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XII. To raise and snpport armics. But no appropriation of case, after the choice of the president, the person having the great money for that usr, shallle for a longer tern than two year's. est thumb-r of votes of the sectoes, shall in the vice-president. Xill to provide and paintain a wry.
But it that should remain (wo or more who have equal votes, the X!y. Tomukt rules for the government and regulation of the senate shall chous from then by ballot ihe vice-presiden. land and nasi tores.
IV. The con577• may determine the time of choosing the Xv. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws clectors, and the cas o veci they su give their folus; which
day wil he have throu thout the United States. of it: noii, suppress insum crione, and repurliutasjons. Xvi. To provide for organi?arniks, anul isiplining the
1. No perso!), eret pt a stural-born citizen, or a citizen of the milti, ant trouverai. Pie mit vf there as they be closed on line 10 th 051.2 of president ; neittur shail any fa l'ento be
Chile Stits at um time of the adoption of this constitution, shal! is threrrier of the Unje sasi reseptitig loft: sintestpedible to that office who shall not have aitaited to the age of tivi lyg apsint o crestiers
. onder authority of training cints's years, and been fourteen ytars a resident within the tie buitoare coming to this lisei;aline ports.ribe ty con ress.
United States. XII. Toccrcise exclusieksiton, ia all cases whatsoever, over sacle visisjet (Exercongerfrissquar-) as mind, by ces beach, risation, or inability to discharge the powers, and duties
VI. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of his Si sportistules, and the receptare of courriss, beco... the seri ortio povezanost of u trji States; avid to exercise of the said office, the same shall de volve on the vice-president; and 15 aunty viral jee's purchascei by the cos...t of the le- the connessias, y law, provide for the case of recoval, death, gislature of fir sute in spe the saine shalt be, for the rection office hall then act as president: and such officer shall act ac
or inanilley both of the president and vice-president, declaring what o i tores, pa vines, arsenals, dekoyarıls, and other needful build. cordisziy, until the disability be removel, or a president shall be ine; and
lelected. X111. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into) (Heuline the foregoing powers, and all other
VI. The president shall, at stated times, receive for his s'rvices, powere vestoit by this constitution in the government of de United during period for which he shall have been decied : and he
a compensation which shall neither be incru.sed nur diwaished States, or any deparuncut or vicer thereof.
Sul not reive, within that period, any other emolument from SECTION IX.
in Cuiud States, or any of them. 1. The inigration of or inp. rtation of such persons, as anyol VII. Briore he enter on the execution of his office, be shall the rutes ile existing shall think proper to admit shall not be take the following onih or affirmation: public congress, power to th' year one thousand eight Lundel and eight; bil a las may lose isposed upon such impo: c te the offee of presideni of the United States; and will, to the
"! che sol saly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully exc. tation, slot excepten dollars für ach ein.
best of my ability, priserve, protect, and defend the constitution of II. 7. privilege of the writ of hab as corps shall not be sus. le Crited States." padal, unless when in cases of nbellion or invasion, the public
SECTION IT. sadit may requirit.
I. The president shall be commander in chief of the aring and III. No bill of atlainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states,
will called to the actual service of the United States. He way IV. Nu eapitation or other dir-ci iat shall be laid, unless in proir quire the option in writing of the principal officers in each of portion to the census or em ration herein before directed to bejme excentireozsartments, upon any subject relating to the duties takal
cithir respective oflies; nid he shall have power to grant reV. No tax or duties shall be laid on articles exported from ang Pters and paralons, for offences against the Unit.d States, except No preteriner shall be given, by any regulation of coni.
in Can's of impachnient. merce or revenues to the ports if one state, over those of another : the sensee, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators
II. He shall have power, hy and with the advice and consent of por shali vessels, bound to or from one scate, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.
