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But it is not to be denied that very considerable facilities would, for a time at least, attend the career of a war minister. The mere strength and power derived from singleness of purpose would place him on inexpugnable vantage-ground. Although habits of trade and the coddling of extreme civilization have seemed to deaden the innate spirit of physical contest in the English nation, the first “silver snarling” of the war-trumpet would rouse the inborn demon, and English eyes would flash as they have not done for many a year. All peoples, especially the English, affect positive results: and the English have been rather sickened of late by very negative or indeterminate results to their statesmanship ; a war minister would have positive, distinct, palpable results enough, and to spare —critical results, highly exciting to the public interests; hopeful results; “glorious” results.

Besides those adventitious attractions, it is not to be maintained that war must necessarily be in all other respects disastrous. That it would be attended with trouble and loss is most certain ; nearly as certain that the evil would be anything but unmixed. Many good movements are going on sluggishly and ineptly, which the violent revulsion of a war would stir into life. Upon nations, even as upon individuals, the force of inertness, routine, and false shame, is paralyzing ; it is difficult for the most powerful to take heart of grace, break off its long error, and turn over a new leas. We shall but touch upon instances.

Commerce would be harshly jarred and unsettled, but not altogether unhappily, if after the disturbance it settled again in better channels. We see it to be in many cases in bad channels, but we cannot effect the change, which might perhaps be done at a jerk. At home, our railway habits of trade might not be the worse for some overwhelming deluge of other interests to break off for a time all but the quiet essential part. Abroad, we have got into bad ways—as with Brazil: the attempt to force our morals upon Brazilian conscience betrayed us into false diplomatic relations; our diplomacy borrowed its coercive power from commerce, and an endless series of inconsistencies has landed us in a quarrel with one of our best customers, of such a kind that we can scarcely take a step towards reconciliation without further inconsistencies. A war might cut that Gordian knot for us, oblige us to exchange refinements and entangled questions for essentials, and by forcing us into more direct courses, make us acknowledge the sweet uses of adversity. France is unfair to us; for she does not adequately reciprocate our commercial concessions—perhaps for want of a more thorough understanding, not so much of our economical arguments, as of our sincerity. France suspects us of a cold, calculating selfishness, which cares little what wrong is done so that we escape the responsibilities and the consequences. Were the two countries compelled to fight side by side for justice to Europe, a better understanding could scarcely fail to grow up, and France would learn, out of mere good fellowship, to show a better faith in consulting mutual interests.

Similar influences might befall in political affairs. At home, we have got into a very ill-conditicined state—a morbid appetite for “reforms,” with never a one ripe in public opinion, but a constant pandering to the appetite by dealers in green crudities. Every part of the nation has an unhealthy longing, and no power or vigor to satisfy itself. We should be all the better for breaking this off for a season ; and the urgent demands of a wartime would bring us roughly to account. Statesmen would not boggle and falter, asking for “pressure from without” to help them in buckling themselves to their duty : they would soon know what reforms stand for finished ideas in the public mind, and those would become facts accomplished without further delaying, to be got out of the way of action. Mere à priori “reforms,” got up to satisfy a crotchet or make an agitation, would be brushed aside with other child's-play. Those larger reform measures which are still baking in the public mind, unmatured, would be put by for a time, to be taken up with more freshness and resolve in their turn ; and probably the ultimate success of such measures would not be really hindered by present postponement. Some measures of justice and common sense might be directly hastened. The luxury of sporting with colonies would be abandoned, to do them substantial justice. The mischievous squadron on the coast of Africa —that great embodied and armed nonsense, which yearly diverts a good round sum, engages our ships, and complicates our relations with friends —would be given up.

Abroad, changes not less happy might be anticipated : embarrassments arising from deference sor many an old treaty would be swept away; Austria and Russia, and all their allies, would forfeit 1815: England and France would be set free to negotiate directly with Italy, Hungary, the German nations —ay, and with Poland—and so to bring the peoples once for all into the councils of Europe. Nay, there is no saying what a Turkish war might do for the Russian nobles—those unhappy magnates whom one occasionally meets wandering about the continent, “on leave,” stung with a mortified sense of degradation to see their compeers of the west, free and independent, travelling where they list without reporting all their movements to a bureau at home.

