« ПретходнаНастави »
ADDENDA TO VOLUME THE THIRD.
Hæc olim me minisse juvabit.- Virgil.
Printed and published by H. NILES, South-st: next door to the Merchants' Coffee House, at $5 per annun.
When the steam lifts the safety-valve, it is On presenting this appenva to the third volume of
then let into the cylinder by opening the the WEEKLY Register, it becomes the editor to throttle-valve, to drive the piston upand down, confess; that, as a considerable part of the sheet is which, by rod l, gives motion to the fly-wheel, devoted to substantiate and explain certain claims and wheel 2 gives motion to a shaft, passing of the author with a view to his emolument, that through the posts, to turn the spindle of the Without this declaration my apparent liberality rotary, valves 3, 8, which lets the steam both might have been questioned, as being improperly off and on the cylinder at the proper time. clirected.
The steam escaping by pipe 1, curved and But the mere payment of this cost of would not, of immersed in the water in box E, which is sup
itself, have induced me to present the sheet to my plied by pump F, it is condensed, and the readers. The memoir on the “onGIN OF STEAM water formed, descends by pipe 5, into supply BOATS AND STEAM Waggons," is a most interesting article. It describes, with great simplicity and pump G, and is forced into the boiler again by effeci, the beginning and progress of an invention pipe 6. that may be ranked among the most useful with But boiling decomposes water slowly change. which the genius of our courtry.men hus blessed ing it into air incondensible. Therefore the mankind.
shifting-valve 7, is necessary.
This valve of the merits of Mr. Evans' claims to the inventions lifts at every puff of steam, and a small quan
hereinafter described, I know nothing further than is to be gathered from the facts stated-but, borntity of air escapes ; and it shuts, an in the neighborhood of the former residence of that um is instantly formed, as the crank passes gentleman, and being familiar from my childhood the dead points. with his mechanical character, (if the term may be The small waste of water may be supplied allowed) I have always regarded him as a man of by condensing part of the steam rising from uncommon genius, with great strength of mind. the condensing water, to run down the pipe 9, a person, in the language of the day, that "would through a hole in the key of a stop-cock, never be worth any ihing, because he was always parts of an inch diameter,-A small hole inspending his time in some contrivance or another:" deed to supply a boiler of twentyhorses power. and I wellremember,when a little boy,to have heard
No sediment can accumulate in the boiler, him say, “the time would come when the powers it being supplied by distilled water. Thereof steam should be so well ascertained and so simply applied, that the very old women would fore it will last much longer, and require less do the common business of housewifery with it,” fuel than others. Muddy, limestone, or salt speaking of it as a matter with which he was per. water, or the juice of the sugar cane, &c. &c. fectly acquainted. I rejoice that the prediction may be used to condense; and as the engine of the sceptical who oppose all improvements and works equally well while we boil away the inventions, as "innovations," has not been fulflled : and am delighted to observe, that his then sup: &c. in working the engine,—thus using the
condensing water, we may boil for salt, sugar, posed strange declaration, has been so far accomplished as to remove all doubts of its most fuel for double purposes. liberal and extended practice.
If the steam be confined by the load on the
safety-valve, to raise its power to 100 pounds Columbian Steam Engine. to the inch, area of the piston and the cylinder
be nine inches in diameter, and the stroke of EXPLANATION.
the piston three feet, the power will equal A, the boiler--B, the working cylinder-C twenty horses hitched ; and will grind 20 . the lever beam-D, the fly-wheel-E, the con- bushels of grain per hour, or saw 5000 feet denser-F, the water-pump-G, the supply of boards in 12 hours. If the steam be conpump-H, the furnace--1, the chimneyslue-fined by 150 pounds, the power of the engine K, the safety-valve, which may be loaded with will be equal to 30 horses, when the steam is 100 or 150lbs. to the inch area; it will never shut off at one third of the stroke, and strikneed more, and it must never be fastened ing thirty-six strokes por minute.---Double down.
strokes double the power.
The more the steam is confined, and the The boiler being filled with pure water as shorter it be shut off by the regulator 8, the high as the dotted line, and the fire applied, the greater will be the power obtained by the smoke enters the centre flue, which passes fuel. For every addition of 30 degrees heat through the centre of the water to ascend the to the water doubles the power. So that fue I, and thus acts on a large surface. Jdoubling the heat of the water inereases the
* The binder trill please to observe that is artilerie, is designed to follow the Appenatit.
