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a. Contempt, by gestures, words, or threats.

b. Slanders and abuse, if uttered in the presence of the Judge concerned, the jurymen or the other members of the new Provincial Courts, or within the premises of the Court, or circulated, by means of public attacks, writings, prints, pictures, or representations.

c. Violence against their person, especially ill-treatment, bodily injury, and intentional killing, with or without premeditation.

d. Violence or threats, used for the purpose of compelling one of the said persons to a dereliction of duty, or an unlawful act, or to the pretermission of acts required by duty or law.

e. Abuse of official authority by a public officer for the purpose of such compulsion.

f. Attempt at direct bribery of one of the said persons.

g. Influencing a Judge in favour of one side by a public officer. 3. Crimes and misdemeanours committed for the distinct purpose of hindering the execution of the sentences or decisions of the said Courts, viz.:

a. Assault upon or violent resistance to members of the Court in the exercise of their calling, or officers of the new Provincial Courts during the legal course of official proceedings for the execution of sentences and decisions of the Courts, or against the officers or men of the armed force, summoned to aid in such execution.

b. Abuse of official authority by a public officer with the object of hindering the execution.

c. Abstraction of legal documents for the same purpose.

d. Damaging seals legally impressed, intentional mislaying of articles required in pursuance of a judicial disposition or a sentence.

e. Escape of prisoners incarcerated in pursuance of a judicial disposition or sentence, and acts which directly abetted such escape.

f. Harbouring such prisoners after their escape.

4. For crimes and misdemeanours committed by a Judge under German protection, jurymen or other members of the new Provincial Courts in the exercise of their calling, or through abuse of their official authority.

Besides those general crimes and misdemeanours which may be committed by one of the said persons under the same circumstances, the following crimes and misdemeanours belong to the same category:

a. Decisions, in violation of duty, to the favour of one party. b. Bribery.

c. Omitting to denounce attempted bribery.

d. Denial of justice.

e. Unauthorized violence against private persons.

f. Entrance into another's dwelling without the observance of the legal regulations.

g. Extortion.

h. Embezzlement of public moneys.

i. Unlawfully incarcerating.

k. Falsification of sentences and legal documents.

The Consular jurisdiction remains also for the above-cited crimes and misdemeanours enumerated under figures 2 and 3 so far as the injured officer of the new Provincial Court moves for the punishment of the offender in the Consular Court.

§ 4. German subjects of the Empire and persons under its protection in Egypt are, from the day upon which this Decree comes into force, made subject to the new Provincial Courts in all those matters which by Sections 1 and 2 are withdrawn from the Consular jurisdiction.

The same applies to the punishment of witnesses who, without legal grounds, refuse to give testimony or to testify upon oath before the new Provincial Courts, and to the punishment of jurymen or assessors of these Courts who, without adequate excuse, fail to comply with their obligations.

The Consul or his representative does not assist at the proceedings in these Courts.

§ 5. With respect to the Consuls, the members of their families, the persons employed in their service, and their subordinate officials, with the members of their families, as well as the residences of these persons; further, with respect to the German Evangelical Church in Alexandria, the German Evangelical Church in Cairo, the German School in Alexandria, the German School in Cairo, and the German Evangelical Hospital in Alexandria, as far as these churches and establishments are considered as corporations, the conditions of the Consular jurisdiction remain unchanged.

§ 6. This Decree comes into force on January 1, 1876, for the duration of five years.

Civil lawsuits and criminal cases which on the day named are pending in the Consular Courts shall be fully concluded by the same, even though they should, according to the provisions of Sections 1 and 2, fall within the competence of the new Provincial Courts.

The civil lawsuits pending may, upon the unanimous motion of the parties, be transferred to the new Provincial Courts.

Witness our august sign manual and Imperial great seal hereto impressed.

Berlin, December 23, 1875.

PRINCE V. BISMARCK.

(L.S.) WILHELM.

MESSAGE of the President of Colombia, on the Opening of Congress.-Bogotá, February 1, 1875.

(Translation.)

CITIZEN SENATORS AND REPRESENTATIVES:

You closed your session of 1874 in the midst of perfect constitutional order, and you open that of this year under the same happy auspices. This favour of Divine Providence is all the greater that the peace, far from being artificial or precarious, as when it consists only of an agreement between parties, is now recognized by the citizens as the result of the assured establishment of their rights and of the harmony and development of their interests.

I congratulate you and myself upon the happy situation, not the least satisfactory evidence of which is your punctual assembling. Resume, then, your labours with the knowledge that the authorities and the federal laws have not ceased to be obeyed in any part of the territory of the Union, and that there is no reason to fear that the relations between the general Government and the Administrations of the States, or between these latter, will become in any degree less constitutional than they have been hitherto.

