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ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page. Map of the Argentine Republic......

Frontispiece. Government House, Buenos Aires.

8 Rocking stone of Tandil.....

18 Municipal Building, La Plata.

32 Gold mine, Tierra del Fuego.

42 Ushwaia, Tierra del Fuego

43 An old Spanish corner in Buenos Aires.

46 Cathedral at Buenos Aires....

47 Buena Vista, Palermo Park, Buenos Aires.

48 Callao street, Buenos Aires–Jesuit convent on the right..

52 Grand stand, race course, Buenos Aires......

54 Façade of Opera House, Buenos Aires..

55 Private residence on one of the fashionable thoroughfares, Buenos Aires. The Bon Marché, Buenos Aires . New docks at Buenos Aires...

59 Three public schools at Buenos Aires.

64 San Fermin estate, Buenos Aires ..

78 Station of the Southern Railroad at Buenos Aires.

108 Italian Hospital, Buenos Aires.

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THE NORRIS PETERS CO., PHOTO-LITHO., WASHINGTON, D. C.

Chapter I.

HISTORICAL SKETCH.

In 1516, twenty-four years after the first landing of Columbus on the island of San Salvador, Juan Diaz de Solis, pilot-in-chief of the King of Spain, made the discovery of the Rio de la Plata (river of silver), which he called Mar Dulce (fresh sea), thinking himself in the waters of a sea, instead of those of a river whose banks are so widely separated as to be invisible to the eye of the mariner who sails at an equal distance from each side.

Although Solis, and afterwards Cabot, were under the impression that silver could be found on the banks of the newly discovered river (hence its name of Silver River), an impression also shared by the King of Spain, nineteen years elapsed before the first attempt was made by Don Pedro de Mendoza, in 1535, to establish a colony where the city of Buenos Aires now stands, a colony that was soon destroyed by the surrounding Indians.

It was in 1580, sixty-four years after the entrance of Solis into the river, that Buenos Aires was definitely founded, by Don Juan de Garay, with only sixty followers, who were left there to form the nucleus of European settlement and of a population that has now reached 600,000. In the meantime, some intrepid explorers had succeeded in marching into the heart of the country and founding cities that afterwards became the capitals of Provinces.

In 1661, the conquering Spaniards had subjugated so much territory and established so many colonies that the King of Spain found it necessary to create an Audiencia, or high court, in Buenos Aires, and to appoint a governor and captain-general for the Provinces of the

*In the preparation of this Hand-book, the Bureau of the American Republics is under obligations to Lieut. Juan S. Attwell, of the Argentine Navy.

Bull. 671

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