« ПретходнаНастави »
impediment to its being immediately and universally adopted for the public weal. We ought to remark, that fires or heating apparatus are not at all necessary ; and that, as the specification expresses it, “this action is not prevented by making the shorter leg hot while the longer leg remains cold, and no artificial heat is necessary to the longer leg of the air-siphon to cause this action to take place.” Extraordinary as this may appear, we have witnessed the experiments made in various ways, with tubes from less than an inch to nearly a foot in diameter, and we can vouch for the fact being perfectly demonstrated. Light gas does descend the shorter leg when heated, and ascend the longer leg, where the column of air is much colder and heavier.
AN ELEGY, writteN IN A LoNDON chURchYARD.
BY A TRADESMAN IN THE VICINITY.
THE sexton tolls the bell till parting day;
The mourners homeward take their dreary way,
Now fades the crowded graveyard on the sight, But all, its air who scent, their nostrils hold,
Save where the beadle drones, contented quite, And drowsy mutes their arms in slumber fold.
Save where, hard by yon soot-incrusted tower,
Of such as would, by sanitary power,
Beneath those arid mounds, that dead wall's shade,
All in their narrow cells together laid,
The queasy call of sewage-breathing morn,
The crowd's loud clamoring at his threatening horn,
For them no more the chamber-light shall burn, The busy doctor ply his daily care,
Nor children to their sire from school return, And climb his knees the dreaded pest to share.
Good folks, impute not to their friends the fault, If memory o'er their bones no tombstone raise ;
Where there lie dozens huddled in one vault, No art can mark the spot where each decays.
No doubt, in this revolting place are laid
Hands, by whose grasp contagion was conveyed,
Full many a gas, of direst power unclean,
Full many a poison, born to kill unseen,
Some district surgeon, that with dauntless breast The epidemic 'mongst the poor withstood,
Some brave, humane physician here may rest, Some curate, martyrs to infected blood.
To some doomed breast the noxious vapor flies,
Ev’n from the tomb morbific fumes arise,
For thee, who, shocked to see th’ unhonored dead,
If, chance, by sanitary musings led,
Haply some muddle-headed clerk will say,
Shaving with hasty strokes his beard away,
There would he stand o'erlooking yonder shed, That hides those relics from the public eye,
And watch what we were doing with the dead, And count the funerals daily going by.
One morn we missed him in the 'customed shop;
Another served ; nor at his early chop,
The next, by special wish, with small array,
Thither go read (if thou can'st read) the lay
Here rest with decency the bones in earth,
Miasma ever plagued his humble hearth,
Long was his illness, tedious and severe;
He followed to the grave a neighbor's bier,
No longer seek corruption to enclose
But far from cities let our dust repose,
“The Jews commonly express resurrection by regermination, or growing up again like a plant. So they do in that strange tradition of theirs; of the Luz, an immortal little bone in the bottom of the Spina dorsi; which, though our anatomists are bound to deride as a kind of Terra incognita in the lesser world, yet theirs (who know the bones too but by tradition) will tell ye that there it is, and that it was created by God in an unalterable state of incorruption ; that it is of a slippery condition, and maketh the body but believe that it groweth up with, or receiveth any nourishment from, that; whereas indeed the Luz is every ways immortally disposed, and out of whose ever-living power, fermented by a kind of dew from heaven, all the dry bones shall be reunited and knit together, and the whole generation of mankind recruit again.”—John Gregorie, p. 125.
[THE GREENDALE oak..]
HoRACE WALPole mentions cabinets and glasses at Walbeck “wainscoted with the Greendale Oak, which was so large, that an old steward wisely cut a way through it, to make a triumphal passage for his lord and lady on their wedding, and only killed it.”—Letters, vol. 2, p. 8.
Illustration. — Adopted Cubs of the Russian
- Dublin University Magazine, - 193 - Economist, - - - - - 201 - John Wilmer, - - - - 202 - Tribune, - - - - - 215 - Journal of Commerce, - - - 218 - United Service Magazine, - - 225 - #. - - - - - 226 - Economist, - - - - - 228 - Montreal Herald, - - - - 231 - Economist, - - - - - 232 - Eraminer, - - - - - 234 - Spectator, - - - - - - 236 - Times, - - - - - 237
Bear, from Punch, 224.
