« ПретходнаНастави »
pine blister, a fungus disease import- product of our Southern pine forests, ed from Europe. Already the disease as "naval stores,” but now rosin is has been found extensively in New employed in large quantities in fillEngland and in most of the Eastern ing the space between the bullets in and Northern States of the white shrapnel shells, so that when the pine belt, and to some extent in On- shells explode the missiles will be tario and Quebec. What you may evenly distributed in all directions. here consider and determine will have Gun-stocks, formerly made almost a large influence and effect for better entirely from walnut, are now made or worse on the future of the white from birch, red gum and other woods. pine, which is admittedly our most Millions of such have during the past valuable northern lumber tree, as few years been made in America. well as one of the most beautiful. I The peculiar style of warfare which need not urge upon you the impor- the great war has brought forth, tance of your deliberations.
necessitates the use of enormous THE WAR AND FOREST ECONOMICS
quantities of timber for trench walls, The great war in Europe has in
trench floors, braces and stays. Mil
lions and millions of feet are required creased the importance of the eco
for buildings behind the fighting lines, nomic value of the forest. Germany has ever been in the lead in the prac
for hospitals, for housing non-comtice of dealing scientifically with these
batants, for temporary storehouses
and the like. Enormous quantities of matters. One of the interesting mys
forest products go into mine props, teries of the present conflict is the
bridges and for other military prepasource from which the Central Powers obtain the nitro-cellulose neces
rations. sary in the manufacture of smokeless The ingenuity of Germany has powder. This, as you all know, is taught her to make a soft and satisordinarily made from cotton. Ger- factory absorbent as a substitute for many does not now have access to the absorbent cotton for surgical uses, world cotton market. We have in- and it is made from wood fiber or celformation which would indicate that lulose. Nowadays, enormous quantiin this emergency the nitro-cellulose ties of cordage and ropes and burlap, used now by Germany is made from rugs and carpets are manufactured wood. The ordinary black powder from wood fiber and wood pulp. is composed of fourteen to eighteen Some may not know it, but many a parts charcoal, made from certain person, even in this audience, is wearvarieties of wood. For strategic ing articles of clothing that are now purposes, of course, smokeless pow- made wholly or in part from wood der is preferred on the battle-fields, fiber. Some beautiful fabrics for labut very great quantities of black dies' evening wear are made largely powder are consumed daily by the of wood fiber and celluloid. The new contending armies. We refer to uses and the increased old uses for rosin and turpentine, so largely the the products of the forest increase the economic value of the forest, and the people,—these properties, thus add to the importance of all the ques- free from the often heavy local taxations you are here to consider. The tion of privately - owned forests, effect on the cost of paper is far- should be largely held in reserve until reaching, and of great economic con- logs at the saw-mill are worth the sequence.
cost of raising the crop. Germany was well prepared for CONSUMPTION AND PRICES OF LUMBER this World War, and part of her
The official Government figures economic preparation was seen in the
show that the lumber manufacturer fact that she has been unequalled in
in 1915 received 10 per cent. less per the perfection and practice of for
thousand feet for his product than in estry. The care for many years
1906. The average of lumber prices with which Germany has protected
in 1916 at the saw-mills will average her timber, and her laws not only
little more than those of 1915, and compelling in effect the replanting
at Southern pine mills not as much but making replanting profitable and,
as the prices of 1913; and this when therefore, economically possible, are
the average citizen of this country among the things that stand out in
uses over 400 feet of lumber yearlyclear relief from the viewpoint of
more extravagant in the use of lumpreparedness.
