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In cases of children designated as posthumous, in the marginal notes, the mothers were widows.
Table II relates to Marriages, and is divided into three parts. In the first part (pp. 23–39,) the towns are divided into those which have made returns recapitulated in the second part (p. 40) by counties, and those which have made no returns; and the tables exhibit, by counties, the census of 1840; the number of marriages; the condition of the parties; the number of the parties whose age and condition is stated; their aggregate ages; and the months in which the marriages occurred.
The 289 towns, from which returns of Marriages have been received, contained a population of 600,680 in 1840. The number of marriages was 4304, or 1 in 138 persons. This number is undoubtedly below the truth. In England, the average number per annum in the three years from 1838 to 1841, was 1. in 127 inhabitants, and in the metropolis, one in 101.
The third part (p. 41) shows the proportion of marriages to the population, and the number according to "condition," with the average age of the parties, for each county, and for the State. The average age deduced from 15,579 marriages, registered in England for the two years ending June 30, 1840 and '41, was of bachelors, nearly 25.45; of maids, 24.30; of widowers, 40.80; of widows, 38.95; of the men, 27.45; and of the women, 25.46 years.
Table III, relating to Deaths, is divided into two parts. The first part (pp. 42—59,) shows by counties the towns with their census in 1840 (those which have made returns being distinguished from those which have made none); the number of deaths, with the sex of the deceased; the number and sex of those that died in each month; the number whose age is recorded; and the aggregate ages and average age in each town.
The second part (pp. 60, 61) recapitulates by counties the 281 towns which have made returns.
The whole number, which, excluding the still-born, is 8338, is doubtless too small for the aggregate population of 578,653, being only about 1 in 70, when probably it really is 1 in 55. The proportion in England in the three years from 1838 to 1841, was 1 in 45
of the population. Of 8338, 3712 were males, and 4173 females, besides 453 whose sex is not stated. The females exceeded the males by 461 in the general aggregate, and did so in every county except Nantucket,-Hampshire, where the difference is only 2,—and Suffolk, embracing only one town, Chelsea, in which the number of males is double that of the females, owing to the death of 34 males in the Marine Hospital. After deducting these 34 from the whole number of males, there would remain only 26 males to 27 females, and one not stated.
Of the 8338, the ages of 7723 are on the returns, whose ag. gregate is 260,622 years, 7 months, and 20 days, averaging 33 years, 8 months, and 28:19 days. The average age in the several counties, as well as in the several towns, is various. This result as to the average is not to be taken too strictly, but only as an approximation, or to be regarded as accidental, and not necessarily indicating a healthy or unhealthy section of the Commonwealth. The average age deduced from the registered Deaths in England for four years ending June, 1841, was 28.93 years. In the Prussian States it was 28.86.
It may be observed in regard to Suffolk County (embracing only the return from Chelsea), in which the average age was the least of any of the counties, that of the 85 whose age is specified, 34 were seamen, whose aggregate age was 1097, and average age 32 years and 3 months. The number under 20 years was 38, whose average age was between 3 and 4 years; and of the 47 whose age was 20 years and upwards, the average age was over 35 years.
The returns would seem to indicate that the months of August and September were the most fatal to human life, and that April, May, June and July were the most favorable.
Table IV exhibits in the first part (pp. 62—75) the approximate ages* and the number of deaths of either sex, in each month, by counties, and in the second part (p.76) a recapitulation of the same for the whole State. This table corresponds to table III in the First, and table IV in the Second Annual Report.
* That is, the ages as arranged, in the columns, between 1 and 2 years,
between 2 and 5, &c.
The third part (p. 77) shows the near agreement between the approximate ages in the several counties,* and the ages stated in the returns.
The fourth part (p. 78) shows the proportion of deaths, including the still-born, in the different periods of life, according to the returns in 1842, 1843, and 1844; and the fifth part (p. 79) the proportion of the aggregate deaths in these three years, as compared with the deaths in England, in four years, ending June 30, 1838 to 1841, and in the Prussian states in fifteen years, from 1820 to 1834 inclusive. From the comparison it appears that the returns in Massachusetts show the proportion of deaths under 10 years to have been less than in England or in the Prussian states ; that from 10 and under 40 years, 26.24 per cent. died in Massachusetts, 20.57 per cent. in England, and 14.89 per cent in the Prussian states, so that the proportion in the three countries, was nearly equal, of those who died under 40 years; that, of those who died at the age of 40 and under 50 years, the proportion was nearly the same in the three countries; that from 50 and under 70, the proportion was less, and from 70 and under 80, it was greater in Massachusetts; that from 80 and under 90, it was greater here than in England, and nearly double that in the Prussian states; and from 90 and upwards, also much greater in Massachusetts than in either of those countries.