ON THE ORIGIN OF
BY OLIVER EVANS.
power about 100 times. On these principlesI renewed my studies with increased ardor, fuel may be lessened to one third part con- and soon declared that I could make steam sumed by other engines. This engine is not raggons, and endeavored to communicate my more than one fourth the weight of others ; ideas to others; but however practicable the is more simple, durable, and cheap, and more thing appeared to me, my object only excited suitable for every purpose; especially for the ridicule of those to whom it was made propelling boats and land carriages. It re- known. But I persevered in my belief, and quires no more water than the fuel will eva-confirmed it by experiments that satisfied me porate in steam, and this steam may be em- of its reality. ployed to warm the apartments of factories; In the year 1786 I petitioned the legislature or the condenser E, could be used as a still of Pennsylvania for the exclusive right to use to distil spirits; or a vat for paper making, my improvements in flour mills, as also steam boiler in a brewery, dye factory, &c. &c. waggons, in that state. The committee to
T'he patent right now belongs one half to whom the petition was referred heard me the subscriber, Philadelphia; one fourth to very patiently while I described the mill imGeorge Evans, Pittsburg; and one fourth to provements, but my representations concernLuther Stephens, Lexington, Ky. Apply to ing steam waggons made them think me ineither for engines, or for licenses to use them. sane. They, however, reported favorably OLIVER EVANS.
respecting my improvements in the manufacture of flour, and passed an act granting me the exclusive use of them as prayed for. This act is dated March -, 1787. But no no
tice is taken of the steam waggons. Şteam Boats and Steam IVaggons. legislature of Maryland. Mr. Jesse Hollings
A similar petition was also presented to the worth, from Baltimore, was one of the com
mittee appointed to hear me, and report on About the year 1772, being then an appren- of the fate of my application to the legislature
the case. I candidly informed this committee tice to a wheel-wright, or waygon-maker, I la- of Pennsylvania respecting the steam wag. bored to discover some means of propelling
gons-declaring, at the same time, without land carriages, without animal power. Ali the modes that have since been tried (so far
the encouragement prayed for, I would never as I have heard of them) such as wind, trea- would secure to me the right as requested, I
attempt to make them; but that, if they dles with ratched wheels, crank tooth, &c. would, as soon as I could, apply the principle to be wrought by men, presented themselves to my mind, but were considered as too futile elastic power of steam, as well as my mode
to practice; and I explained to them the great to deserve an experiment; and I concluded of applying it to propel waggons. Mr. Holthat such motion was impossible for want of lingsworth very prudently observed, that the a suitable original power.
grant could injure no one, for he did not think But one of my brothers, on a Christmas that any man in the world had thought of evering, informed me that he had that day of such a thing before: he therefore wished been in company with a neighboring black-the encouragement might be afforded, as there sinith's boys; who, for amusement, had stop was a prospect that it would produce someped up the touch-hole of a gun barrel, then thing useful. This kind of argument had the put in about a gill of water and rammed down desired effect, and a favorable report was å tight wad--atter which they put the breech made, May 21, 1787, granting to me, my heirs in the sınith's fue; when it discharged itself and assigns, for 14 years, the exclusive right with as loud a crack as if it had been loaded to make and use my improvements in tour with powder.
mills and the steam waggons, in that state. It immediately occurred to me that here from that period I have felt myself bound in was the power to propell any waggon, if I honor to the state of Maryland to produce a could only apply it; and I sat myself to work steam waggon, as soon as I could conveniently to find out the means. I labored for some do it. time without success. At length a book fell In the year 1789, I paid a visit to Benjamin isto my hands describing the old atmospheric Chandlee and sons, clockmakers, men celesteam engine, I was astonished to observe brated for their ingenuity, with a view to that they had so far erred as to use the steam induce them to join me in the expence and only to form a vacuum to apply the mere pres-profits of the project. I shewed to thicro sure of the atmosphere, instead of applying my draughts with ihe plan of ihe engine and the elastic power of the term for orginal explained the expensive power of steam; all inotion; the power of which I supposed irre which they appeared to understard, but fear sistable.
ful of the es pence and difficuities atsending it
declined the concern. However they certified could find no one willing to risquetle expence that I had shewn to them the drawings and of the experiment. explained the powers, &c.
