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over a mile long and cost $150,000. In a few years. every important river was bridged. When the legislature was asked for a bridge across the Genesee River one speaker said: "It is a God-forsaken place!-inhabited by muskrats, visited only by straggling trappers, through which neither man nor beast could gallop without fear of starvation or fever and ague."

Stage-coaches.—With roads came stage-coaches. They weighed a ton, were richly decorated, and were drawn by four or more strong horses. As the horses hurried from place to place, the driver blew a horn to announce his coming, and was met by a crowd to see the passengers and to hear the news. The state granted stage routes as privileges, and soon rival lines sprang up. There were the "Splendid Red Coaches," the " Superior Yellow Coaches," and the "Redbird," "Telegraph," and "Eclipse" lines. After the Revolution the stage ran from New York to Albany in a week. In 1787 stages ran from Albany to Utica once in every two weeks, and in 1808 there was a daily line from Utica to Canandaigua. There were slower lines to all western settlements. The "Telegraph" soon carried six passengers from Albany to Buffalo in thirty hours for twelve dollars. The usual fare was six cents a mile.

Mail.-In 1731 mail was carried from New York to Albany once a month by a foot-post. After 1775 postriders were used, one on each side of the Hudson. By 1793 mails were carried on horseback every two weeks as far west as Utica, thence to Canandaigua (1794), Batavia (1802), Buffalo (1803), and Westfield (1806). In 1789 there were only seven post-offices in the state, all on the Hudson. It cost twenty-five cents to send a

letter from Buffalo to Albany, and the expense to other points was in proportion to distances.

Western Civilization. The region west of Utica was rapidly settled. In 1791 more than 1,500 families passed through Schenectady. At Three Rivers 240 yoke of oxen were counted at one time.1 Log houses were soon built "in the midst of stumps, half-burned logs, girdled trees, and confusion." The log barns were well filled. Land soon sold for from one to three dollars an acre. Saw-mills, grist-mills, asheries, lime-kilns, brick-yards, charcoal-pits, still-houses, blacksmith-shops, stores, and taverns were built as needs arose. Schools, churches, and jails were erected. Towns, townships, and counties were organized. With the settlement of Chautauqua county in 1801 civilization was planted all over western New York.

Social Institutions. This new country had its own social institutions: clearings, loggings, raisings, roadopenings, choppings, quiltings, corn-huskings, butcherings, and sugarings-off, which helped to change the forest into fine farms. All these were made occasions of festivity. Dances, parties, frolics, religious gatherings, school elections, annual fairs, and political meetings were also occasions of social intercourse. "General training" called out every man from 18 to 45 three times a year for drill. This was a gala day and brought all the people together to enjoy the music, drills, and contests of skill. The old were reminded of

1 An observer of that day (1791) wrote: "I have noticed that New England farmers settled in this country have, in some instances, adopted the lazy and unprofitable custom of using horses instead of oxen."

the Revolution, and the young were fired with patriotism. This custom lasted till 1845. The first wedding recorded in this western region was at Manlius (1794) on "training day" in front of the inn, the soldiers forming a hollow square within which the ceremony took place.

Markets. The rich fields gave big returns, but the crops could not be sold for lack of a market. The waterways were used at first to get grains and lumber and manufactured articles to Montreal, Albany, or Philadelphia. With good roads, however, overland trips to market were made. In 1804 "a wagon-load of wheat was brought by four yoke of oxen from Bloomfield (Ontario county) to Albany, a distance of 230 miles." The wheat was bought for 62 cents a bushel and sold for $2.15. Furs were still sent east.

Industries. As early as 1789 salt was obtained by boiling in kettles the water of the salt springs at Onondaga Lake, long known to the Indians. Solar saltworks were erected later (1821). Wool was carded, spun, and woven on hand-looms by the women. Linen was treated in the same way. The first carding and fulling machine was set up in 1806 at Trenton, Oneida county. Tailors and shoemakers went from house to house "mending" and "making up " for the year. Religion. The Jesuits planted the western New York among the natives. came the Congregational, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Lutheran, and other churches. Famous "big meetings" were held in the winter, and "camp-meetings" during the summer. In 1787 twentyfive followers of Jemima Wilkinson bought 14,000 acres

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near Dresden and became the pioneers of Yates county. She was the Moses of this colony of Friends, and with her death the order disappeared.1

Schools and academies were soon established. The Regents of the University of the state were created in 1784, and organized to superintend education in 1787. The legislature set aside land for education in 1789 and soon appropriated $50,000 to support common schools (1795). The Geneva union school was the first of its kind in the state. Log schoolhouses were soon found in every settlement. In 1807 the Buffalo public-school system was originated. An academy was started at Canandaigua (1795), and another at Cayuga (1801). Newspapers spread from east to west. The first one in central New York was The Otsego Herald at Cooperstown (1795).2 The Bath Gazette followed (1796), and within a few years every village had its newspaper.

The Strong Cosmopolitan Civilization of the west rounded out the greatness of the Empire State. The prophecy made in 1791 was fulfilled: "The Germans, Dutch, and Yankees will soon dismiss all local, illiberal prejudices and distinctions; and in twenty or thirty years the shades of discordance will be hardly perceptible. The whole will amalgamate and all will be dignified by the general name of Americans." 3

1She was born in Rhode Island, at 20 claimed to be divinely cured of an illness, and then preached throughout New England, Pennsylvania, and New York, gaining many followers. She knew the Bible by heart.

2 William L. Stone, Thurlow Weed, and James Fenimore Cooper all "set type" there. Cooper's The Pioneer gives a description of it.

3 Watson, History of the Western Canals.


Parties. The Whigs and Tories of the Revolution gave way to the Federalists and Anti-federalists during the framing and adoption of the national constitution. After the constitution became the supreme law of the nation the Antifederalists began to call themselves Republicans, or later Democratic-Republicans, and finally Democrats, though for thirty years their opponents called them Anti-federalists.

Election of 1792.-Under New York's first constitution the governor was elected for three years. Clinton had been chosen five terms without opposition, but in 1792 the Federalists supported John Jay for governor. Jay received more votes than Clinton, but the returns of three counties giving Jay large majorities were thrown out because of some technical defect, and this elected Clinton. The Federalists were very angry, and at a dinner in New York City prominent citizens drank to the toast, "John Jay, governor by voice of the people." While Jay was minister to England in 1795 his friends again nominated him for governor. Clinton prudently declined to be a candidate, and Robert Yates represented the Republicans. Jay was elected while abroad. The treaty he signed with England was most violently denounced, but to avert an outbreak the Federalists supported it and had it ratified in the United States Senate.

Clinton Elected Vice-President.-At first presidential electors were chosen by the state legislature instead of by the people. The change was made in 1828. Previous

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