the C. D. Allin, University of Wisconsin; L. present day. L. Bernard, University of Missouri; George H. Blakeslee, Clark University; C. A. Dyks It was generally agreed that it tra, University of Kansas; John D. FitzGerald, University of Illinois; Alexander C.

would be highly desirable if this Flick, Syracuse University; A. L. Guérard, work could be continued and made Rice Institute; Arnold B. Hall, University of Wisconsin; J. G. de R. Hamilton, Uni

permanent in character as far as versity of North Carolina; Max Sylvius possible; a great deal of enthusiasm Handman, University of Chicago; Carlton J. H. Hayes, Columbia University; Manley

has been worked up through these 0. Hudson, Harvard University; F. P. Kep Clubs. The courses in Spanish and pel, Columbia University; Edward Krehbiel, Stanford University; Chester Lloyd Jones,

on South America given in the SumUniversity of Wisconsin; James G. McDon mer Sessions also received favorable ald, University of Indiana; John Mez, New York, N. Y.; St. George Leakin Sioussat,

comment. Vanderbilt University; Thomas Reed Powell, Editor of the Political Science There exists a great deal of justiQuarterly, Columbia University; Roland G. fication for the hope expressed at Usher, Washington University, St. Louis; George Ray Wicker, Dartmouth College; the meeting that the Study of InterH. Van der Zee, University of Iowa. national Relations may yet develop

It was the general opinion of these into a permanent educational service teachers that the International in our universities, in the same manPolity Clubs have been very useful ner as the study of International institutions which have reacted upon Law-ridiculed at first-has become the colleges, and not only upon the an indispensable part of the curricustudents but also upon the faculties lum of any institution of recognized in a decided way. The stimulus high standing.

LEST WE FORGET The Hague Convention of 1907 provides (Article 8) that "powers strangers to the dispute have the right to offer good offices or mediation even during the course of hostilities. The exercise of this right can never be regarded by either of the parties in dispute as an unfriendly act.”

THE WORLD'S COURT LEAGUE

Favors a League among Nations to secure
1. An International Court of Justice established by a world confer-

ence and sustained by public opinion.
2. An International Council of Conciliation.
8. A World Conference meeting regularly to support the Court and

Council, and to interpret and expand International Law.
4. A Permanent Continuation Committee of the World Conference.

Congress SIXTY-FOURTH CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION

(Legislation is introduced into either House of Congress, and bills or resolutions are numbered consecutively as filed. They are immediately referred to the appropriate committee, whose reports bring them to the originating House for passage. The following abbreviations are employed: S., Senate Bill; H. R., House of Representatives Bill; J. Res., Joint Resolution; Con. Res., Concurrent Resolution; Res., Resolution; Rept., Report; bills approved by the President become statutes, public or private, and are numbered in the order of enactment.)

INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS Mr. Bailey of Pennsylvania: Resolution (H. Res. 422) indorsing and approving the action of the President of the United States in notes relative to terms of peace; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. Campbell of Kansas: A bill (H. R. 16871) to prevent the publication of false reports and rumors affecting the international relations of the United States; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

Mr. Edmonds of Pennsylvania: Joint resolution (H. J. Res. 322) requesting the President of the United States to discharge troops from the border who were enlisted first; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Emerson of Ohio: Resolution (H. Res. 415) to have the Secretary of War report to Congress why the National Guard is held on the border; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Fitzgerald of New York: A bill (H. R. 16911) making an appropriation for the relief and transportation of destitute American citizens in Mexico; to the Committee of the Whole House on the state of the Union.

Mr. Flood of Virginia: A bill (H. R. 20080) to give effect to the convention between the United States and Great Britain for the protection of migratory birds, the ratifications whereof were exchanged on the 7th day of December, 1916, and for other purposes: to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. Harrison of Mississippi: Joint resolution (H. J. Res. 253) authorizing the President of the United States to invite the Latin-American countries to participate in the Mississippi Centennial Exposition, to be held at Gulfport, Miss.; to the Committee on Foreign Relations.

Mr. Hitchcock of Nebraska: A bill (S. 7858) to give effect to the convention be

tween the United States and Great Britain for the protection of migratory birds, the ratifications whereof were exchanged on the 7th day of December, 1916, and for other purposes; to the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry.