PortRY. — Early to Bed and Early to Rise, 222. — Elegy in a London Church Yard, 239.
Short, ART1cles. – Block Printing, 211. – Practical Christianity; Travelling in Italy, 212. — The Great Sugar Discovery, 213, - Clerical Combinations against the Press, 214. — Lucy Osborn, 215. — Grace Mysterious in its Mode of Operations, 217. – Works by Natural Means, 222. — English Repudiation, 227. — Ventilation, 238.
Prospectus.-This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed
Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favorably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give spirit and freshness to it by many, things which were excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to satisfy the wants of the American reader. The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, the sparkling Eraminer, the judicious Athenaeum, the busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Christian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military and Naval reminiscences of the United Serrice, and wit the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mag. azines, and of Chambers’ admirable Journal. We do not consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make ase of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our yariety by importations from the continent of Europe, and from the new growth of the British colonies. * The steamship has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, into our neighborhood; and will greatiy multiply our con: nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with all narts of the world; so that much more than ever it
of the condition and changes of soreign countries. And this not only because of their nearer connection with ourselves, but because the nations seem to be hastenin through a rapid process of change, to some new state o things, which the inerely political prophet cannot compute or foresee. Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections; and, in general, we shall systematically and o fully acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign i. without entirely neglecting our own. While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable te all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid progress of the movement—to Statesmen, Divines, Law: ers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of eisure—it is still a stronger object to make it attractive and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that we can thus do some good in our day and generation; and hope to make the work indispensable in every well-informed family. We say indispensable, because in this day of cheap ileo it is not possible to guard against the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite must be gratified. We hope that, by “winnowing the wheat from the chaff.” by providing abundantly for the imagination, and by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, istory, and more solid matter, we may produce a work which shall be popular, while at the same time it will aspire to raise the standard of public taste.
LITTELL's LIVING AGE.-No. 2S6—10 NOVEMBER, 1849.
From the Christian Observer. sey MoUR's MoRNINGs AMONG THE JESUITs.
Mornings among the Jesuits at Rome; being Notes of Conversations held with certain Jesuits on the subject of Religion in the City of Rome. By the Rev. M. H. SEYMour. London: Seeley.
We consider this work of Mr. Seymour's as one that is likely to be of much service in the Romish controversy. Circumstances appear to have favored Mr. Seymour in obtaining for him free and unreserved communication with some of the leading Jesuits at Rome, and he seems to have availed himself with much tact of the opportunity thus afforded him of ascertaining their precise views, and the strength of their arguments in various important points on which we are at issue with the Church of Rome.
Mr. Seymour informs us, in his Introduction, how this happened, and as it might appear, without his own explanation, that he misled the parties with whom the interviews were held as to his real state of mind, we give his own account of the matter.
During my constant attendance at all the services of the Church of Rome, I was observed by a Roman gentleman who held office in the papal court; and, being acquainted with him, he remarked one day to my wife, that I seemed much interested in these things; and asked whether I would not like to make the acquaintance of some of the clergy. Having learned from her my wishes to that effect, he called some days after to say he had been with his personal friend the Padre Generale—the father-general of the Jesuits—and had mentioned to him my wish to enter into communication with the clergy, and he seemed to intimate that this was sure to convert me to the Church of Rome. He added that the father-general had directed two members of the order to wait on me, to give me any information which I might desire. These gentlemen came in due course. They soon presented me to others. They introduced me to the professors of their establishment, the Collegio Romano, and thus a series of conversations or conferences, on the subject of the points at issue between the Churches of England and Rome, commenced and were carried on, as occasion offered, during the whole period of my residence at Rome. A portion of my notes of these conversations constitutes this present volume of “MoRNINGs AMoNG THE JEsuits At Roxie.”