In the year 1785 or 6, before I lad potitionIn tiie same year, I went to Ellicott's mills eå the legislatures, I fell in company with on the Patapsco, near Baltimore, for the pur- Mr. Sam. Jackson, of Redstore; and learning pose of persuading Messrs. Jonathan Ellicott of him that he resided on the western waters, and brothers, and connections (who were I endeavored to impress upon his mind the equally famous for their ingenuity,) to join great utility and high importance of steam ine in the expence and profits of making and wats, to be propelled on them; telling him using steam waggons. I also shewed to them that I had discovered a steam engine so para my drawings, and ininutely explained to them erful according to its weight, that it would, the powers of steam. They appeared fully to by means of paddle wheels (which I described comprehend all I said, and in return informed to him) readily drive a vessel against the me of some experiments they themselves had current of those waters with so great speed made, one of which they shewed me. They as to be highly beneficial. Mr. Jackson proves placed a gun-barrel, having a hollow arm, that he understood me well, for he has lately with a small hole on one side at the end of written letters, declaring that about twenty the arm, similar to Barker's rotary tube mill, six years before their date, I did describe to as described in the books; a gill of water put him the principles of the steam engine that I into this barrel, with fire applied to the breech, have since put into operation to drive mills, caused the steam to issue from the end of the which he has seen—and that I also explained arm with such force as, by reaction, to cause to him my plan for propelling boats by my the machine to revolve, as I judged, about one steam engine, with paddle wheels, describing thousand times in a minute, for the space of the very kind of wheels now used for this about five minutes, and with considerable force purpose ; and ihat I then declared to him my for so small a machine. I tarried here two intention to apply my engine to this particudays (May 10 and 11, 1789) using my best lar object as soon as my pecuniary circumefforts to convince them of the possibility and stances would permit. practicability of propelling waggons, on good. In the year 1800 or 1801, never having turnpike roads, by the great elastic power of found a man willing to contribute to the ex steam. But they also feared the expence and pence, or even to encourage me to risque it difficulty of the execution, and declined the myself, it occurred to me that though I was proposition. Yet they heartily esteemed my then in full health, I might be suddenly cai. improvements in the manufacture of flour, and ried oil by the yellow fever, that had so often adopted them in their mills, as well as recom- visited our city (Philadelphia) or by son.e mended them to others.
other disease or casualty to which all are liaIn the same year I communicated my project ble, and that I had not yet discharged my and explained my principles, to Levi itollings- debt of honor to the state of Maryland by worth, Esq. now à merchant in Baltimore. * producing the steam waggon. I determir.ed, He appeared to understand them; but also therefore, to set to work the next day and declined a partnership in the scheme, for the construct one. I first waited upon Robert Pat6ame reasons as the former.
terson, esq. professor of mathematics in the From the time of my discovering the prin- university of Pennsylvania, and explained to ciples and the means of applying them, I him my principles, as I also did to Mr. Charles often endeavored to communicate them to Taylor, steam engineer, from England. They those I believed might be interested in their both declared these principles to be new to application to waggons or boats. But very them, and highly worthy of a fair experiment, few could understand my explanations, and I advising me without delay to prove them; in
hopesI might produce a more simple, cheap and I certify that Oliver Evans did about powerful steam engine than any in use. These the year 1789, communicate a project to me, gentlemen were the only persons who had of propelling land carriages by power of such contidence, or a forded me such advice. I steam, and did solicit me to join him in the also communicated myplans to B. H. Latrobe, costs and profits of the same.
esq. at the same time; who publicly pronouncLEVI HOLLINGSWORTH.
ed them chimerical, and atteinpted to demonBaltimore, November 16, 1812.
strate the absurdity of my principles, in his I do certify, that some time about the year report to the Philosophical sociсty of Penn1781, 31 years ago, Oliver Evans, in con- sylvania on steam engines ; in which same versation with me, declared, that by the pow-report he also attempts to shew the impossier of steam he could drive any thing-wag-bility of inaking steam boats useful, on acgons, mills or vessels forward, by the same count of the weight of the engine; and I was
ENOCH ANDERSON. one of the persons alluded to, as being seized November, 15, 1812.