Mr. Hitchcock of Nebraska: Resolution (S. Res. 296) declaring the diplomatic note of December 18, to represent the sentiment and desire of the United States; to the Committee on Foreign Relations, December 21.

Mr. Hitchcock of Nebraska: Resolution (S. Res. 298) approving and indorsing the sending of the diplomatic notes of December 18; debated December 22, January 2, 8, 4 and 5; amended and passed Senate (yeas, 48; nays, 17; not voting, 81) in the following form: “Resolved, That the Senate approves and strongly indorses the request by the President in the diplomatic notes of December 18 to the nations now engaged in war that those nations state the terms upon which peace might be discussed."

Mr. James of Michigan: Resolution (H. Res. 307) directing the Secretary of State to negotiate a treaty to define status of American citizens who were formerly subjects of Italy; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. James of Michigan: Resolution (H. Res. 311) directing the Secretary of State to negotiate a treaty with the AustroHungarian Government defining the status of former Austro-Hungarian subjects who have become American citizens; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. James of Michigan: Resolution (H. Res. 812) directing the Secretary of State to negotiate a treaty with the Imperial Government of Germany defining the status of former German subjects who have become American citizens; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

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Mr. Kahn of California: A resolution (H. Res. 428) directing the Attorney General of the United States to transmit to the House certain information relating to the shipment of arms and munitions of war into Mexico in violation of the provisions of the joint resolution of Congress approved March 14, 1912, and the proclamation of the President issued in compliance there with; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

Mr. Kahn of California: A resolution (H. Res. 424) directing the Secretary of the Treasury to transmit to the House certain information relating to the shipment of arms and munitions of war into Mexico in violation of the provisions of the joint resolution of Congress approved March 14, 1912, and the proclamation of the President in compliance therewith; to the Committee on Ways and Means.

Mr. Kahn of California: A resolution (H. Res. 425) directing the Secretary of War to transmit to the House certain information relating to the shipment of arms and munitions of war into Mexico, in violation of the provisions of the joint resolution of Congress, approved March 14, 1912, and the proclamation of the President issued in compliance therewith; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Lane of Oregon: A joint resolution (S. J. Res. 192) requesting the Secretary of State to invite certain foreign Governments to join with the Government of the United States in a movement to prevent the extermination of whales and walruses on the high seas; to the Committee on Fisheries.

Mr. McKellar of Tennessee: A resolution (H. Res. 426) indorsing the President's peace policy; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. Overman of North Carolina; Resolution (S. Res. 300) for inquiring into manner in which the Republic of Cuba acquired bonds of the State of North Carolina; submitted January 2.

Mr. Randall of California: A bill (H. R. 16941) to relieve distress and starvation of destitute people in Mexico; to the Committee on Appropriations.

Mr. Wood of Indiana: Resolution (H. Res. 420) asking for an investigation of conflicting interpretations upon President's note to belligerent powers; to the Committee on Rules.

Mr. Owen of Oklahoma: A bill (S. 7758) conferring jurisdiction upon the Court of Claims to hear, consider, and determine certain claims of the Cherokee Nation against the United States; to the Committee on Pensions.

NATIONAL DEFENCE Mr. Bennet of New York: Joint resolution (H. J. Res. 254) providing full pay for Government emplovees while absent in the military service of the United States; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Broussard of Louisiana: A bill (S. 6559) to provide for the establishment of a military post or permanent mobilization camp at Camp Stafford, Alexandria, La.; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Cary of Wisconsin: Joint resolution (H. J. Res. 266) directing the Secretary of the Navy to accept a certain proposal of Louis Gathmann; to the Committee on Naval Affairs.

Mr. Gardner of Massachusetts: Resolution (H. Res. 826) requesting the Secretary of War to send to the House of Representatives certain information with regard to the number of members of the National Guard recently taken into the United States service who are raw recruits; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Gore of Oklahoma: A bill (S. 7554) making available any post-office surplus for the fiscal year 1917 for the purchase of the telephone system of the District of Columbia; to insure the Government complete control of such means of communication in safeguarding its military and executive affairs within the seat of government; to provide a special telephone service to facilitate the direct sale of farm products to consumers in said District; to establish the efficiency and economy with which such service may be conducted by the Post Office Department; to the Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads.

