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...do..

. 1930

.6850

.6970

.6778

.6.586

. 4538

British colonies in Gold...... Pound sterling ..... $4. 8665

Australasia and

Africa
British Honduras.. ...do. Dollar

1. 0000 Bulgaria...

Lev Canada. ..do. Dollar

1. 0000 Chile...

...do..
Peso.

.1217
Amoy
Canton

6829
Cheloo.

6551 Chin Kiếng. .

.6691 Fuchgu.

The tael is a unit of weight; pot s

6336 laikwyn.:.

coin. The customs unit is the

Haikwan tael.
Hapkow.

alues of
6409

The
Tael. Kiaochow.

other taels are based on their re

6038 Nanking

lation to the value of the Haik. Ohina..

Niuchwang

wan tael. Silver

6424
Ningpo.

The Yuan silver dollar of 100 cents
Peking.

6678

is the monetary unit of the Chi. Shanghai 6257

nese Republic: it is equivalent to Swatow.

0.637 - of the Haikwan tael.

6327 Takau.

6893
Tientsin. 6638
(Yuan

4439
Dollar.
Hong Kong.

4505
British
Mexican.

Mexican silver pesos issued under

Mexican decree of Nov. 13, 1918,
are of silver content approximate-
ly 41 per cent less than the dollar
here quoted; and those issued
under decree of Oct. 27, 1919, con-

tain about 51 per cent less silver Colombia...... Gold...... Peso...

9733 Currency: Government paper sod

silver. Costa Rica........ ...do....... Colon.....

. 4653 Law establishing conversion office

Axes ratio 4 colods (oongold)=$1

U. 8. Cuba.. ...do....... Peso

1. 0000 Denmark. ..do... Krone

2680 Dominican Republic...do. Dollar

1.0000 U. 8. money is principal circulating

medium. Ecuador ..do..... Sucre...

.2000 By law effective Mar. 19, 1927. Egypt.... .do.. Pound (100 piasters)..... 4. 9431 The actual standard is the Britisb

pound sterling, which is legal

tender for 974 piasters. Estonia.. ..do. Kroon

2080 Finland.

.do.
Markka..

0252
France..
Gold and Franc...

1930 silver Germany. Gold..... Reichsmark

2382 Great Britain. ...do... Pound sterling

4. 8665 reece..

Gold and Drachma.

silver. Guntemala. Gold. Quetzal.

1.0000 Haiti..

Gourde.

.2000 Currency: National bank notes re

deemable on demand in Ameri

can dollars. Honduras.... .do....... Lempira.....

5000 Legally established but not yet

actually operative. Ilungary.

Peng8.

1749 Todis (British) do. Rupee.

3650 By law effective Apr. 1, 1927. Indo-China.

Silver Piaster
Italy.
Gold. Lira..

0526 | By decree effective Dec. 22, 1927. Japan.

...do.
Yen.

.4985 Latvia,

Lat

1930 Liberia.

..do.
Dollar.

1. 0000 Currency: Depreciated silver token

coins. Lithnania.. ...do....... Litas..

. 1000 Currency: Notes of the Bank of

Lithuania. Mexico...

Peso

4985 Netherlands. ...do. Guilder (florin)

. 4020 Newfoundland.

Dollar..

1. 0000 Nicaragua..

.do.
Cordoba.

1. 0000 Norway.

Krone.

2680 Panama. do. Balboa...

1. 0000 Paraguay. ...do..... Peso (Argentino)

. 9648 Currency: Depreciated Paragua p•

an paper currency.

. 1930

...do

...do...

. 4513

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(T. D. 42527)

Foreign currencies-Rates of exchange Rates of exchange certified to the Secretary of the Treasury by the Federal

Reserve Bank of New York under the provisions of section 522 (c), tariff act of 1922

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER OF CUSTOMS,

Washington, D. C., January 7, 1928. To Collectors of Customs and Others Concerned:

The appended table of the values of certain foreign currencies as certified to the Secretary of the Treasury by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York under the provisions of section 522 (c) of the tariff act of 1922, during the period from December 29, 1927, to January 4, 1928, inclusive, is published for the information of collectors of customs and others concerned. (103512.)

