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1626. (Oct.). Friendly relations with Plymouth established. 1629. (June). “Patroons" created by States General.

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Fort Amsterdam built.

Settlement on Manhattan called New Amsterdam.

Fort Good Hope built on the Connecticut.
English remonstrate.

1636. Van Twiller recalled.

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West India Company buys back Pavonia. 1638. (March). Kieft arrives as Governor.

66 Swedes build Fort Christina on the Delaware. 1639. New Charter of Privileges granted the colonists. 1640. Purchase of tracts in Kings and Queens counties.

66 Kieft cuts off trade with Connecticut.

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Kieft sends armed force against Raritan Indians.
De Vries's plantation burned.

1641. War declared against savages.

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Massacre of Long Island Indians.

1645. General peace concluded on Bowling Green.

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1647. Kieft replaced by Stuyvesant as Governor.

Kuyter and Melyn banished.

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1653. Assembly of the villages called.

1654. English intrigue to conquer the Dutch.

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Police and Fire departments organized.

1664. New Netherland granted to the Duke of York.

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(Sept. 3). New Netherland surrenders to the English.

II. THE ENGLISH PERIOD. 1664–1776

CHAPTER VIII. THE FIRST DECADE OF ENGLISH RULE

Changes in New York.-With the surrender of New Amsterdam to Nicolls eight or nine thousand colonists became English subjects. But the chief changes were in names rather than institutions. New Netherland became New York, and Nicolls was the first English governor. The burgomasters became magistrates; the schepens, aldermen; the schouts, sheriffs; the koopmen, secretaries. New Amsterdam was renamed New York, while Fort Amsterdam was called Fort James. Fort Orange was changed to Albany, and Esopus to Kingston.

Popular Convention.-Nicolls had received minute instructions how to govern the captured province. He invited the towns to send two delegates to a general meeting to be held at Hempstead (March 1, 1665). Thirtyfour delegates responded, hoping to receive for the people the coveted liberty of New England, and the right to elect their own officers and to tax themselves. Instead they were only permitted to accept a previously prepared code of "The Duke's Laws" intended to gradually replace the Dutch laws. Religious liberty, equal taxation, Dutch customs, and the security of land titles were guaranteed, but the governor was directed

to appoint all officers and to impose all taxes. The landholders were required to renew their titles, the fees for which went into the governor's pocket.

Nicolls was not as able a ruler as Stuyvesant, but he knew how to manage the people. Although he ruled a people who were mostly Dutch and was forced to lay heavy taxes on them to secure the province against attack, yet his popularity with the Dutch was greater than with the English colonists. The dispute with Connecticut over boundaries was settled by a compromise. The Duke of York received Long Island, and Connecticut obtained land which determined her western boundary line in 1683. The town of New York was granted a city charter and Thomas Willet was appointed first mayor (1665).1

The Dutch Recapture New York-In 1667 Nicolls, after three years of creditable rule, gave up his office, preferring to win glory on European battle-fields. Lord Francis Lovelace succeeded him. He soon made enemies of the people. In answer to a petition from the towns against unjust taxes, he ordered the paper burned and said that the people should have no liberty. During his rule war broke out between England and Holland. A Dutch fleet entered New York harbor, six hundred men were landed above the city and were joined by four hundred Dutch, when the English commander surrendered. In a few days all New York, New Jersey, and Delaware were again under Dutch con

1 Thomas Willet was an Englishman who had lived among the Puritans at Leyden, Holland, and at Plymouth, Mass. At the latter place he had succeeded Miles Standish as captain of the militia. He died in 1674, and is buried at East Providence, R. I.

trol. The blustering Captain Anthony Colve was made governor and the province again became New Netherland (Aug., 1673), but for a brief time only. Early in 1674 a treaty ended the war, and after fifteen months the English regained possession of New York (Nov.). Condition of the Colony.-During this period the population had increased to ten thousand, six thousand of whom were Dutch. Each town was required to build a church. "Almost every settlement had a regular school taught by more or less permanent teachers." Settlements were spreading up the Hudson and the Mohawk. The relations with the Indians were friendly and profitable. The first post-rider carried "letters. and small portable goods" to Boston and return monthly (1673). Trade and commerce were thriving. The English and Dutch were gradually intermingling and the colony was generally prosperous. Along the line of political liberty, however, but little progress had been made. For a hundred years New York was to remain in the hands of the English.

CHAPTER IX.-THE FIRST VICTORY FOR SELF

GOVERNMENT

Governor Andros. To make the grant doubly good the king gave to the Duke of York a second deed. The duke had already sold New Jersey to Berkeley and Carteret, but now contended that the Jersey grants were still tributary to New York. To guard his interests the duke made Edmund Andros governor over the whole country from the Connecticut River to Lord

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