No—a war in 1850 would not tend altogether in favor of absolutism. Perhaps, for that very reason, Russia may not go so far as to bring the generosity of France and England to the test.

From the Economist.

At present, our interference is confined to protests and remonstrances; but if they are not suocessful, and Russia persists in attacking Turkey, they will be followed by acts, and the whole power of England will be put forth to aid Turkey and beat back the Northern Bear. A war between Russia and Turkey on such a pretext would be followed by a war between Russia and England, and probably between

Russia and France. Austria must be involved in it on the side of Russia, by whose arrogance Europe is threatened with a far worse war than that which Russia sent its forces into Hungary to quell. There can be no doubt whatever that the conduct of Russia, in arrogantly making such a demand, and in threatening to support it by force of arms, violates the laws of nations. She aspires, then, to make a new code of national laws, and be the sole legislator for Europe. This cannot be allowed. No one of the great powers is so weak in such a contest as Russia. She can have no efficient allies. Austria is too much involved in Italy and Hungary to be able to render her any material assistance. Italy would probably be invaded by the French, and under their auspices would again rise, most probably with much greater success than in 1848, to chase away the Austrians. Hungary, not yet pacified, and no longer cordially united with Austria, hating Russia as the instrument of her subjugation, would probably again be urged into insurrection. All the German subjects of Austria must be opposed to measures involving the possibility of such occurrences, and must be disinclined to see Russian power predominant. A war which would set loose in Austria all the elements of disorder, would be fatal to its greatness. Austria, in such a contest, can afford Russia no efficient aid. The finances of Russia are not in a condition to enable her to enter into a war with England and France. She has, too, a little war on her hands with the Circassians, which might become a great internal war embracing the bulk of her Mahometan population, were she to engage in a eontest with Turkey, England, and France. We trust, therefore, that a true sense of his own position, and the language used by our government, will be sufficient to make the Emperor of Russia sensible that he has taken a wrong step. He will, probably, listen to reason and the remonstrances of England and France. We hope there will be no war. The people of Europe want peace. For nothing did they hate political change so much as that it disturbed peace, and they will not pardon in the Emperor of Russia that which they have loudly and fiercely condemned in all the demagogues and revolutionists of the age. Should the emperor fancy that his honor is concerned, and that he cannot retreat—should his success over the Hungarians inspire him with a notion that he can succeed in whatever he undertakes—there is but one course for England. She cannot suffer the autocrat to dictate the laws of Europe. She is pledged to uphold the Turkish empire, and she cannot allow the czar to dismember it at his pleasure. She has her Indian empire to look to, and cannot allow Turkey to be incorporated with Russia. It is seldom that so good a

cause as this justifies the employment of our armed force in soreign contests. This, too, has suddenly come on us. The armies of Russia are no doubt ready to proceed from Hungary to Turkey, and can only be stopped by a resolute action on our part. Such a case brings the arbitration theory of the universal peace party to the test. It has espoused the cause of Hungary; it would like to see the Hungarian and Polish refugees protected from the wrath of the emperor ; but England, in such a case, relying on a bitration, and disarmed, would be constrained to see the rights of hospitality and the laws of nations violated. She would then be a consenting party to inflicting a great outrage on humanity, and giving the last blow to the independence of Hungary and Poland. <de

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1. Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton, - 2. The Modern Wa sal, concluded, - 3. Optical Magic of our Age, - - 4. The Fall of the Leaf, - - - 5. Albert Gallatin, - - - - 6. Paris Correspondence of the - - 7. The Roman Question, - - - 8. French Foreign Policy, - - - 9. Destiny of Cuba, - - - - 10. Canada, - - - - - - 11. Russia and Turkey, - - -

- Church of England Quarterly Review, 289 - John Wilmer, - - - - 305 - Chambers’ Journal, - - - 319 - Spectator, - - - - - 323 - Courier & Enquirer, - - - 324 - Britannia, - - - - - 325 - Examiner, - - - - - 326 - London Times, - - - - 327 - 44 {{ - - - - 328 - Independent, - - - - 329 - Examiner, Spectator, &c., - - 331

Short ARTICLES.-Austrian Perfidy, 303.−Cause of Ineffectual Preaching, 322. PoETRY-The Shut-up One, (with an Illustration); St. Peter's Tears; Reasons for Risibility

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Paospectus.--This work is conducted in the spirit of Iittell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor*bly received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is twice as large, and appears so often, we not only give spirit and freshness to it by many things which were excluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to satisfy the wants of the American reader.

