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They lived on what few things they raised on their farms, the game of the forest and fish from the streams, and milk, cheese, and butter. Simple indeed was the industrial life of the city and province which, within three centuries, were to become the industrial center of the world.

Society. New Amsterdam and Fort Orange were the two centers of activity. In 1653 the former place was incorporated as a village of less than a thousand people. The hogs rooted up "Broadway "1 so much that an or dinance compelled their owners to put rings in their noses, and the cows grazed on the side of the roads. The gardens and yards were large. The log houses soon gave away to to substantial buildings. These solid Dutch houses may still be seen along the Hudson. On the fort grounds were a stone church, the governor's house, storehouses, and barracks. Rows of small houses, occupied by mechanics and laborers, were just outside the grounds. Four or five hundred houses were scattered over the island and the neighboring shores. The best were of brick or stone, covered with tiles, a story and a half high, with a big broad "stoop," and deep windows with small glass panes. Inside were broad halls, sanded floors, fine furniture from Holland, a high clock, crockery in abundance, pewter articles for the table and the big fireplaces. Fort Orange, in 1643, "contained several houses, and behind it was a small church. Some twenty-five or thirty houses, roughly built of boards and roofed with thatch, were scattered

1 Its name was then "Heeren Straat (the Gentlemen's Street) and shows that it was early the principal street.

at intervals on or near the borders of the Hudson, above and below the fort."

Society was divided into classes. The aristocratic landowners and traders stood at the top of the social scale; then came the independent farmers, small traders, and professional men; these were followed by the common laborers and tenants; and at the bottom were the slaves. Negro slavery was very prevalent. "Stuyvesant was instructed to promote the sale of negroes," and at one time there were more slaves in New Netherland than in any other American colony. The principal nations in Europe had representatives among the people of this province, and Father Jogues was told that eighteen different languages were spoken. Very early New York began to be cosmopolitan. Few of the settlers were lazy and none were paupers. Criminals were punished severely. Banishment, boring the tongue with a red-hot iron, the ducking-stool and the gallows were forms of punishment. The Dutch rose early and went to bed at sunset. They ate potatoes, cabbages, asparagus, barley-bread, clams, doughnuts, game and poultry; and drank buttermilk, tea and wines. They were also great smokers. They wore clothes of linsey-woolsey with plenty of bright ornaments. Newyear's day was the gayest of the year; on Easter they colored eggs and "cracked" them; and on Christmas came Santa Claus with his presents and good cheer.

I. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1609-1664

1. Primary Sources

O'Callaghan, "Documents relative to the Colonial History of New York," Vols. 1, 2, 3, 9, 12, 13, and 14.

O'Callaghan, "Documentary History of the State of New York,” Vols. 1, 2, 3, and 4.

O'Callaghan, "Calendar of Historical Manuscripts," Part I. (1630-1664).

O'Callaghan, "The Register of New Netherland" (1626–1674). New York Historical Society "Collections."

Munsell, "Annals of Albany," Vols. 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Munsell, "Collections on the History of Albany," I.

Fernow, "The Records of New Amsterdam " (1653-1674). 7 vols. O'Callaghan, "Laws and Ordinances of New Netherland (1638–

1674).

Thwaites, "The Jesuit Relations

(1609-1691). 54 volumes.

Colden, "History of the Five Nations."

Hart, "American History told by Contemporaries," I. "Old South Leaflets." 4 vols.

2. Secondary Sources

O'Callaghan, "The History of New Netherland." 2 vols.
Smith, "The History of the Late Province of New York."
Yates and Moulton, "History of the State of New York."
Dunlap, "History of New Netherland," etc., I., pp. 1–86.
Brodhead, "History of the State of New York," I., pp. 1-765.
Macauley, "Natural, Statistical, and Civil History of the State of
New York." 3 vols.

Barber and Howe, "Historical Collections of the State of New
York."

Lossing, "Empire State," pp. 1-84.

Schuyler, "Colonial New York," I.

Earle, "Colonial Days in Old New York."

Roberts, "New York," I., pp. 1–178.

Wilson, "Memorial History of the City of New York,” I., pp.

1-307.

Bancroft, "History of the United States," I., pp. 475–518.

Abbott, "Peter Stuyvesant."

Hildreth, "History of the United States," I., pp. 136, 413.

Bryant and Gay's "Popular History of the United States,” I.,

pp. 339, 429; II., p. 115.

Lamb, "History of the City of New York,” I., pp. 1–218.

Booth, "History of the City of New York," pp. 1–156.

Roosevelt, "New York," pp. 1-38.

Todd, "Story of the City of New York."

Disosway, "Earliest Churches of New York."

Davis, "History of New Amsterdam."

Trask, "Bowling Green."

Weise, "History of the City of Albany."

Fiske, "The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America," I.

Fisher, “Men, Women, and Manners in Colonial Times," II., pp.

9-147.

Goodwin and others, "Historic New York" (Half Moon Papers). 2 vols.

Flint, "Early Long Island," pp. 1–293.

Thompson, "History of Long Island," pp. 1–90.

Stiles, "History of the City of Brooklyn," I., pp. 1–166.
McManus, "How the Dutch came to Manhattan."

Valentine, "History of the City of New York."

Brooks, "The Story of New York," pp. 1-53.

Parkman, "Pioneers of France in the New World."

Parkman, "Jesuits in North America."

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Parkman, Frontenac and New France under Louis XIV."

Palmer, "History of Lake Champlain" (1609–1814).

Winsor, "Narrative and Critical History of America," IV., pp.

395-443.

Beauchamp, "Indian Homes in New York," "Aboriginal Settlement of New York," etc., etc.

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Irving, "Knickerbocker's History of New York."

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY

1000 B.C. Probable date of "Mound-Builders."

1003 A.D. Possible visit of the Norsemen. 1405. Invasion of the Iroquois.

1492. Columbus discovers America.

1497-8. Conjectured voyage of the Cabots.

1524. Supposed discovery of Verrazano.

1525. Gomez calls the Hudson River San Antonio.

1556. Thevet's visit to New York harbor.

1609. (July). Champlain enters New York from Canada. (Sept.). Hudson enters "ew York Bay.

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1612. Christiansen and Block sail for Manhattan.

1613. Small settlement on Manhattan Island.

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Fort Nassau built on Castle Island below Albany.
The "Onrest" launched at the Battery.

1614. (Oct. 11). Amsterdam merchants given a trading charter. Block's discovery of Connecticut.

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1615. (Oct.). Champlain invades New York a second time.

1616. Kingston first settled.

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1617. "Treaty of Tawasenetha near Albany.

1618. Renewal of trade charter refused.

1620. (April). Puritans refused right to settle in New Nether

land.

1621. (June). Dutch West India Company chartered.

1622. (Dec.). Company takes possession.

1623. Walloons settle Albany. Fort Orange built.

1624. Colonists sent over in the "New Netherland."

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1626. Minuit arrives as the first Director-General.

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(May). Manhattan Island bought for $24.

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