prisit CORCI: and he shall nominate, and b; an' with the advice
and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public VI, No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consedisters, and consuls, julgus of the supreme court, and all other sequence of appropriations nade by law; and a rular statement oilicers of the United States, whose appointurits are not her in ank account of the resists ard expenditures of all public money otherwise provided tor, and which shall be established by law. But shall be published from time to time.
the congress nay, by laiv, vest the appointment of such interior VII. Nutide of nobility shall be granted by the Unitel States :
officers as they think proper in the president alone, in the couts are no procon, holling any office of profit or trust under them, of law, or in the hearts of departments. Simil, without the coursent of congress, accept of any pressu may happen during the recess of the senato, by granting commis
III. The president sail lave power to 61) op all vacancies that ev. lumaent. ittice or titis, of any kind whatever, trom any king, sions which situll expire at the end of their next session. prince, or foreign state. SECTION X.
SECTION III. I. No slate shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation ; He shall from time to time give to the congress information of the grant Itters of mary and reprisal: coin money; emie bills of state of the Union; and recommend to their consideration such credit; make any thing but gohi and silver coin a tender in pay measures as he shall juge pecessury and expedient. He may, on net of lets; pass any bill of utuairder, ex post facto law, or law extraordinary occasions, convenie buth houses or either of them; impairing the obligation of contracts, or giant any ute of no- and, in case of disagreement between them, wi
respect to the bility.
time of adjournamení, he may actjourn them to such time as he 11. No state shall, without the consent of congruas, lay any im-siall think proper. He shall receive ambassadors and other public posts or duties on imports or exports, prcept what may be absolistisers. llestall take o te that the laws bx latintilly executed; ly seensary for executing its inspection laws; an die Det prar and simil commission all the uslicers of the United States. duce of all duties and imports, shall be for the use of the treasury
SECTION IV. of the Criw Stati; ainfall such laws svall be subject to the ri The president, vice-president, and ill ois il officers of the United Vision and control of contr. 38. No state shall, without the consensuales shall be removed from ottice on imp achment for, asui con oi congress, das any duty on tumase, hrep troops, or ships oi' war viction of trason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. in time of peace, CUTIA Quy agreement or compact with ai.u
ARTICLE 11.-SECTIOXI. ther state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unes actual. by invaded, or in stichiscinant alonger as will not admit of dudas supreme court, ani in sich interior courts, as the conness may
The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one ARTICLE II.-SECTION).
Croito time to time onlain and establish. The judges, both of the 1. The executive power shall be vesici in a president of the supreme u interior courts, sisail holil th. ir zes during guel Unit. ! States of Anna. I shall hold his ulties during the behavior, and all, it staied is, their thirrvier's, com!!'rin. of tour years, and, iogether will tile vice-prt sident, chosen pensation, which shall not be dimimisseri during their continuance for the sale, beated files.
i ottice. II. Lach state shall puisi, in such wanner as the legislaura
SECTION IT. thereof mag lirect, anys of sctors, al to the whole is: I. The judicial power sh: estudo all 3, in law and equiber of senators Hotel represtatives, to which the state may lois, arisin murehis contention, the fans of the United States, entitled in the ress. Bistros-viator or ripresentative, or print and itwties made. or wisie: shull bank.der thirauthority; Sint holding any vlle vltruist or prot under the United States, casameinans alors, otlar public ministri*, and shrif be appoint da niretor.
seils; t. all cases otsuully and inertine jurisdiction : 10 con1. T. Ictors sal met t in their respective statrs, and vote troversie's to when the United States silik. a party; to contro by ballot törtito persons, One of whow at least, sul not be an invois betwe» two or or suite's weer a stat ad citizens of habitant of the sain2 ylitte with thrern vetes. Amboy stuld make another state, biwen ritir nos offrent stats, bet peu ciozens a live or all the per:413 voted for, and of the pub tof votis 100th a np stale caintean landswer Frans of dini reni states Pach; which lise they said sign and contity, and iranismit, scalert, and it is a state, or the citizens thcr vi, and forcign states, citopsat of the Contoh Suis, dir<44 to the 12. 115, or s'ıbjects. president of the te. To president of times senate shall, in the 11. luuavis a detinem liassa:lors, other publie ministers, and pristiine of stand buis, orpus attires, on all the consols, and this wholasat shall be party, the strane Porr arratsanike lot swimmit. cuti. Therita bravingswil 14% original juisten. Dualithe other before menie tls manualer ofsalihe orgalmat.it sorprender su poput shall have appellate jurisdictione both as ot' votes les marity of the whole it by ufc10+2' appel Wandface, with such exceptions, and under seconglutinis ant that wil thau w who lieblich married hoxha il 7 she mehr.