The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble criticisins on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, highly wrought Tales, and vivid descriptions of rural and mountain Scenery; and the contributions to Literature, History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, the o Eraminer, the judicious Athenaeum, the busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Christian Observer; these are intermixed with the Militar and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and wit the best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, o Sporting Magazines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not consider it beneath our dignity to horrow wit and wisdom fron Punch ; and, when we think it good enough, make "use of the thunder of Tae Times. e shall increase our yariety by importations from the continent of Europe, and from the new growth of the British colonies. .*

The ...i. has brought Europe, Asia and Africa, into our neighborhood; and will greatiy multiply our connections, as Merchants, Traveliers, ...} Politicians, with all "arts of the world : so that much more than ever it

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now becomes every intelligent American to be informed of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And this not only because of their nearer connection with outselves, but because the nations seem to be o through a rapid process of change, to some new state o things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute or foresee. Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages and Travels, will he favorite matter for our selections; and, in general, we shall systematically and very fully .." our readers with the great department of Foreign affairs, without entirely ...'...". own. While we aspire to make the Liring Age desirable te all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid progress of the movement—to Statesmen, Divines, Law: ters, and Physicians—to men of business and men of eisure—it is still a stronger object to make it attractive and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and hope to make the work indispensable in every well-informed family. We say indispensable, because in this day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, in any other way than by | "...i a sufficient supply of a ń. character. 'ri. mental and moral appetite must be gratified. We hope that, by “winnotting the wheat from the chaff.” by providing abundantly for the imagination, and by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, istory, and more solid matter, we may produce a work which shall be popular, while at the same time it will aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

Agencies. –We are desirous of making arrangements, in all parts of North America, for increasing the circulation of this work- and for doing this a liberal commission will he allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselves in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this subject with any agent who will send us undoubted reserences.

Postage.—When sent with the cover on, the Living Age consists of three sheets, and is rated as a pamphlet, at 4 cents. But when sent without the cover, it comes within the definition of a newspaper given in the law, and cannot legally be charged with more than newspaper postage, (14 cts.) We add the definition alluded to :newspaper is “any printed publication, issued in numbers, consisting of not inore than two sheets, and published at short, stated intervals of not more than one inonth, conveying intelligence of passing events.”

Monthly parts.-For such as prefer it in that form, the Living Age is put up in monthly parts, containing four or five weekly numbers. In this shape it shows to great advantage in comparison with other works, containing in each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. But we recominend the weekly numbers, as fresher and fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 cents. The columes are published quarterly, each volume containing as much matter as a quarterly review gives in eighteen months.

WashingtoN, 27 Dec., 1845.

Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this

has appeared to me to be the nost useful.

It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the

English language, but this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human inind in

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the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS,

LITTELL’S LIVING AGE.-No. 288-24 NOVEMBER, 1849.

From the New Monthly Magazine. WILD. SPORTS OF THE FALKLANDS.

SKETCHPD DURING A SURVEY OF THOSE ISLANDS. By cAPTAIN MACKINNoN, R. N.

PART I.

PLEAs ANT HARBor.—The barometer fell so fast, that the surveying party did not think it prudent to leave the vessel. Every preparation was made for a heavy gale; as we knew, by experience, that the weather-glass is a faithful monitor. At noon we began to feel the breeze; and by 2, P. M., we had as hard a gale of wind, accompanied by as fierce and powerful squalls, with numerous flakes of snow, as I ever experienced. Our situation was desolate in the extreme; to leeward, a range of rocky hills covered with snow, the harbor itself (a branch of Port Fitzroy) lashed by the furious gale into one sheet of foam ; and to windward, a small islet covered with tussock, the long leaves of which, bending and bowing as in despair, added to the dreariness of the prospect; while the entrance to the harbor and the head of the bay were hidden from our view by large flakes of snow driving furiously past us. To deepen the effect of this dismal picture, we were conscious of being 104° of latitude from Old England; and that, in case of need, we were several hundred miles away from the nearest assistance. In spite of all this, we were perfectly comfortable and jolly, and cared not one farthing for the gale, as we had not only full reliance on our own resources, but abundance of “creature comforts,” to say nothing of the appearance of our spritsail-yard, which was not merely decorated, but positively loaded, with game of all kinds.

