« ПретходнаНастави »
Thus, while in 1890 there was a net gain of 55,426 immigrants, there was in 1891 an actual loss of 17,339. It must be said, however, that the greater number of departures were of persons who were unwilling to try their chances in the interior, but lingered here in Buenos Aires in a state of impecuniosity, without work and with no desire to work; and their loss has been well made up by the new arrivals, who were mostly agricultural families, and who have found profitable employment in the agricultural colonies.
It may be well to state that the Argentine Government has entirely abolished the system of paying immigrant passages to this country, thus saving to the treasury millions of dollars and from the River Plate the refuse of European paupers. The minister of the interior reports that the sum paid by the Government to bring out immigrants from Europe on their guaranties amounts to $5,315,000, of which only $54,000 have been refunded—that is to say, 99 per cent of the money is lost.
Under date of June 20, 1893, Acting Consul Gastrell makes a report to the British Foreign Office, in which he states that in 1892 immigration exceeded emigration by some 29,000 persons, whereas in 1891 emigration exceeded immigration by nearly 30,000 people. “The Argentine Government,” he adds, “ is now desirous of paying more attention to the necessities of immigrants, especially in the direction of enabling them to purchase small lots of land. It is proposed to considerably revise land legislation by a bill shortly to be laid before the National Congress.”
Continuing, Mr. Gastrell says:
Immigration has in the last five years been most erratic, largely due to the extensive subsidies to immigrants, granted in the years 1888 to 1890 (see Report No. 216, Miscellaneous Series), at a cost of £800,000 to the Argentine Government, whereby a forced immigration of 134,081 persons was obtained. In 1886, immigration numbered 93,116 persons; in 1889, it had soared to 260,909. But in the following year, 1890, it fell to 110,494 only, in spite of 20,121 persons obtained by subsidized passages. In 1891, immigrants were reduced to
52,097, or less than the number of emigrants by 29,835 persons. The year 1892 shows a slight upward movement in the line of immigration after its headlong fall since 1889. In 1892, immigrants numbered 73,294 and emigrants 43,853.
The excess of immigration or emigration for the last five years is given in the following table:
Table comparing immigration and emigration during the years 1888–93.
* The years 1888 to.August, 1891, were those of subsidized immigration and include 134,081 persons so subsidized.
This return shows the Argentine Republic gained 652,526 persons by immigration in the past five years, of whom 246,159 were Italians; that 266,257 left the country, leaving, however, a net gain of 386,269 immigrants.
The year 1891 shows a net loss to the country of 29,835 persons, largely former immigrants, a result of the economic and financial crisis of 1890, and from which the country has now partially recovered.
The excess of immigration over emigration in 1892 was slightly over that in 1890, and it really represents more, as 20,121 immigrants in 1890 were subsidized by the State.
CONSTITUTION OF THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.
[Translated for the Bureau of the American Republics, December, 1893-] We, the representatives of the people of the Argentine Nation, elected, as previously agreed upon, by the Provinces which form said Nation, and assembled by their will in a general constituent congress for the purpose of framing a Constitution for the National Union, fixing their relations upon substantial foundations of justice, securing domestic peace, providing for the common defense, promoting the general welfare, and securing the benefits of liberty for ourselves, our descendants, and for all men of whatever country who may desire to live upon the Argentine soil—after having invoked the protection of God, source and origin of all reason and justice-do hereby make, order, and decree the following Constitution of the Argentine Nation.
CHAPTER I.—Declarations, Rights, and Guaranties.
The Argentine Nation adopts for its Government the federal republican representative form, as established by this Constitution.
ARTICLE II. The Federal Government contributes to the support of the Apostolic Roman Catholic church.
ARTICLE III. The authorities of the Federal Government shall reside in such city as may be declared, by special act of Congress, to be the capital of the Republic. But a proper cession of the locality which through this action shall become federal, must have been made previously by one or more of the provincial legislatures.*
* A law passed in 1880 established the national capital in the city of Buenos Aires, ceded by the Legislature of the State of the same name.
The Federal Government shall provide for the expenses of the Nation out of the funds of the National Treasury, to be formed as follows, namely: By the import duties levied on foreign merchandise, and by those to be levied until 1866 on the export of the domestic products, all as established and regulated in paragraph No. 1 of Article LXVII;* by the proceeds of the sale or lease of national lands; by the revenues of the postal service; by such taxes as the National Congress may levy, equitable and in proportion to the population; and by such loans and operations of cfedit which the same Congress may decree to be made in cases of urgent national necessities, or for works or undertakings of national utility.
Every Province shall have its own constitution, framed upon the basis of a republican representative system of government, and in harmony with the principles, declarations, and guaranties of the National Constitution, which shall provide for the administration of justice, the administration of the local government, and the imparting of primary instruction. Upon these conditions, the Federal Government guarantees to each Province the practice and enjoyment of its own institutions.
The Federal Government shall intervene in the territory of the Provinces to guarantee the republican form of government or to repel foreign invasion, and, at the request of their constituted authorities, to sustain them in power, or to reestablish them if deposed by sedition or by invasion from another Province.
Full credit shall be given in each Province to the public acts and judicial proceedings of all the others; and Congress shall have the power to provide by general laws the manner in which such acts and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect they shall have in law.
The citizens of each Province shall enjoy in all the others all the rights, privileges, and immunities of citizenship. The extradition of criminals from one province to another is reciprocally obligatory.
* The words printed in italics were ordered to be stricken out by the National Convention of Santa Fé, September 12, 1866.
In all the national territory there shall not be any custom-houses except those of the nation, which shall be governed by the tariff laws enacted by the Congress.
ARTICLE X. The circulation in the interior of the Republic of all articles, the product or manufacture of the Nation, and of all other goods and merchandise of all classes, introduced into the country through the national custom-houses, shall be free from duties.
Articles of national or foreign production or manufacture, and cattle of all kinds, when passing from the territory of one Province into the territory of another, shall be exempted from the duties called “of transit.” The same freedom shall be enjoyed by the vehicles, whether carriages, vessels, or animals, on which they are transported. No other duty, whatever its name may be, shall be levied upon said articles and vehicles, for passing through the territory of one or more Provinces.
Vessels cleared from one Province to another shall not be bound to enter any port to be found in their way, or cast anchor in them, or pay duties on account of transit; and in no case shall any preference be given by law or commercial regulations to one port over another.
New Provinces may be admitted into the Nation, but no new Province shall be erected within the territory of another, nor shall two or more Provinces be consolidated into one, without the consent of the respective legislatures of the interested Provinces and of the National Congress.
All the inhabitants of the Republic shall enjoy, subject to the laws regulating their exercise, the following rights, namely: the right to work and exercise any lawful industry; the right to navigate and to trade; the right of petitioning the authorities; the right to enter the Argentine territory, remain in it, travel through it, or leave it; the right to publish their own ideas through the press without previous censorship; the right to use and dispose of their own property; the right to associate themselves for useful purposes; the right to freely profess their own religion; and the right to teach and to learn.