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left his tents standing, and fled in terror to his boats on Lake Ontario (Aug. 23).

Battle of Bennington.-Burgoyne soon received a blow from another quarter. He had sent Colonel Baume to collect stores at Bennington and to prevent New England troops from opposing the march on Albany. Colonel Baume did not get beyond the limits of New York. He entrenched on the Walloomsac River, seven miles from Bennington, and wrote to Burgoyne for more troops. Colonel John Stark had a corps of New Hampshire militia "to stop the progress of the enemy," and was joined by militia from Vermont, Massachusetts, and New York. He attacked Baume on every side, and in less than two hours Baume was slain and his troops were forced to surrender.

The first battle was over when Colonel Breyman arrived with help for Baume. Fortunately Colonel Seth Warner and his "Green Mountain Boys" reached the battle-field at this time. With these troops and such others as he could collect Stark began the second battle. At sunnset Breyman retreated, leaving his artillery, and was saved from his pursuers only by the darkness (Aug. 16). Nearly 700 prisoners were marched to Bennington.

British Open the Hudson.-Burgoyne's sky was very cloudy now. In no direction was there a ray of hope. Sir Henry Clinton conducted a marauding expedition of 4,000 men up the Hudson. General Israel Putnam was deceived by the landing of the British eight miles below Peekskill, for the greater part of their forces crossed under a heavy fog to the western shore to capture Forts Clinton and Montgomery. Putnam sent

troops over the river, but it was too late. Governor Clinton at Kingston, suspecting Sir Henry's purpose, hastened to take command of one of the forts, while his brother James commanded the other. The force in both forts did not exceed 600. The attack and defense were furious. The Americans refused to surrender and were either killed, or captured, or escaped (Oct. 6). Fort Independence, on the eastern bank, and Fort Constitution, on an island opposite West Point, were also abandoned. The British removed the obstructions in the river, and now the way was open to Albany. Sir Henry sent the expedition up the river, while he returned to New York. The shores were plundered and Kingston was reduced to ashes (Oct. 16), in spite of Governor Clinton's efforts to prevent it. But no aid reached Burgoyne from Sir Henry Clinton.

Fall of Burgoyne.-St. Leger's failure, Baume's defeat, lack of help from the south, and the desertion of his Indian and Canadian allies led Burgoyne to think of retreating to Ticonderoga. The patriots under Schuyler were rallying to capture the invaders, when Congress removed Schuyler from command and appointed Gates to succeed him. On September 19 the battle of Bemis Heights was fought, but neither side was victorious. Burgoyne had lost 600 men, but remained on the battlefield. On October 7 the battle of Stillwater, or the battle of Saratoga, was fought with desperate bravery on both sides. At length the British gave way, and ten days later Burgoyne surrendered (Oct. 17). The Americans had won one of the " decisive battles of the world.” All patriots rejoiced and saw victory ahead. King George III. and his ministers were in dismay. France

was glad, and Dr. Franklin persuaded Louis XVI. to recognize the independence of the United States and to form an alliance with them (Feb., 1778).1


Situation in 1778.-In the beginning of 1778 Lake Champlain, the Mohawk, and the Hudson down to New York were free from the British. In the western part of the state were a few Loyalist corps and their red allies. Burgoyne's defeat had greatly disappointed the savages, and the Tuscaroras and many of the Mohawks deserted the royal cause. The Oneidas never helped the king, but the powerful Senecas were bitter foes of the patriots throughout the war. In March of this year commissioners from Congress and General Lafayette met over 700 Indians at Johnstown to conciliate them. Not a Seneca was present. The Oneidas and Tuscaroras were commended for resisting British corruption. Fair promises were made by the red men, but not kept.

Tories and Indians.-During 1778-9 New York ceased to be the battle-ground of the Revolution. Hence the way was open for the invasions of the Tories and Indians. They spread death and desolation up and down. the Mohawk Valley. Brant and Walter Butler, son of

1 General Benedict Arnold, the traitor, took a very prominent part in the second battle. With the Americans fought Kosciusko, a Polish patriot, of noble soul, great courage, and skill in war. He fortified Gates's army on Bemis Heights and later helped to construct defensive works at West Point. To-day a monument to this brave man adorns the grounds of West Point.

the Tory leader John Butler, were the leaders of these fiendish incursions. Brant had been educated in a New England school, wore English clothes, and had been well received in England. In vain he tried to check the excesses of his savage followers, and many were the victims of the tomahawk.

Savage Warfare.-Bands of Tories and Indians invaded the Cobleskill and Schoharie settlements and inflicted great destruction upon life and property. Springfield, on Otsego Lake, was captured and burned. In July Andrustown, near the German Flats, suffered in the same way and the German Flats settlement was invaded. In the latter place the people had taken refuge in two fortified positions and also in their church. But their homes were burned and their horses, sheep, and cattle driven away. In retaliation the Oneidas followed Brant to his headquarters in the Unadilla settlement, took some prisoners, recovered some of the stolen cattle, and burned the Tory houses. Continental troops from Schoharie soon utterly destroyed that Loyalist stronghold.

Cherry Valley, on the eastern branch of the Susquehanna, soon felt the revenge of the Indians and Tories. The attack was made in the early morning of November 11. Many were slain, the houses were set on fire, and about forty were taken prisoners. A fort, built by Lafayette, was assailed without success, but the plucky garrison could give no protection to the people in their homes.

Sullivan's Expedition.-To punish the Indians and to stop their massacres Washington's aid was asked. General Sullivan with 3,000 men was sent from Penn

sylvania to western New York. He was joined by General James Clinton with 1,600 men from the Mohawk. On August 29, 1779, they found a body of Indians and Tories strongly fortified on the Chemung River where Elmira now stands. The enemy were easily routed, and then the army advanced to the Genesee Valley, where they cut down the old Indian orchards, destroyed thousands of bushels of corn, and burned the villages. The plan to attack Niagara was not carried out. The raid intimidated the Indians for a short time, but soon their revengeful depredations were renewed.

Clinton's Second Expedition. Meanwhile attention was turned to Sir Henry Clinton's second expedition up the Hudson. To protect the Highlands, Washington had ordered the erection of Fort Lafayette at Verplanck's Point. Across the river, at Stony Point, a more important fort was being built, when Sir Henry stole up the river and captured it. He mounted cannon on the unfinished fort and, with the assistance of three armed vessels, opened fire upon Fort Lafayette. The little garrison of seventy men was forced to surrender (June 1). Sir Henry set men to complete Fort Stony Point, put a garrison in Fort Lafayette, and then returned to New York.

Storming of Stony Point.-Washington suspected that the British had designs on West Point. To thwart their plans, therefore, he sent General Wayne to recapture Stony Point. On July 16, just after midnight, Wayne and his men reached the Point. Guided by a negro who sold fruit and vegetables to the British, they reached the outworks before being discovered. They

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