with the steam mania, conceiving that wag
gons and boats could be propelled by steam ber as well as stone, to grind grain, propell engines. The liberality of the members of boats, &c. and though I answered in the afthe society caused them to reject that part firmative, I found they still doubted. I therehis report which he designed as demonstrative fore deterinined to apply my engine to all of the absurdity of my principles; saying they new uses to introduce it and them to the had no right to set up their opinionas a stumb- public. ling block in the roadof any exertions to make This experiment completely tested the cora discovery. They said, I might produce rectness of my principles, according to my something useful, and ordered it to be strick- most sanguine hopes. The power of my en
What a pity they did not also reject gine rises in a geometrical proportion, while his demonstrations respecting steam boats ! the consumption of fuel has only an arithmetifor notwitstanding them, they have run, are cal ratio; in such proportion that every time now running, and will run: so has my engine I added one fourth more to the consumption and all its principles, completely succeeded~ of fuel, the powers of the engine were doubled; and so will land carriages, as soon as thrse and that twice the quantity of fuel required to principles are applied to them, as explained drive one saw would drive 16 saws, at least; to the legislature of Maryland in 1787, and to for when I drove two saws the consumption others long before.
iras 8 bushels (oal] in 12 hours, but when In consequence of the determination above twelve saws were driven, the consumption was alluded to, I hired hands and went to work io not more than 10 bushels ; so that the more make a steam waggon, and had made consi-ire resist the steam the greater is the effect of derable progress in the undertaking, when the the engine. On these principles, very light, thought struck me that as my steam engine but powerful engines, can be made, suitable was entirely different in form as well as in its for propelling boats and land carriages, witliprinciples from all others in use, that I could out the great incumbrance of their own get a patent for it, and apply it to mills more weight, as mentioned in Mr. Latrobe's deprofitably than to waggons; for until now 1 monstrations. apprel, onded that as steam mills had been In the year 1804, I constructed at my works, used in England, I could only obtain a pa- situate a mile and a half from the water, by tent for waggons and boats. I stopped the order of the board of health of the city of Phiwork immediately, and discharged my hands, ladelphia, a machine for cleansing docks. It until I could arrange my engine for mills, lay- consisted of a large tatt, or scow, with a steam ing aside the steam waggon for a time of engine of the power of five horses on board, more leisure.
to work machinery to raise the mud into flatts. Two weeks afterwards, I commenced the This was a fine opportunity to shew the pubconstruction of a small engine for a mill to lic that my engine could propell both land and grind plaister of Paris--the cylinder six water carriages, and I resoiveủ to do it. When inches in diameter, and stroke of the piston the work was finished, I put wheels under it; cighteen inches--believing that with a 1000 1 and though it was equal in weight to two huncould fully try the experiment. But before 1 dred barrels of flour, and the wheels fixed was done with experiments, I found that I with wooden axletrees, for this temporary purhad expended $3,700--all that I could com- pose, in a very rougli manner, and with great mand. I had now to begin the world anew at Fiction, of course, yet with this small engine the age of forty-eight, with a large family to I transported my great burthen to the Schuylsilpport. I had calculated that if I failed in hill with ease; and, when it was launched in my experiment, the credit I had would be en- the water, I fixed a paddle wheel at the stern, tirely lost; and without money or credit, at and drove it down ihe Schuylkill to the Delamy advanced age, with many heavy encum-ware, and up the Delaware to the city, leavbrances, my way through life appeared darking all the vessels going up behind me, at and gloomy indeed. But I succeeded perfect- least, half way; the wind being a-head. ly with my little engine, and preserved my Some wise men undertook to ridicule my crelit. I could break and grind 300 bushe's experiment of propelling this great weight on of plaister of Paris, or 12 tons, in 24 hours; land, because the motion was too slow to be and to shew its operations more fully to the useful. I silenced them by answering, that public, I applied it to saw słone on the side I would make a carriage, to be propelled by of Markei-street, where the driving of twelve steam, for a bet of $3000, to run upon a level saws, in heavy frames, saving at the rate of road against the swiftest horse they would 100 feet of marble stone in 12 hours, made a produce. I was then as confident, as I am now, great shew, and excited much attention that such velocity could be given to carriages. thought this was sufficient to convince the Ilaving no doubt of the great utility of thousands of spectators of the utility of my steam carriages on good turnpike roads, with discovery: bui I frequently heard them en-proper arrangements for supplying tem with guire if the powercould be applied to saw tim-water and fuel, and believing that all turnpike