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Steamboats. Before the canal was begun steamboats were going up and down the Hudson. Various experi

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ventor, wrote of the trip: "The signal was given, the boat moved a short distance and then stopped. I went below, examined the machinery, and discovered that the cause was a slight mal-adjustment of the works. In a short period it was obviated. The boat was again put in motion. She continued to move on. We left the fair city of New York; we passed through the romantic

and ever-varying scenery of the Highlands; we descried the clustering homes of Albany; we reached its shores. It was then doubted if the trip could be done again, or, if done, it could be made of any great value."

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Fulton and Livingston's Monopoly. Next year the "Clermont," enlarged and with a new name, made regular trips to Albany. The "Car of Neptune (1807), the "Raritan " (1808), the "Paragon " (1811), the "Camden," and the "Fire-Fly" (1812) were soon put on the Hudson, and other vessels on Long Island Sound. In 1811 Robert R. Livingston and Fulton, who held a monopoly of steamboat navigation for the state, began to build boats for Lake Champlain, but they were forced to give up their rights on that body of water. The monopoly died with Fulton in 1815. The "Phoenix," built by John Stevens and his son Robert, first sailed the ocean from New York to the Delaware River (1808). The "Savannah," built at New York, went to Savannah, then across the ocean to England, Sweden, and Russia (1819), and in twenty-five days returned to New York directly from St. Petersburg.


Other Vessels.-Sail-ferries had been used for years New York, on the Hudson, on Cayuga Lake (1791), at Buffalo (1804), and on the Genesee River (1805). Steam-ferries, called the "Jersey," "York," and "Nassau," connected New York with Long Island and with New Jersey (1814). The first steamboat on Lake Ontario was the "Ontario," built at Sacketts Harbor (1816), and the first on Lake Erie was the "Walk-in-theWater," built at Black Rock (1818). Soon a boat was sailing the Genesee River (1824). In 1823 a New York City paper noted the arrival of the first western boat in

the metropolis with a cargo of "800 bushels of wheat, three tons of butter, and four barrels of beans" from Hector, Tompkins county.


War with England checked the project for canals. The country was divided over the wisdom of such a war. There were several causes of "The Second War of Independence." Neither England nor the United States fulfilled the terms of the treaty of 1783. Great Britain also claimed the right to seize British sailors in American service even though they had become citizens of the United States. In addition England passed heavy restrictions on American commerce to prevent aid to France. These things angered many Americans, who clamored loudly for war. The governor of New York, Daniel D. Tompkins, elected in 1807, was very active in favor of war, which was declared by the United States June 18, 1812. He soon had 40,000 soldiers ready to defend the state at New York, Buffalo, Sacketts Harbor, and Plattsburg. Various fortifications were constructed, and within four months twenty-six privateers sailed out of New York harbor.

The Frontiers of New York were at no time free from attack. General Dearborn was sent to command the northern army, and General Jacob Brown was stationed at Ogdensburg with a body of New York militia. Three British schooners were captured. In retaliation the Canadians burned two American schooners (June, 1812), and the next month five British vessels attacked

the ship "Oneida " near Sacketts Harbor, but were repulsed. Captain Isaac Chauncey was sent to cope with the British fleet on Lake Ontario. Ship-carpenters, seamen, and guns were hurriedly sent to Sacketts Harbor. Merchant-vessels were fitted for the service, and in a short cruise Chauncey captured three merchant-vessels, destroyed an armed schooner, and disabled the enemy's largest war-ship (Nov., 1812).

Early Events of the War.-The Canadians occupied St. Regis, a neutral Indian village on the border line, and enlisted about eighty Indians. An expedition from French Mills (Fort Covington) captured these Canadians (Oct. 22). In retaliation an American militia company at French Mills was taken. General Stephen Van Rensselaer was in command at Niagara. After the disgraceful surrender of General Hull in Michigan (Aug., 1812) the Canadian General Brock moved east to oppose Van Rensselaer. While the latter was preparing an invasion of Canada, Lieutenant Elliott, at night in open boats, crossed the lower end of Lake Erie and captured two British armed vessels anchored under the guns of Fort Erie (Oct. 9). Van Rensselaer's attack on Queenstown (Oct. 13) was a failure owing to bad management and the refusal of many New York militiamen to fight beyond the limits of their state. A thousand Americans were captured. Van Rensselaer resigned his command in disgust.

Capture of Ogdensburg. In a Canadian jail about twelve miles above Ogdensburg were a number of American soldiers and civilians, and British deserters. In February, 1813, an expedition under Major Forsyth started from Ogdensburg to rescue them, and was suc

cessful. The British retaliated by taking Ogdensburg, plundering it, and returning to Canada with the prisoners (Feb. 22).

Attack on York and Fall of Fort George. To secure the mastery of Lake Ontario, Dearborn and Chauncey decided to attack York (Toronto). Chauncey's fleet with 1,700 soldiers left Sacketts Harbor, and in five days effected a landing near York. General Pike led the assault. The enemy fled and blew up their magazine, killing or wounding about 200 of their assailants. The town capitulated (April 27). One fine sloop was captured by the Americans and another burned by the British. Pike was mortally wounded by the explosion. He was carried to the flag-ship, and there the hero died with the flag under his head. The fleet then proceeded against Fort George at the mouth of Niagara River. Colonel Winfield Scott landed the troops and defeated the British outside of the fort. The garrison fired their magazines and fled. Only one exploded, and Scott with his own hands hauled down the British flag (May 27).

Naval Affairs. Meanwhile the Canadian General Prevost with 1,000 men sailed from Kingston to take Sacketts Harbor while undefended. He was met by about 400 regulars and some volunteers under Brown and driven back with considerable loss to his ships (May 29). During the summer of 1813 Chauncey met the British fleet in three engagements, but none was decisive. Dearborn was removed from his command and General James Wilkinson became his successor. The victories on Lake Erie won by Captain Oliver H. Perry, with a newly formed fleet, and on land by General William Henry Harrison, were welcome news to the

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