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rival of the new governor the assembly voted to limit its term to seven years, like the British Parliament.
King George's War: William Johnson.-During Clinton's administration King George's War (1744–1748) was fought. This was simply a continuation of the old contest between the English and the French for supremacy. At Albany Clinton made a treaty with the Iroquois, and appointed William Johnson agent for them (1746). This office had been in the Schuyler family about fifty years. Peter Schuyler's influence over the Indians was very great, but Johnson's was unbounded. He had come from Ireland to manage the estate of his uncle, Sir Peter Warren (1738). He built Fort Johnson near the present village of Amsterdam, and a few miles farther north he located Johnson Hall. These buildings are still standing. He soon learned the language of the Indians, adopted their dress and customs, ate with them, joined them in hunts, married an Indian woman, excelled them in their own sports, and became a friend, companion, and master. Thus he was able to turn them against the French, and the king appointed him "Sole Superintendent of the Six Nations," an office he held until his death in 1774.
New York bravely bore its part of the four years' war. Guns and money were contributed to the expedition against Louisburg (1745). The French built Fort St. Frederick at Crown Point, and five hundred French and Indians from there captured Saratoga.1 Twenty houses were burned, a dozen persons were
Saratoga Springs had its beginning as a village in 1773, when a log cabin was built there.
killed and over a hundred were captured (Nov. 16, 1745). This disaster led the assembly to build six block-house forts between Saratoga and Fort William, afterward Fort Stanwix, and to strengthen the defenses of New York harbor. The province kept 1,600 men in the field and appropriated nearly £100,000 for the war. On the St. Lawrence the French established a mission, and four years later a fort. This place was captured by the English in 1760 and became Ogdensburg.
Clinton's Successors. After amassing a fortune, Clinton was succeeded by Sir Danvers Osborn (Oct. 10, 1753), who was soon driven to suicide by domestic troubles. James De Lancey, the lieutenant-governor, was at the head of the government then till the arrival of Sir Charles Hardy as governor (Sept., 1755). De Lancey became the chief adviser of Hardy during his rule of two years, and was on excellent terms with the assembly. In 1757 Hardy turned the province over to De Lancey, commanded the expedition against Louisburg, and never returned. In 1760 De Lancey died, and until the arrival, the next year, of his successor, Major-General Robert Monckton, Cadwallader Colden, the president of the council, ruled the colony.
CHAPTER XIII.—THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
Colonial Congress at Albany.-The contest between England and France for supremacy in America did not end with the treaty of 1748. Each prepared for the final conflict. In 1754, at the suggestion of the British
secretary of state, all the colonies north of the Potomac held a congress at Albany to maintain the alliance of the Iroquois and to arrange united measures against the French. New York was represented by Governor James De Lancey, who presided, Joseph Murray, William Johnson, John Chambers, and William Smith. One hundred and fifty warriors of the Six Nations were in attendance. Their leader, "King Hendrick," a grayhaired Mohawk, who had been to England with Peter Schuyler, complained because the English had not built as many forts as the French,' but plenty of presents secured the co-operation of the red men. A plan to unite the colonies was prepared by the celebrated Benjamin Franklin, and accepted by the Congress (July 4). But the colonies rejected the proposed union because it gave the king too much power; the king likewise vetoed the project because it gave the colonies too
Campaign of 1755.-Early in 1755 General Braddock arrived with a military force from England. He had been put at the head of the colonial as well as the British forces. He called a convention of the governors at Alexandria, Virginia. Governor De Lancey represented New York. Three expeditions were planned
-one against Fort Duquesne, another against Fort Niagara, and the third against Crown Point. The first one, under General Braddock, was a sad failure. The expedition against Niagara, led by Governor Shirley of Massachusetts, was also a failure. He reached Oswego,
1 The French had good forts at Crown Point, Niagara, Presque Isle, and Frontenac.
where he left Colonel Mercer with 700 men to build two forts while he returned to Albany.1
Crown Point Expedition.-To Colonel William Johnson was intrusted the expedition against Crown Point. He had 600 hunters and farmers from New York and New England, and 250 Indians. General Phineas Lyman, with an advance party, had built Fort Edward, and in August, 1755, Johnson, with fifty Mohawks under Hendrick, including an Indian boy, Joseph Brant, who was to become famous, reached the fort. Johnson then advanced to the Lake of the Holy Sacrament, which he called Lake George to show that it belonged to England, and there encamped.
English Defeated. Meanwhile the governor of Canada had sent 3,000 men to Crown Point. From there Baron Dieskau, with 900 French and Canadians and 600 Indians, set out to capture Fort Edward. To head them off Johnson sent a force of whites and Indians under Colonel Ephraim Williams and Hendrick. But Dieskau had changed his mind, and was advancing to meet Johnson, so that he was soon on the same road marching toward Williams. Dieskau's men planned an ambuscade and defeated the British. Williams and Hendrick were both killed.2
Johnson's Victory.-Johnson's men at Lake George were cutting down trees to make a breast work when their defeated comrades rushed back in terror, followed by the victorious French. For six hours the battle
1 Several hundred men were added to the force later.
2 At Albany Williams made his will in which he left a large part of his property to support a free school. This is now Williams College.