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present time, and to note the vital interdependence of those institutions, has been their constant aim.

Few histories of the Empire State have done full justice to the marvelous growth of western New York, and to the importance of that region in the life of the commonwealth of to-day. The great metropolis and the historic Hudson Valley should not completely overshadow the rest of the state. This work attempts to do all sections justice. Constant care has been taken to give full credit to all men and to all movements. The true historian cannot be a blind partisan of any locality, creed, or party. It would be as wrong to inculcate the belief that New York rules the universe as to assert that all her independence and individuality are absorbed by the national state. Her part in the nation's history has been an honorable one and she has played it well.

In writing this history the accessible original sources have been carefully used, but not to the exclusion of the best secondary books. The bibliographies appended to each period are not meant to be exhaustive, nor to indicate all of the sources used, but only to serve as a guide for further reading. The books mentioned can probably be found in most libraries.

This volume is intended to give the entire life of New York as a colony and as a commonwealth ir an interesting and instructive style, so that it may be iseful in the school, in the home, in the office, and in he library. If those who study it have a greater venration for what the fathers wrought; if they see clerly the various lines of institutional growth; if they resize more fully our debt to the past and our duty to the future; if they appreciate more deeply the demads

of American citizenship in their communities and in the great Republic; and if they strive more earnestly to live up to our highest national ideals, then the end of this history will have been accomplished.

The thanks of the authors are due to many friends and scholars for kindly help and generous encouragement given during the preparation of this book.



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