I dealt with all frankness with these several gentlemen, as to the object of their visit. They were under the impression, which they were at no pains to conceal, that I was disposed favorably towards their church;—that I was one of those Anglican clergymen, who neither understand nor love the Church of England, and who, in a restless dissatisfaction and love of change, are prepared to abandon her communion for that of Rome, and who only wait a little encouragement, and perhaps instruction, before taking the last step. I was very careful to undeceive them, stating that I should be most happy to confer with them on the differences be
colxxxvi. Living AGE. vol. xxiii. 16
tween the two churches, but that I could not do so under a false color—that I was devotedly attached in judgment and in feeling to the Church of England—that I looked on her as the Church of God in England, and the most pure, most apostolic, most scriptural of all the churches of Christendom—that, without unchurching other churches, she was still the church of my judgment and of my affections; and that I had never for a moment harbored the thought of abandoning her for any other church, and especially for the Church of Rome. My new friends, for such their subsequent conduct proved them to be, seemed surprised at the decision of my opinions; and expressed their wonder that I could refuse to hold communion with the Church of Rome. I stated that I felt very strong objections, as they appeared to me, against that church; but that, if those objections were removed—if they, who were priests of the Church of Rome, could remove them —if they, living at the fountain-head of that church, could prove them futile, in that case they should find me free to act, and prepared to act on my enlightened convictions, and I would without hesitation join their communion. They generally asked me to state my objections, as they felt assured that they would be able to remove them. This invitation led to a series of conferences or conversations with some of these gentlemen. (pp. 3—5.)
In these interviews Mr. Seymour displays, we think, much acuteness in drawing out his opponents so as to obtain from them a clear admission as to the real character of Romish views on various important points on which generally much reserve is adopted by Popish controversialists in their communications with Protestants; and we are not surprised, when we read the account here given of their conversations with Mr. Seymour, to find him making the following remarks:—
I have learned, and must bear about me forever the memory of the lesson, never again to regard the extremities of credulity as inconsistent with the most scientific attainments; or to suppose that what seems the most absurd and marvellous superstition is incompatible with the highest education; or to think that the utmost prostration of the mind is inconsistent with the loftiest range of intellectual power. There was in some of my friends an extraordinary amount of scientific attainments, of classical erudition, of polite literature, and of great intellectual acumen; but all seemed subdued and held, as by an adamantine grasp, in everlasting subjection to what seemed to them to be the religious principle. This principle, which regarded the voice of the Church of Rome as the voice of God himself, was ever uppermost in the mind, and held such an influence and a mastery over the whole intellectual powers, over the whole rational being, that it bowed in the humility of a child before everything that came with even the apparent authority of the church. I never could have believed the extent of this, if I had not witnessed it in these remarkable instances. They seemed to regard the canons of the church preeisely as we regard the decisions of Scripture; and just as we regard any unbelief of the statements of Holy Scripture as infidelity, so they regard every doubt as to the judgment of the church as the worst infidelity. It seemed as if a doubt of it never cast its shadow across their minds. (pp. 5, 6.)
One of the first subjects of conversation naturally was the Tractarian movement in the English Church.
He then begged of me to explain my idea of the manner in which the movement was likely to operate.
I answered, that the Anglican church stood between two systems—between Romanism and dissent. These were the two extremes, to one or other of which all who loved extremes were likely to precipitate themselves. The party of the movement desired to draw her nearer and nearer to Rome—to give her more and more a similarity to the Church of Rome; and by that very course had led their opponents to run into the opposite extreme. It had evoked an antagonistic spirit, that was sure to lead nearer and nearer to dissent; and I added that my own conviction was, that the real evil, the impending danger, was, the people forsaking the Church of England, as a church declining towards Rome; and then utterly overthrowing and destroying her —a danger like that which arose out of the proceedings of Archbishop Laud, in the time of Charles I., namely, the utter subversion of the Church of England.
He intimated that he had not seen the movement in that light, but rather regarded it as one likely to lead the Church of England towards the Church of Rome—that all parties of all churches seemed agreed that the movement could not stop where it was that the active movers would come over, and if honest in their statements, and sincere in their opinions, must come over, to the Church of Rome; and that so far at least the Church of Rome must be a gainer:-that, however it might end for the Church of England, it must prove a gain to the Church of Rome—that they could not remain as they were, but must go further; and he felt that the course taken by such good men was certain to exert a great weight and influence upon others.