Mr. James of Michigan: A bill (H. R. 16795) to pay certain families of men in the Army of the United States a sum of money for their maintenance during the term of service of such men in the service of the

NATIONAL AFFAIRS Mr. Dillon of South Dakota: A bill (h. R. 18980) to govern procedure where one State seeks to maintain an original action against another State in the Supreme Court of the United States in certain cases; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

United States; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Johnson of Maine: A bill (S. 6557) to establish an aerial coast-patrol system and for the education and training as aviators of the aviation section of the Naval Militias of the several States; to the Committee on Naval Affairs.

Mr. Lodge of Massachusetts: A bill (S. 7409) to amend an act entitled “An act for making further and more effectual provision for the national defense, and for other purposes," approved June 8, 1916; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Moore of Pennsylvania: Resolution (H. Res. 292) requesting the Secretary of War to transmit to the House of Representatives certain information relative to the troops of the National Guard mustered into the service of the United States; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Olney of Massachusetts: A bill (H. R. 18995) to amend an act entitled "An act for making further and more effectual provision for the national defense, and for other purposes", approved June 8, 1916; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Parker of New Jersey: A bill (H. R. 19728) to increase the efficiency of the Army in time of war; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Raker of California: a bill (H. R. 16788) to acquire, construct, and maintain a military highway and national defense highway and post road extending from Los Angeles, Cal., through Majave, Freeman, along the east base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains through Lone Pines, Independence, Big Pine, Bishop, along the west side of 'Lake Mono, through Bridgeport, Markleeville, Talac, Tahoe, Truckee, Downieville, Quincy, Susanville, and Alturas, thence along the east side of Goose Lake past the towns of Fairport and New Pine Creek, all in California, down Pit River to connect with the California State highway at Redding, Cal; to the Committee on Military

NEUTRALITY Mr. Alexander of Missouri: A bill (H. R. 19850) to regulate radio communication; to the Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries.

Mr. Alexander of Missouri: A bill (H. R. 20082) to amend an act entitled “An act to authorize the establishment of a Bureau of War-Risk Insurance in the Treasury Department," approved September 2, 1914; to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

Mr. Bennet of New York: Resolution (H. Res. 419) to provide for a committee to investigate emigration from and immigration to the United States as affected by the European war; to the Committee on Rules.

Mr. Cary of Wisconsin: Joint resolution (H. J. Res. 337) warning American citizens from taking passage or employment on board of vessels or belligerent powers; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. Culberson of Texas: A bill (S. 6818) to authorize the President to employ the land and naval forces of the United States to enforce compliance with its obligations relating to neutrality; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

Mr. Gallagher of Illinois: Resolution (H. Res. 800) approving the action of the State Department in petitioning European Governments to make concessions for the relief of Poland; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. Gardner of Massachusetts: Joint resolution (H. J. Res. 820) protesting against mediation by the United States in the European war; to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.

Mr. London of New York: A bill (H. R. 19295) to create a commission which is to recommend legislation for the taking over by the Federal Government of the control of food, and to authorize the President to prohibit under certain conditions the exportation of food; to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.

Mr. Rodenberg of Illinois: Resolution (H. Res. 405) authorizing the appointment of a committee to investigate the shipment of munitions of war from the United States to the countries of Europe engaged in war; to the Committee on Rules.

Mr. Webb of North Carolina: A bill (H. R. 17191) to authorize the seizure, detention, and condemnation of arms and munitions of war in the course of exportation or designed to be exported or used in violation of the laws of the United States, together with the vessels or vehicles in which the same are contained; to the Committee on the Judiciary.

Affairs.

Mr. Reilly of Wisconsin: A bill (H. R. 17020) making an appropriation for the benefit of the Aviation Corps of the Depart ment of War, and repealing the provisions of certain acts relating to the acquisition of a site and the erection of a public building at Ripon, Wis.; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

Mr. Smith of Minnesota: Concurrent resolution (H. Con. Res. 61) to create a committee to investigate the Government's treatment of the National Guard and what defects in the guard organization have been evidenced by the present mobilization; to the Committee on Military Affairs.

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