When we see that in other regions of our Continent, where a higher degreee of commercial prosperity might have been considered to indicate the achievement of consolidation, and the confirmation of peace and the institutions of the common weal, civil war has broken out afresh on the occasion of the election of Representatives, and, at the same time, behold at home the constitutional respect manifested towards the present Administration from its commencement, notwithstanding the vehemence of the electoral contest out of which it arose, we cannot but perceive that we are advancing in the practice of the Republican system of govern

ment.

Were this not so, the frequency and the complexity of the elections would render the preservation of public tranquillity impossible in our country, which, however, on the contrary feels secure, owing in a great measure to the freedom of the federal machinery from any extraneous element calculated to affect injuriously its equilibrium or its moral tone.

The public peace is not threatened by the remotest probability of discord in any of the States of the Union, because in none of them do causes exist or symptoms appear of political disturbance. I do not, therefore, think it necessary that you should legislate at present respecting public order.

I have to say the same to you with regard to the inspection of religious sects and questions of this nature, none of which become

It is

dangerous except when restrictions are placed on liberty. certain, however, that those exist who, forgetful of the most dearly bought lessons, maintain that people complicate their political interests with other interests not their own; so long, however, as they do not resort to means which themselves constitute a usurpation of authority or an infringement of rights, the best way of frustrating such designs is the diffusion of education and the introduction and maintenance of toleration in our customs and laws.

In the matter of public education the progress of the Republic seems satisfactory. The elementary schools now number 2,000, and between the nation at large and the States there are 800,000 dollars spent on them yearly. These figures show the impulse which has been lately given to this Department, although it has not yet reached what it ought to be.

The number of masters who have been taught in conformity with modern methods is already large, and in the course of this year there will exist in each State of the Union a National Normal School for Schoolmistresses.

Higher education in the National University has, as you may see by the programmes of the last year, attained to a standard observed in the old countries. Judging from the results hitherto obtained, which explain the increase in the number of University students maintained by the State, this institution is wanting in nothing. For the extension of instruction in engineering, the natural sciences, the establishment of a real school of art and industry, and of the Vasquez Academy, buildings are being improved and professors have been sought in Europe for the departments in which they are needed.

For these branches of knowledge all that will then be necessary will be judicious perseverance, while others will require your serious

attention.

The national legislation needs completion and arrangement. The few months during which it has been in force have been sufficient to make sensible the defects which abound in the Fiscal Code. With regard to the Civil Code difficulties have been met with in carrying it out, which will be brought before you. In the supreme task of drawing up a Code which embraces so many departments and covers such a long period, hasty proceeding would be less allowable than in any other undertaking. By acquiring knowledge from the trials made, and distributing the labour among the respective offices and departments, it is possible for the work to be completed and presented to you on your assembling in 1876.

Our postal and telegraphic service is still far from satisfying the public needs. As the country has no marine and no basis on which to conclude Postal Conventions, we are obliged to avail ourselves of

the co-operation of the foreign packet companies for our communication with foreign countries: for which reason it is essential for us to relax the conditions which are now imposed on those companies by our Fiscal Code, in order that they may be able to maintain their agencies in our ports.

The service for the transmission of money or valuables, reestablished by you last session, may continue for some time longer; but notwithstanding that the transport of such articles may not be effected in any official way, except through the medium of insurance companies, such as that which has just been founded with such hopeful prospects in the capital of the Union, the maintenance of such posts, with such an unduly proportioned responsibility upon the Government as the law at present fixes, is inequitable and cannot long be continued.

While the Atlantic Post Service is performed by steamers which, like the greater portion of those at present navigating the Magdalena, are not adapted to the variable conditions of those waters, nor have the postal service for their chief or only business, the delays or other inconveniences which are now felt cannot fail to increase. This matter has therefore received attention, and an account, with the corresponding statistics, will be given you of an easy means of effecting this service at an economy in respect of the cost involved by the present system of contracts, by steamers belonging to the Government, and to be constructed specially for the navigation of the Magdalena at all seasons of the year. These steamers may also be utilized for other branches of the public service.

The Post Office produced in the year 1873-74 63,604 dollars, or 1,000 dollars less than the receipts of 1872-73, the difference arising from the suspension of the money and valuables post for six months.

The use of the telegraph is becoming general. From 1872 to 1873 the number of despatches sent was 47,127, the receipts being 13,169 dollars; whilst from 1873 to 1874 it was 75,345, producing 20,029 dollars.

The creation of new lines or the extension of old ones is generally needed. In this, however, the excessive charge upon the public treasury would cause retrogression, if lines and offices were established, which are not yet required for commerce or the Administration, and which are, for that very reason, the most difficult and costly to construct and maintain in order.

The telegraphic lines in actual service measure 1,735 kilometres; that is, 500 kilometres more than in the preceding year. Arrangements have been made for the construction of others destined to connect the most important points on our seaboard, and Antioquia

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