I was silent, except so far as assenting to his opinion respecting the parties engaged in the movement. He observed this, and continued to say, that there was a large section of the Church of England —and that too an increasing section—steadily and surely inclining to the Church of Rome; and thus a great division existed in the very heart of the Church of England, and that thus there were many who would embrace, and were embracing, the very system against which I objected ; and he added, that although I might not be aware of the fact, yet he knew it from sources of information that were not accessible to all, that multitudes in England were privately coming over to the Church of Rome. (pp. 18, 19.)
We quote this principally for the testimony contained at the close of it, and wish it may tend to open the eyes of some who would fain keep them closed to everything but what appears on the surface.
Among the conversations on the doctrine of the
Church of Rome, none seem to us of more impor
tance than those which related to its Mariolatry and saint and image worship, and we quite agree with Mr. Seymour in thinking that the position taken by his Jesuit collocutors on this point, is worth especial notice, as showing the present state of feeling in the Church of Rome respecting it, and demonstrating that the tendency is towards the growth and increase of this superstition. There are bold declarations of doctrine and expressions of feeling in the conversations on this point, for which we should have been equally unprepared with Mr. Seymour, and which (combined with the recent Letter of the Pope on the subject of the Immaculate Conception) seem to show that that church is sinking even into more degrading depths of superstition and false doctrine.
I stated, says Mr. Seymour, that there appeared to be many things that seemed not only extravagant, but even impossible, from their palpable absurdity; things that at times seemed so gross that no reasonable credulity could stand them; and had the effect of raising an insurmountable objection against any communion with the Church of Rome, if, indeed, these things were part and parcel of her system, or in any way essential to her completeness; and I added, that if they were not essential they ought to have been got rid of as offensive to so many persons. He replied, that he quite felt that there were many things to which my remarks would very justly apply, but that there were many others that were extravagant or absurd only in appearance; and that it not unfrequently occurred that those things that at one time seemed liable to insurmountable objections, were afterwards adopted by converts without the least scruple or difficulty. He therefore wished me to specify some illustratlon. I referred in return to the miraculous picture of the Virgin Mary in the church of S. Maria Maggiore—to the miraculous image of our Lord as a child in the church at Aracoeli—to the miraculous image of the Virgin Mary in the church of the Augustines; and to several other pictures and images, which were said to be miraculous, and which were worshipped with a special and peculiar devotion—were crowned and carried in procession precisely as the ancient heathens of Rome used to carry the images of their gods. I stated that these things seemed very gross, and that usually in England the advocates of the Church of Rome got rid of all objections derived from them by disavowing all these things as abuses, as exaggerations, as bad or superstitious practices, which were not acknowledged or practised by the wellinformed, and were not approved by the church. I therefore would take the opportunity of asking him, living as he did at the fountain head, and capable of informing me with some authority, whether others or myself could be justified in setting the objection aside in that way—namely, by attributing these things to the ignorance of the foolish and superstitious. He answered without the least hesitation, and in a manner that took me by surprise. He answered that I had taken a very wrong view of these particulars, in regarding them as extravagant or absurd ; for, although they might appear strange to me, as at one time they had appeared to himself, so strange indeed as sometimes to be absolutely loathsome to his feelings, and although he felt himself unable to justify them in themselves, yet there was no doubt of their being approved in practice by the church; that they were no exaggeration or caricature, but real verities, which at one time were a stumbling-block and offence to his own mind. He added that there was much that might be said in their favor, for that the Italians were a |...}. very different from the English; that the nglish loved a religion of the heart, and the Italians a religion of the senses; the English a religion of the feelings, and the Italians a religion for the taste; the English an inward and spiritual religion, and the Italians an outward and visible religion; and that it was the intention of the church, as well as her duty, to arrange all the rites, ceremonies, acts, services of religion, so as to be suitable to an outward and visible religion, and calculated for the mind of Italy; and thus those particulars concerning the crowning and processions of miraculous pictures and miraculous images, however strange and absurd to the English, have been sanctioned by the church as both natural and wise to the Italians. I expressed in strong terms my surprise at the position he had taken, expecting that he would have denied or softened these things, instead of asserting and defending them. And I took the opportunity of alluding to the coronation of the picture of