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lasted. Johnson was wounded, and turned the command over to Lyman, who finally gained a complete victory. Dieskau, dangerously wounded, was captured (Sept. 8, 1755), and his retreating troops were met by New York and New Hampshire rangers from Fort Edward on the scene of the morning's ambuscade and totally routed. Johnson built Fort William Henry on the battle-field and returned to Albany. England gave him all the credit for the victory. Parliament thanked him and voted him £5,000. The king showed his gratitude by making him a baronet, hence he became Sir William.

Disasters of 1756.-In 1756 the Marquis of Montcalm was put in command of the French forces. He encouraged the erection of Fort Carillon, or Fort Ticonderoga, on Lake Champlain to check the British. Then he sent an expedition against the two forts at Oswego. The commander of the forts at that place, Colonel Mercer, was killed after two days of fighting, and 1,600 men surrendered, together with 120 cannon, six war-vessels, and 300 small boats, a great quantity of ammunition and provisions, and three chests of money (Aug. 14, 1756). To appease the Iroquois Montcalm demolished the two forts which had been built on their lands. This victory was followed by several invasions of New York. Fort Bull on Wood Creek, near where Rome now stands, was destroyed. Thirty-two scalps were taken from under the very guns of Fort Edward. Palatine village was attacked at night, forty were killed, and a hundred and fifty were made captives. With boats captured on Lake George the victors took their prisoners to Canada.

Fall of Fort William Henry. On August 2, 1757, Montcalm, with 9,000 men, of whom 3,000 were Indians appeared before Fort William Henry and demanded its surrender. Colonel George Monroe had about 2,200 men, while at Fort Edward, fifteen miles distant, there were 4,000 men under Colonel Daniel Webb. Montcalm's summons was refused and the attack began. Instead of aid the timid Webb sent a letter to Monroe advising him to capitulate. Montcalm intercepted the letter and forwarded it to Monroe, but even then the heroic colonel would not yield. Not until his guns were burst and his ammunition exhausted did Monroe surrender, and then only on honorable terms. The French promised the English protection as far as Fort Edward, but the savages massacred about thirty of them, took other prisoners, and robbed all of them. Fort William Henry was reduced to a heap of ruins.

British Successes in 1758.-Under Pitt the British were more successful in 1758. Louisburg was captured and Fort Duquesne was also taken, but the French still held Fort Ticonderoga. General Abercrombie with 15,000 men sailed down Lake George and marched through the woods to take the fort. He was repulsed, and nearly 2,000 of his men were killed or wounded. Lord Howe," the soul of the enterprise," was among the slain (July 8). A western expedition against Fort Frontenac, by Colonel William Bradstreet, was more successful. With about 3,000 men, half of whom were New-Yorkers, he marched to avenge the fall of Oswego, crossed Lake Ontario in open boats, and on August 27 captured the garrison of one hundred and fifty men and nine armed vessels together with a large

store of military supplies. On his return, Bradstreet helped General Stanwix build Fort Stanwix, later called Fort Schuyler, where the city of Rome now stands.

Campaign of 1759. In 1759 the English planned to take Quebec, Ticonderoga, and Niagara. General Amherst appeared before Ticonderoga, but the French destroyed the works and withdrew to Crown Point. Amherst followed, when they again withdrew from Crown Point to an island in the Sorel River. Instead of pursuing them again, Amherst wasted the summer in repairing the forts and in building boats, and wintered at Crown Point. Meanwhile General John Prideaux with 22,000 men, of whom 1,000 were from New York, attacked Fort Niagara. Prideaux was accidentally killed, so Sir William Johnson took command. He defeated a relief party of 1,700 men, and then compelled the surrender of the fort (July 25).


Fall of Quebec.-At the same time General Wolfe was sent against Quebec, and expected the co-operation of Amherst and Prideaux. Disappointed in this assistance he began the siege alone, and continued it through July and August. Repulsed several times, he at last climbed the steep river-bank to the Plains of Abraham. time the English were successful but, in the fierce battle which followed, both Montcalm and Wolfe lost their lives (Sept. 13). The gates of the city were soon opened to the victors. The next year the French tried in vain to recover Quebec, while Amherst took Montreal. The conquest of Canada was now complete. By the treaty of Paris in 1763 all the territory over which England and France had been fighting was surrendered to the English.

Indian Treaties.-The Indians who aided the French were not willing to give up the contest. The bold and artful Pontiac, incited by French traders, plotted to drive the English out of the frontier forts. Sir William Johnson was able to keep the Iroquois quiet except the Senecas, who were far to the west. Pontiac's conspiracy failed, and then Johnson held a grand conclave of Indians at Niagara. To keep alive jealousies and prevent unity, treaties were made with the tribes. separately (1764). At Oswego, two years later, Johnson and Pontiac met to bury the hatchet and to smoke the pipe of peace.


Schools. Under the rule of the English (16641776) the state replaced the company in overseeing the schools. Teachers were still required to have licenses from the church and the government. To encourage regular schoolmasters, they were granted the exclusive right to teach in certain districts. The first license granted to a teacher by a city government was at Albany in 1700. Education became more liberal. Besides the common branches and the catechism, schools were opened to teach "gentlemen and freemen the use of arms," dancing, embroidery, the languages, and navigation. A Friends' school was authorized (1703). Rachel Spencer, the first schoolmistress in the colony, had a school in 1687.1

1In 1700 Governor Bellomont requested the sachems of the Indians to send their sons to New York to be educated at the

The Earliest Legislative Act (1772) in behalf of education established a "Grammar Free School," upon the petition of the authorities of New York City. It was "for the education and instruction of youth and male children" of English, Dutch, and French parents. The master had to belong to the Church of England, possess a license, and be able to teach languages and the common branches. A city tax paid his salary.1

Progress of Education.-In 1704 a Latin free school was established. George Muirson was the teacher. He received his license from the governor, and his salary from the mayor. This interest of the government in public education was of short duration. After 1709 no law encouraging public schools was passed for over twenty years, and no effort whatever was made for primary education. Still schools were not neglected, for now the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel," directed from London, took the matter in hand.

Work of the Society.-It was found a great drawback to religion to have the people poorly provided with schools. At its own expense, therefore, the society established a number of schools and supplied paper, primers, catechisms, and prayer-books. A catechising school was opened in New York for negro and Indian slaves. The society's effort to convert the Indians was not very successful, since the latter, for the most part, obstinately refused to learn to speak, read, or write English.

king's expense. They replied that they could not answer, since their squaws had sole charge of the children under age.

At this time the legislature was largely Dutch. The English, apparently, cared little for education.

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