E. W. CAMP, Commissioner of Customs.

Values of foreign currencies as certified to the Secretary of the Treasury by the

Federal Reserve Bank of New York under the provisions of section 522 (c), tarif act of 1922

PERIOD DECEMBER 29, 1927, TO JANUARY 4, 1928, INCLUSIVE

Country

Name of currency

Dec. 29

Dec. 30

Dec. 31

Jan. 3

Jan. 4

Europe:

Austria.
Belgium.
Bulgaria.
Czechoslovakia.
Denmark
England.

Schilling.
Belga.
Lev
Krone..

do..
Pound sterling.

$0.14117 $0.14107 $0.14106

1399 1399 1399
007250 .007265 007241
. 029633

. 029630 029629
2682
. 2682

2082
4. 8837 4. 8831 4. 8823

$0.140900 $0.140897

. 139868 139830 .007227 007204 .029627 029628

268117 . 268061 4. 881519 4. 879247

Values of foreign currencies, etc.—Continued

PERIOD DECEMBER 29, 1927, TO JANUARY 4, 1928, INCLUSIVE-continued

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Europe-Continued.

Finland..
France
Germany
Greece.
Holland.
Hungary
Italy..
Norway
Poland.
Portugal.
Rumania.
Spain.
Sweden
Switzerland.

Yugoslavia.
Asia:
China.

Do.
Do.
Do.
Do
Do.
Do.

Do.
India.
Japan..

Singapore (S. S.)..
North America:

Canada.
Cuba..
Mexico..

Newfoundland.
South America:

Argentina..
Brazil...
Chile.
Uruguay.

6531

.6379

Cheloo tael.
Hankow tael..
Shanghai tael.
Tientsin tael
Hong Kong dollar.
Mexican dollar...
Tientsin or Peiyang dollar.
Yuan dollar.
Rupee..

6683 6563 6404 6754 5052 4603 4567 4533 3676 4660 5692

6627 .6515

6368 .6681 . 5046

4578 . 4546 . 4513

3678 . 4671 .5692

6681 5049 4585 4546 4513 3677 . 4673 5692

652916
.637142
.667916
503928
458500
454383
. 451250
. 367554
. 467975
.569166

664583 .654166 .638214 .670000 . 504642

458000 . 454583 . 451250 . 367550

468406 . 568333

Yen.

Dollar.

do. Peso

do. Dollar.

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Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Joseph E.

Marron, petitioner, v. United States, holding that where evidence of criminal-
ity not described in a search warrant is seized as an incident to a lawful arrest
it is admissible in evidence

TREASURY DEPARTMENT,
OFFICE OF THE COMMISSIONER OF CUSTOMS,

Washington, D. C., January 3, 1928. The following decision and judgment of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Joseph E. Marron, petitioner, v. United States is published for the information of customs officers and others concerned.

E. W. CAMP, Commissioner of Customs.

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. No. 185. OCTOBER TERM, 1927

Joseph E. Marron, petitioner, v. United States
Wait of certiorari to the United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

(November 21, 1927)

Mr. Justice BUTLER delivered the opinion of the court:

October 17, 1924, the above-named petitioner, one Birdsall, and five others were indicted in the southern division of the northern district of California. It was charged that they conspired to commit various offenses against the national probibition act including the maintenance of a nuisance at 1249 Polk Street, San Francisco. (Sec. 37 Criminal Code, U. 8. C., title 18, sec. 88.) One defendant was never apprehended; one was acquitted; the rest were found guilty. Of these, Marron, Birdsall, and two others obtained review in the Circuit Court of Appeals. The judgment was affirmed as to all except petitioner. He secured reversal and a new trial. (8 F. (20) 251.) He was again found guilty; and the conviction was affirmed. (18 F. (2d) 218.)

Petitioner insists that a ledger and certain bills were obtained through an illegal search and seizure and put in evidence against him in violation of the fourth and fifth amendments. The question arose at the first trial. The Circuit Court of Appeals held that the book and papers were lawfully seized and admissible. When the second conviction was before it, that court held the earlier decision governed the trial, established the law of the case, and foreclosed further consideration.