Mary, in S. Maria Maggiore—a coronation by the present Pope, (Gregory XII.,) who crowned it amidst religious services with his own hands; I also alluded to the procession which conducted the same picture through the streets, in order to suppress the cholera—a procession in which the present Pope joined bare-footed—and I asked whether we were to regard these acts, in which all the chiefs of the church, as the Pope, Cardinals, Bishops, &c., took an active part, as the acts of the church, sanctioning the opinions that pictures could work miracles, and that the procession of a picture of the Virgin Mary could possibly stay the virulence of the cholera, and that any particular picture was entitled to any special or peculiar devotion, as a coronation—in short, entitled to more veneration than other pictures. To this he replied with frankness and decision, saying that he had no doubt, and that there could be no doubt whatever, as to the miraculous powers of some images and pictures; and he explained the matter thus. It sometimes occurred, he said, that some persons were affected, specially af. fected or moved, by some pictures or images more than by others; that in praying before these, their feelings were more touched, their sensibilities more excited, and their devotional affections more drawn out in prayer; that, in answer to such prayer, God not unfrequently gave responses which were more marked than ordinary, and were to be regarded as miraculous answers to prayers made before miraculous pictures or images. I could not avoid showing my incredulity as to all this, and I certainly was as surprised as I was incredulous. He observed this, but only continued to express himself more strongly, stating that there was no doubt whatever as to the reality of many miracles of this nature in answer to such prayers; and that when the report of these miracles spread abroad, when the public heard of them, when the minds of the devout were excited by the fame of them, then multitudes of persons naturally flocked to such pictures and images to pray before them ; and their feelings being excited, and their affections being the more drawn out by the circumstance, there were
yet again other miracles wrought by God, and so these images and pictures became miraculous. He added, that the picture of the Virgin at S. Maria Maggiore was such—that the image of Mary at the church of the Augustinians was such—and that the picture of St. Ignatius praying to the Virgin in the church of Gesu was, with many others, also miraculous. I must o confess that I was wholly unprepared for this. In all my former experience of controversy in Ireland and England, I had been told that all those were the mere abuses of the superstitious, and not sanctioned by the learned; if, indeed, such things were believed or practised anywhere. I had often heard them denounced as mere fabrications— pure inventions to injure the character of the Church of Rome, and I felt much surprise to find them not only believed and practised, but defended. I felt that it was opening out to me a new state of things, a new phase of mind, and a totally new system of faith or credulity, which I had never anticipated. A mind must be in a peculiar state to believe in the miraculous powers of a picture or image. His explanation led me to advance a step in our argument, and to say that his statements seemed to imply that there was something peculiar to those images and pictures, something inherent in them as compared with others, something not in the saint or angel represented, but in these very pictures and images themselves. I endeavored to illustrate my meaning by suggesting two pictures of the Virgin Mary placed side by side, and asking whether one being supposed to be miraculous, the people would pray before that one rather than the other ; and whether he believed the Virgin Mary would interfere with a miraculous answer for those who prayed to her before that one rather than the other. I added, that, if such was the case, it went to prove a belief that there was something peculiar, some virtue or power, something miraculous in such a picture, in one rather than the other ; and that the distinction proved that the people did look for something, in pictures and images, more than the persons whom they were designed to represent. He gave the fullest assent to this, saying, that they looked first of all to the saint represented in the picture or image, and that then, in case there was a miraculous character, they looked also to that power or virtue. He added, that his full belief was, that the Virgin Mary was more partial to some representations of herself than to others; and that, in order to induce the devout to pray before these her favorite ones, she heard and answered the prayers so offered, while she neglected those that were offered elsewhere—answering the prayers offered before one picture which she liked, and refusing those offered before a picture which she did not like. This was a degree of credulity, not to say superstition, for which I was wholly unprepared ; and I felt that there must be something in the atmosphere of Italy, or something in the training of the mind of Italy, that could lead an intelligent, a travelled, and educated man to such a state of credulity. (pp. 35—41. My clerical friend, after a pause which I was unwilling to break, lest I should express myself as strongly as I felt, resumed the conversation, and said, that the worship of the Virgin Mary was a growing worship in Rome—that it was increasing in depth and intenseness of devotion; and that there were now many of their divines, and he spoke of himself as agreeing with them in senti