Towards night, as usual, the gale abated. The next morning, after divisions, it being Sunday, divine service was performed, (a ceremony omitted only on one occasion while Captain Sulivan and myself were aboard the vessel, when, during a very heavy gale of wind, we were battened down.) After the ship's company had dined, some of the crew were allowed to land for a walk; but as no fire-arms were permitted to be carried on the Sabbath, it was customary to put the men on an islet, in order to avoid any danger from the wild animals which infested the mainland. On the day in question, about twenty were landed on the little tussock isle close to which we lay ; and as certain of the officers, myself among the number, wished to go, we all went together, and soon began to amuse ourselves in the best way we could. These tussock beds are very singular places; they have been undisturbed for ages, and by the perpetual decay and renewal of the flags the whole place where they grow is covered with large lumps of vege

ccLxxxviii. Living AGE. vol. xxiii. 22

table matter as inflammable as tinder. The long thin leaves interlock above, and form, here and there, little cloisters from five to twenty yards long in some places. The paths thus formed are trodden perfectly smooth by the numerous penguins, whose holes branch off in every direction. As we were looking about us, one of our party suddenly observed that he smelt smoke. Though such a remark on an uninhabited island was of a nature to excite surprise, no one seemed to heed it till, in a few minutes, thick reeky volumes began to roll over our heads, when it struck me that some of our careless vagabonds had set fire to the weather-side. Off we started for very life, though we had only about 200 yards to go. The ground was excessively difficult, as some of the lumps above described were five feet high, and the flags on the summits many feet above our heads. The cracking of the flames was plainly heard, as if close to us, and we were nearly suffocated by the dense smoke. At length, after a desperate struggle, in which several shoes and caps were lost, we gained the beach, rushed into the boat, and pushed off. We were barely in time; for the next instant the little bank over which we had scampered was a mass of bright flame. Not a moment was lost in sending a boat round to the weather-side (the leeward being impracticable, on account of heat and smoke) to look for the rest of our men, about whom we were, of course, very anxious. The thoughtless fellows were found sitting quietly on the beach smoking their pipes, and looking with vacant pleasure on their work, not dreaming that some of their shipmates might, as the Americans say, have been “used up” by it. The next morning, anxious to see the effects of the fire, I landed early, and having examined the ashes, ascertained that a very great number of birds had been destroyed by the conflagration. The island consists of about three hundred acres, of which, I am convinced, there are not a dozen square yards without a nest of some kind of bird containing four or five eggs, or callow brood. In the portion of land wherein the fire raged, the young birds were roasted alive, besides a few seals, whose remains we found pretty well singed. The authors of this wholesale destruction said it was quite pitiable to see the larger birds, such as geese, caranchos, &c., flying round the flames that were consuming their young, and screaming with horror. Now and then one of them would fall in, either suffocated by the smoke or scorched by the heat. A day or two subsequently, Captain Sulivan and myself landed with our guns on an exploring excursion. After about an hour's walk round a lake, during which we jointly bagged upwards of forty teal, we saw, on turning the corner of a gully, a huge bull half hidden among the bushes, as if fast asleep. Dropping on our knees, we crawled back some distance, for the purpose of changing our small shot for ball. Having thrown down our game and shooting-jackets, we stealthily advanced on all-fours, and crept up to a small bank within fifteen yards of the brute's great head, which lay fully exposed to us; then, resting our guns, we both fired our left barrels at a concerted signal, reserving the right. The beast did not move; and, to our mortification, we found, on a nearer approach, that we had valiantly been attacking a dead animal. It was some consolation, however, to discover that our two bullet-holes were touching each other in the centre of his brain. Knowing full well that we might reckon on a speedy detection of our exploit, and consequently, on being well laughed at, we determined to ward off the expected ridicule by turning the tables on our shipmates; accordingly, going on board with joyful countenances, we said (which was true enough) that we had shot a bull through the brain, and that he had not stirred afterwards. On hearing this, a party was formed, and saws, knives, and other butchering instruments were taken, for the purpose of cutting up the spoil, towards which, after receiving the necessary directions, they started in high glee ; while we sat down to dinner, chuckling at our ruse, which, if it did not deceive our companions, had the desired effect in diverting the laughter from ourselves. When we had completed the survey of Pleasant Harbor, we took the vessel some miles further up. As we advanced towards the head of the harbor, the beauties of the place opened on us. Sometimes the passage was so narrow that one might have thrown one's hat ashore on either side ; and anon it spread out to a broad sheet of water. The whole scene was so desolate and dumb that, in giving the word of command, as the different windings made it necessary to shift the yards, my own voice startled me. The water-fowl, noiselessly parting on each side of our bow, as the vessel came up to them, did not appear alarmed, but stared at us with grave astonishment. At eight o'clock we came to and moored in a large sheet of water, about ten miles from the harbor's mouth. While enjoying my cigar on deck, and deriving pleasure from the soft, serene air of evening, I perceived two bulls grazing close to the shore just ahead of the vessel. The surveyors, who were cngaged below laying down their work, immediately stopped business and came up. Having only one day's beef on board, we determined to attack the bulls; and, in a few minutes, four of us were pulling for the shore with well-loaded guns. Our proceedings had got wind on the lower deck, and all hands crowded up the rigging to see the battle. We landed under the bank, in such a position as not to be seen by our prey, who were quietly grazing all the time. Stealthily, like Indians, we climbed the bank, and jumped over the brow full before them. They immediately turned tail and fled. Captain Sulivan fired at the nearest

