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ister of Justice, Worship, and Education, and Minister of War and Navy.
The Minister of the Interior supervises the following departments, bureaus, etc.: Post and Telegraph Department, department of public works, department of agriculture, bureau of National lands and colonies, maritime prefecture and subprefecturęs, territorial governments, etc.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs has under his control, besides the legations and consulates in other countries, the bureau of immigration and the lazaretos (where immigrants coming from infected ports are kept).
The Minister of Finance supervises the national treasury, the national credit, the bureau of accounts, the mint, the bureau of statistics, the bureau of public revenue, the custom-houses, etc.
The Minister of Justice, Worship, and Education has the supervision of the universities in Buenos Aires and Cordoba, the normal schools, the national board of education, the Astronomical Observatory of Cordoba, the National Library, the National Museum, the National Archives, etc.
The Minister of War and Navy supervises the War and Navy Departments, their different bureaus, the naval academy, the military academy, the national sanitary department, the military hospitals, etc.
The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court of Justice, composed of five judges and one attorney-general, and in the inferior federal courts, of which there are two in the capital and one in the capital of each of the fourteen provinces.
The Supreme Court and the other federal courts have jurisdiction over all constitutional cases, over those relating to ambassadors, ministers, and foreign consuls, and to admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, as well as over those cases to which the nation is a party, and over the settlement of disputes between the Provinces.
Under the constitution, the Provinces reserve all rights not delegated to the Federal Government. The governors of Provinces are held to be natural agents of the National Government to compel obedience to the constitution and the national laws.
Although the constitution of the Argentine Republic has been modeled after that of the United States, there are some points which deserve special mention.
The President, who as it has been seen, is elected in precisely the same manner as in the United States, can not be successively reëlected, and his term of office is six years. All his decrees, proclamations, etc., must be countersigned by a cabinet minister, or else they are valueless. Thus the constitution makes the cabinet ministers responsible for all the acts of the President, who can not take any measure or make any appointment in which he is not supported by them. The members of the cabinet can answer questions and take part in the debates of the House and Senate, although they are not members of either body, nor does an adverse vote on any measure of the Government carry with it a change in the cabinet, as is the case in France and England.
Congress has the power to legislate for all the Provinces, enacting codes to be applied in all of them, thus securing uniformity of legislation. The Provinces reserve the right to elect their own judges as well as the other officials that their local constitutions demand.
All Federal and provincial judges are appointed for life and cannot be removed unless they are impeached and condemned. Unlike the United States, where each State is divided into Congressional districts, each Province in the Argentine Republic constitutes an electoral district, sending as many Representatives to Congress as its population entitles it to. The people select by vote a list of candidates for Congress, the object being to secure the services of men well known throughout the Province.
Senators hold office for nine years and Representatives for four. Governors of Provinces can not be elected Representatives or Senators while holding office.
Every two years, elections occur for one-half of the members of the House of Representatives, and every three
for one-third of the Senate.
The capital of the nation is under the immediate jurisdiction of Congress and of the Executive, who appoint, with the advice and consent of the Senate, the mayor of the city, known as the “ Intendente Municipal.” His term of office is two years and he can be reëlected. The municipal council, composed of two members from each parish, elected by the people, perform the same functions as the aldermen of American cities.
The administration of justice is in the hands of alcaldes, justices of the peace, courts of peace, market judges, judges of first instance, and courts of appeal.
The alcaldes are appointed by the municipality, their term of office being one year, They decide cases in which the amount involved does not exceed $50. From their decision, appeals can be made to the justices of the peace. These decide civil and commercial cases in which the amount involved varies between $50 and $2,500. Their decisions are final in cases not exceeding $100, but in other cases, appeals can be made before the courts of peace (composed of three members), of which there are two in the capital. The proceedings are verbal, in the first as well as in the second instance, in cases settled before the alcaldes, judges, and courts of peace. The justices of the peace and the members of the courts of peace are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate.
In each of the “Mercados de frutos” (places where wool, hides, and the products of the soil are sold) there is one “Juez de Mercado” who decides cases relating to the sale of cattle, wool, cereals, payment of freight, weights and measures, etc.
There is also a court of second instance composed of three judges, before whom appeals can be made from the decisions of the juez de mercado.