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The "Nine Men."-" Peter the headstrong" was expected to guard the company's rights and lands, to preserve peace with the Indians, to strengthen the fort, and to develop the colony. To do these things he must have money, and that could be had only by taxing the people. With that object in mind, he ordered the people of New Amsterdam, Brooklyn, Amersfoort, and Pavonia to nominate "eighteen of the most notable, reasonable, honest, and respectable" persons from whom he could select nine men to assist him, when called upon, about the general welfare. The relations between Stuyvesant and the Nine Men were not always harmonious. He was arbitrary, while they strove to secure more privileges for the people. Their first victory was a government for New Amsterdam with local officers who were both "aldermen and justices."

Stuyvesant's Troubles.-Most of Stuyvesant's time was taken up by quarrels with patroons, with the English on the Connecticut River, and with the Swedes on the Delaware. The patroon of Rensselaerwyck denied the governor's jurisdiction and defied him. But by 1650 the government of Holland sustained Stuyvesant in every point and crushed the patroon's independence. The contest over Connecticut River ended by a treaty which gave the English half of Long Island and nearly all of Connecticut. A party from New England was not allowed to locate on the Delaware, and a fort was built near Christina (1651). Its capture by the Swedes (1654) led the company to order Stuyvesant to avenge the wrong." With six hundred men he forced the Swedes to surrender (1655), and those who

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refused to swear allegiance were sent to Holland for trial.

Indians Attack New Amsterdam.-While Stuyvesant was away on this expedition, a large body of Indians attacked New Amsterdam. Repulsed, they crossed to Pavonia and Staten Island, laid waste the farms, and killed or captured two hundred and fifty persons. Stuyvesant was sent for. He ransomed the prisoners and made peace. Some time later, however, an attack was made on Esopus, and sixty-six were killed or carried away (1663).

England Claims New Netherland.—England had never given up her claim to New Netherland, which was based on the discoveries of the Cabots in 1497 and 1498 and on the exploration of Hudson. In 1662 the settlers in Connecticut secured from Charles II., the English king, a grant of land reaching across the continent. This included a large part of New Netherland. But two years later the king revoked the gift and conveyed by patent to his brother James, the Duke of York, a tract of land which included New Netherland (1664).

The duke at once sent out an armed fleet to secure his gift. In August, 1664, Colonel Richard Nicolls appeared before New Amsterdam, now a city of 1,500 people, with 450 English soldiers and some Connecticut volunteers, and demanded its surrender. Though the stone fort with its twenty cannon was in a poor condition for defense, Stuyvesant, the brave old soldier, declared, "I would rather be carried to my grave than yield." In his anger, he tore the letter of Nicolls to pieces and threw the fragments on the floor. But the people, many of whom were English, urged him to sur

render. They were dissatisfied with the governor's arbitrary ways, and disgusted with the neglect of the company. Men, women, and children, even his own son, begged him not to provoke the English fleet to fire on the city, and the white flag was run up. Dutch rule in New Netherland came to an end (September).

Stuyvesant's Death.-A year later Stuyvesant went to Holland in obedience to a summons from his employers. They demanded his punishment, but testimony from New Amsterdam completely vindicated him. In 1667 he returned to New York, where he lived until his death, in 1682, on his farm, or bowery, from which the Bowery in New York is named. His body was placed in a vault of St. Mark's Church, and there his memorial may still be seen. He will remain, after Hudson, the hero of the Dutch period. He was a sterling gentleman of the old type, without a particle of respect for popular liberty, but loyal and honest and brave.

CHAPTER VII.—THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE DUTCH

Political Ideas.-The institutions and customs which were planted in New York by the Dutch have played an important part in the history of the state. While the form of government was harsh and despotic under the company, still Holland was a republic and ideas of popular government were carried to the New World by Dutch burghers, French Huguenots, and English Puritans. These liberal ideas about politics were the germs from which developed a great republic.

Education. Despite the hardships of a new country the Dutch did not neglect education. The early settlers brought schoolmasters from Holland. The establishment of schools and the appointment of schoolmasters rested with the company. The duties of a schoolmaster were numerous; he was court-messenger, churchsexton, psalm-setter, grave-digger, lay reader, and "comforter of the sick." Every teacher, public and private, had to have a license from the civil and ecclesiastical authorities. The first schoolmaster sent to the colony by the company was in 1633. He received his pay partly from the company, partly from New Amsterdam, and partly from each pupil. In 1638 the first public tax for schools was levied, and in 1653 New Amsterdam agreed to support one schoolmaster. The company and this city supplied the neighboring settlements with teachers. Children were taught arithmetic, reading, writing, spelling, and the catechism. In 1658

Alexander Carolus Curtius opened a Latin school and drew from the public treasury of New Amsterdam annually $187.50, " was provided with a house and garden, and received six guilders from each pupil." Although the authorities encouraged education, yet on account of the lack of free schools "the mass of the people . . at Manhattan were unable or ill qualified to either read or write" (1642).1

Churches. In 1628 was formed a Dutch Reformed church, with the Rev. Jonas Michaelius as minister. "It was the first fully organized church in the United States." Dominie Everardus Bogardus came over in

1 See Docs. rel, to N. Y. Col, Hist., I., 300, 423,

1633 with director Van Twiller. Soon a minister of the Dutch Reformed faith was stationed at Flatbush, Brooklyn, Rensselaerswyck, and Fort Orange. At first there was a disposition among the Dutch to exclude all churches except those of the Reformed creed. A few Quakers were banished, some members of the Church of England were persecuted, and Stuyvesant1 tried to drive out the Lutheran Church, but the company stood for religious freedom. They said: "Let every one remain free as long as he is modest and moderate, and does not offend others, or oppose the government." Hence Catholics, Protestants, and Jews worshiped as they pleased. Many persons fled from New England to secure liberty of conscience in New Netherland. At the end of Dutch rule no less than fourteen different churches were found in the province. Father Isaac Jogues, a French Catholic, and Rev. John Megapolensis of the Dutch Reformed Church, did splendid missionary work among the Indians.

Industry. Under a greedy trading company it was but natural that industry should be hampered. To make money through trade was the prime object, hence agriculture and manufacturing were not encouraged. At first traffic in furs was the chief occupation. With the patroons came farming, but it was of an inferior kind because few of the farmers owned their lands. There were no factories. The people were employed in clearing land, making roads, and building houses and barns. Their wants were not many and easily satisfied.

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1In vindication of the governors it ought to be stated that their oath of office required them to support "the Reformed Religion."

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