ber than the people of any other land. NO IMMEDIATE DANGER OF SERIOUS The best estimate of lumber used in LUMBER SHORTAGE
1916 in the United States was about There is no immediate danger, if 42 billion feet as against 38 billion we use our forests rightly, of a seri- used in 1915. The forest and lumber ous shortage in our lumber supply, industry is the greatest of our inbut the time is here when the con- dustries which has not greatly beneservation of our forest resources de- fitted by the World War. There mands more serious and real economic are no war brides in the shares of consideration. It seems to me that Lumber Companies. Such low prices the conservation of our privately for lumber at producing pointsowned forest resources will never away below the costs of reproducreally become effective on a sufficient tion through forestry methods—are scale until there is a prospective against the interests desiring the conprofit in practising forest conserva- servation of these resources. You tion. Our great National forests, can't continue to have your cake and now under Government administra- eat it too, when you buy your cake tion, should be supplemented to a at less than the cost of raising the greater extent by State and Muni- grain and sugar. cipal forests, as only the Nation, the The values of the trees in the forest State or the Town can afford to hold stumpage values, we call themforest lands in reservation, the cost have in recent years steadily inof tax exemption, forest management, creased, but even at present prices and protection being a burden of all forest trees at the source are the
most reasonable crop that grows cheaper, I believe, than wheat at 25c. a bushel, or corn at 10c. a bushel, or cotton at 50. a pound. Suppose that cotton or grain were century plants, like large pine trees; it would require a comptometer to compute the price of bread for breakfast.
You can't produce a dense population of men and a large stand of pine, or hard wood, on the same land. We raise a useful man in, say, twenty to twenty-five years. It takes very much longer to raise a tree useful for wide boards or timber. A boy usually produces little or nothing until he becomes of age. This is equally true of the tree raised for lumber of considerable dimensions. We have been a happy people in consuming forests that were here before we came, but now we must realize that timber like other crops must be worth the cost of production.
A BETTER PUBLIC UNDERSTANDING
A striking indication of a better understanding by the public of the problems in forest ownership and lumber production is given by the report of the Special Committee on Natural Resources of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, which, through Referendum No. 17 of that organization, recommends legislation to permit cooperative agreements under Federal supervision in those industries which involve primary natural resources on condition that the agreements tend to conserve the resources and promote the public interest. When trade organizations representing every phase of American industry vote in favor of these recommendations—as they have done it is a most hopeful sign for an ultimate conservation of our natural resources through wise use.
of my friends. It would be a fine thing to see à fair trial given to an experiment in government by public opinion. I believe you are on the right track.”
From Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw.—“I enclose my membership slip with the required fee of $1.00. It is the most satisfactory Peace League which has yet been formed in my estimation-having not a mention of force or fire, of militarism or preparedness—but just pure and simple arbitration, international brotherhood, and the consequent international relationship which must have a World's Court-and peaceful dealings--and the right kind of preparedness, which leaves out arms and strengthens Industrial, Commercial, friendly relations."
Jamaica Plain, N. Y.
From Sir Gilbert Parker._"I have received and read the magazine with great and real interest."
From Rev. G. E. White, President Anatolia College, Marsovan, Turkey.-“Enclosed please find one dollar for my membership and the magazine. If you choose to send me some of your literature to distribute, I think I can put it to good use among some
From Dr. Francis E. Clark, President United Society of Christian Endeavor."May those who believe in a lasting peace come to see eye to eye in regard to the methods to be used in promoting it, and may no differences of opinion in regard to those methods prevent us all from working together heartily for the same great end."
, The WORLD COURT
A MAGAZINE OF INTERNATIONAL PROGRESS
Vol. III - No. II
American-Made Plans to Maintain
THE WORLD'S COURT LEAGUE, Inc.
w York City
Many of you have expressed your appreciation of the improvement, in The World Court Magazine during the last few months. Increasing membership in the League and subscriptions to the magazine encourage us.
The cause which this magazine of international progress represents calls for help from its friends to enlarge its constituency. Here is an opportunity for you to send in a subscription to be given to a library, a teacher, a preacher, or just a friend who would be grateful to you for the favor.
We also ask you to send us the names and addresses of five persons to whom we may send a sample copy of The World Court Magazine in order to make them friends and supporters of the World Court Movement too.
Name of Sender