Table V, relating to the occupations of the deceased, is divided into three parts.
The first part (pp. 80–91) corresponding with table II. in the First, and with table III. in the Second Annual Report, ex
* The approximate aggregate in Table IV, part 3, is obtained by multiplying the number in each column by the mean of the ages, and adding the products together; thus 1264 by , 551 by 13, 566 by 31, &c,; and the approximate average is the quotient obtained by dividing this aggregate by the whole number. The Return Aggregate is the aggregate of the ages as they appear on the returns; and the average of years following, is the number obtained by dividing this aggregate by the whole number of the deceased whose ages have been counted.
hibits in separate columns for the several counties, 1, the number of persons deceased, whose ages are stated, belonging respectively to various occupations; and 2, the aggregate age (expressed in years, months, and days,) of the whole number of each occupation deceased in each county. The occupations are arranged in eight general classes, all consisting of males (with the exception of a few teachers, domestics, operatives, and paupers,) and a ninth class consisting of females. The first class consists of those usually known as professional men and scholars; the second, of capitalists and merchants, or of persons either living on the income of their property, or employed in some branch of commerce; the third, of cultivators of the earth, whether as owners or not; the fourth, of clerks and other persons (not belonging to the professions) living on salaries, or the avails of commissions; the fifth, of artisans and mechanics; the sixth, of persons performing domestic service and other manual labor, not included in either of the former classes, nor in the next succeeding; the seventh, of mariners, and persons employed on ship board; the eighth, of paupers, and other persons requiring guardianship. The ninth class specifies a few female occupations. At the close of this part (at the top of pages 86—91) are exhibited in separate columns, 1, the whole number belonging to such occupation, deceased in the State during the past year; 2, their aggregate ages; and 3, their average ages respectively.
The second part of table V (pp. 92, 93) is a recapitulation of the first, exhibiting a summary statement of the several facts, arranged under the heads of the nine general classes of occupations.
The third part (pp. 94-96) exhibits, (1) the approximate ages of persons deceased, belonging to the different occupations ; (2) a recapitulation of the same facts arranged under the nine general classes of occupations; (3) a comparison of the approximate aggregate and average ages of persons deceased in the several counties, whose occupation has been returned, with their aggregate and average ages as deduced from the returns.
It will be perceived that the approximate aggregate of 1695
ages, among the occupations specified in the returns, is 10651 years more than the actual aggregate exhibited in the returns themselves, making a difference in the average of life in these occupations (54.16–53.54) of sixty-two hundredths of a year, or 7 months and 1411 days. Had the table been constructed by putting in the first column those of 20 years and under, and in the second, those over 20 and not exceeding 30 years, &c., the approximate aggregate would have been reduced 1510 years, from 91,815 to 90,305, thus making the difference only twenty-six hundredths of a year, or 3 months and 6993 days less than the actual average of individual life according to the returns themselves.
The approximate aggregate ages of 1639 persons in 1842, were 88,805 years, averaging 54.12 years; in 1843, the aggregate of 1781 ages was 99,045 years, and the average 55.61 years; in 1844, the aggregate of 1695 ages was 91,815 years, and the average 54.168 years. The approximate aggregate for the three years was 279,665 years, averaging 54.67 years among 5115 occupations.
The number of deaths registered under most of the occupations is small, and not sufficient to furnish an average age which can be considered as an approximation to the truth, but if a similar registration should be pursued for a series of years, the accumulation will afford valuable data for this calculation.
Already a sufficient number have been registered, of a few of the occupations, for establishing a very near approximation to the actual average age; an example is in the class of farmers or yeomen, including gardeners, of whom the number whose age is stated in the three years is 1995, whose approximate average age was 65.47 years.
It is to be regretted that the occupations of the deceased in some of the towns, as Lowell, Cambridge, Medford and Waltham, have been almost wholly omitted ; as one great purpose of a Registration system is to determine the value of life in the different occupations, and from no source can more useful facts for this purpose be furnished than from the commercial and manufacturing towns.