brute as he turned, and, though at the distance of fifty yards, we could clearly hear the “thud" of the ball striking him, which it did about six inches behind the heart. This was a staggering blow, but did not prevent his running away. La Porte (our dog) was immediately slipped, caught the bull about three hundred yards inland, and flew at his flank, which caused him to face about and attack the dog. Time was thus given me to get within fifteen yards of the spot, when, lowering his head, the brute charged me. My right-hand barrel, however, damped his ardor, and he turned half round as if to fly. My second bullet went clean through his body a few inches above the heart, and, for a moment, brought him on his knees. While I drew my knife in order to ham string him, he suddenly rallied, and appeared to collect what strength was left him for one last desperate effort—always the most dangerous. At this moment Mr. Sulivan, jun. came up and presented his gun, but the vile Brummagem snapped without going off; and we should have been in rather an awkward predicament, had not Captain Sulivan, with his remaining barrel, within five yards, laid the bull dead at his feet, the bullet passing through the centre of the brain, and coming out at the back of his head. The moment he fell, we were greeted by three loud cheers from the people at our mast-head, and, in a few minutes, had thirty stout fellows with us. After disembowelling our prey, we attached a strong line to his horns, and, with a sailor-song from thirty hoarse throats, dragged him down to the water's edge, towed him off, and hoisted him in with a runner and tackle, not liking to trust his great weight to the yard.

As the survey detained us here several days, we had a good opportunity of exploring the immediate vicinity. Not a day passed without our seeing herds of cattle grazing around. To attack these would not be so dangerous an adventure as to encounter the outlying bulls, which, in number, are disproportionate to the cows. This, no doubt, has arisen from the great slaughter for food of the latter, whose flesh is preferable to that of the males —a slaughter committed by ships of all nations some few years ago, before the Falklands were under the English flag. I generally remarked that the outlyers were covered with gashes, received, probably, in many a hard battle; and that they labored under the disadvantage of not having their horns pointed upwards, whereas the bashaws who lived in female society had remarkable advantages in that weapon of offence. This may be a wise ordination of nature, to prevent the great number of males from injuring the breed, which would certainly ensue were not some of the bulls turned out of the herd and kept at a distance by their more favored brethren.

PART II.

Having seen that everything was in order in our little vessel, I thought a good opportunity was before me to carry out one of the orders given by the Admiralty to my commanding officer—namely, to form

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