For some time prior to October 1, 1924, petitioner was the lessee of the entire second floor of 1249 Polk Street. On that day a prohibition agent obtained from a United States commissioner a warrant for the search of that place, particularly describing the things to be seized-intoxicating liquors and articles for their manufacture. The next day four prohibition agents went to the place and secured admission by causing the doorbell to be rung. There were six or seven rooms containing slot machines, an ice box, tables, chairs, and a cash register. The evidence shows that the place was used for retailing and drinking intoxicating liquors. About a dozen men and women were there, and some of them were being furnished intoxicating liquors. The petitioner was not there; Birdsall was in charge. The agents handed him the warrant and put him under arrest. They searched for and found large quantities of liquor, some of which were in a closet. While in the closet, they noticed a ledger showing inventories of liquors, receipts, expenses, including gifts to police officers, and other things relating to the business. And they found beside the cash register a number of bills agajnst petitioner for gas, electric light, water, and telephone service furnished on the premises. They seized the ledger and bills. The return made on the search warrant showed only the seizure of the intoxicating liquors. It did not show the discovery or seizure of the ledger or bills. After indictment and before trial, petitioner applied to the court for the return of the ledger and bills and to suppress evidence concerning them. The application was denied. At the trial there was evidence to show that petitioner made most of the entries in the ledger and that he was concerned as proprietor or partner in carrying on the business of selling intoxicating liquors.

It has long been settled that the fifth amendment protects every person against incrimination by the use of evidence obtained through search or seizure made in violation of his rights under the fourth amendment. (Agnello v. United States, 260 U. S. 20, 34, and cases cited.)

The petitioner insists that because the ledger and bills were not described in the warrant and as he was not arrested with them on his person, their seizure

violated the fourth amendment. The United States contends that the seizure may be justified either as an incident to the execution of the search warrant or as an incident to the right of search arising from the arrest of Birdsall while in charge of the saloon. Both questions are presented. Lower courts have expressed divers views in respect of searches in similar cases. The brief for the Government states that the facts of this case present one of the most frequent causes of appeals in current cases. And for these reasons we deal with both contentions.

1. The fourth amendment declares that the right to be secure against unreasonable searches shall not be violated, and it further declares that "no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized." General searches have long been deemed to violate fundamental rights. It is plain that the amendment forbids them. In Boyd v. United States (116 U. S. 616), Mr. Justice Bradley, writing for the court, said (p. 624):

In order to ascertain the nature of the proceedings intended by the fourth amendment to the constitution under the terms "unreasonable searches and seizures,” it is only necessary to recall the contemporary or then recent history of the controversies on the subject, both in this country and in England. The practice had obtained in the colonies of issuing writs of assistance to the revenue officers, empowering them, in their discretion, to search suspected places for smuggled goods, which James Otis pronounced "the worst instrument of arbitrary power, the most destructive of English liberty, and the fundamental principles of law, that ever was found in an English law book," since they placed "the liberty of every man in the hands of every petty officer.

And in Weeks v. United States (232 U. S. 383), Mr. Justice Day, writing for the court, said (p. 391):

The effect of the fourth amendment is to put the courts of the United States and Federal officials, in the exercise of their power and authority, under limitations and restraints as to the exercise of such power and authority, and to forever secure the people, their persons, houses, papers, and effects against all unreason. able searches and seizures under the guise of law. This protection reaches all alike, whether accused of crime or not, and the duty of giving to it force and effect is obligatory upon all intrusted under our Federal system with the enforcement of the laws. The tendency of those who execute the criminal laws of the country to obtain conviction by means of unlawful seizures and enforced confessions

should find no sanction in the judgments of the courts which are charged at all times with the support of the Constitution and to which people of all conditions have a right to appeal for the maintenance of such fundamental rights.

*

The requirement that warrants shall particularly describe the things to be seized makes general searches under them impossible and prevents the seizure of one thing under a warrant describing another. As to what is to be taken, nothing is left to the discretion of the officer executing the warrant.

And the Congress in enacting the laws governing the issue and execution of this search warrant was diligent to limit seizures to things particularly described. Section 39 of title 27, U. S. C., provides that such warrant may issue as provided in title 18, sections 611 to 631 and section 633.1 Section 613 provides that a search warrant can not be issued but upon probable cause supported by affidavit naming or describing the person and particularly describing property and place to be searched. Section 622 requires the officer executing the warrant to give to the person in whose possession the property taken was found a receipt specifying it in detail. Section 623 requires him forthwith to return the warrant to the judge or commissioner with a verified inventory and detailed account of the

1 Section 25, Title II, act of Oct. 28, 1919 (41 Stat. 305, 315), is sec. 39, title 27, U.S. C. It provides that & search warrant may issue as provided in Title XI of the espionage act (June 15, 1917) (40 Stat, 217, 228). Title XI is secs. 611 to 631 and sec. 633, title 18, U.S.C.

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