11: rojot st" a to 1:05:07 starinss! I!!, Tarjal of allestines, -xcept in cases of impeachment sail imter is zobs by Doi Patni 11:311: *din tar boy jury; an uch trial shall be in Ut stale bid Iloilies jurity, the, inih: firt ? iskors on tim listiker D'O"$1! have power commit!; but wlier tot committel winnin cu lance shall notit.caterweine posent. But Chinese any suite, the trial sail bat such plac, or places as the conge'st ik jent, the mee in totalitat, 13"titatis Day by law bere directed. trol. t. stait bevisst vot: a 'ati" fix this poi passan!!
SECTION III. conto! Werbruik indo fiuniwathiri hists; un 1. Treason against the Unitei States shall consist only in Ireying
Ir djurity of wlithe stat shall be di Ctysary t a thoice. In every war against iliam, or in alhering to their enemies, giving thonaia
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on Pennsylvania. Hugh Williamson. the estimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or un contes Benjamin Franklin, Sout'r-Carolina. sion in open coutt.
John Rutledge, IL The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of Robert Morris,
Charles C. Pinckney,
Thomas Fitzsimons, Pierce Buder.
Georgia. Full faith and credit shsil be given in each state to the public
Governeur Morris. Abraham Baldwin. sets, recoris and judicial procedings of every other state. And the congätss may hy general laws prescribe the manner in which
WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary's such acts, records and procudings shall be proved, and the effect thercof.
AMENDMENTS. SECTION II. 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and
The following articles in addition to, and amordment of the corta jmmunities of citizens in the several states.
stitution of the United States, having been ratified by the legisla
tures ofrire states, are equally obligatory with the constitution JI. A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justier, ami be found in another state,
1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which religion, or prohibiting the free exercise the reof, or abridging the be thed, be delivered up, to be reinoved to the state having jurisdic-freedo:n of speech, or the press ; or the rigint of the peopl peace 1 of the erin. Ill. No person held to service or labor ia one state, under the alily to assemble', and to petition the government for a redress of
grievances. Lews thereof, -seaping into another, shall, in consequence of any II. A well regulated milicia being necessary to the security of a kx orr-gulation thcrcis, bed ar dd sou suci service or laivor, free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arins shall not bart shall be delivered up on chain of the party to whom such ser be infringed. Ver or labor may be due
III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house SECTION III.
without the consent of the owner; nor in any tinie of war, but in 1. New stat may be admitted by the congress into this union, a manner to be prescribed by law, but no new suite shall be fornel or erected within the juristliction IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persone, house, dany other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two papers and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, or more states, without the consant of the legislatures of the states shall not be violated; and no warraits shall issue, but upon proComernd as well as of the congress.
balle cause, supported by onth or affirination, and particularly de11. The enngress shall have power to dispose of and make all seribing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other pros seized. prey belonging to the United States; and nothing in this consti V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise tarioa shall be so constru-d as to prejudice any claims of the Unit- infanious crime, wiess on a presentment or indictnent of a grad ed States, or of any particular state.
jury, excepting casts arising in the land or navat forces or in the
inilitia, when in actual service, in tine of war, or public danger : SECTION IV. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this in jeoparrly of life or limb; nor shall be compated in any criminal
nor shall any person be subject, for the same offence to bt cuie put then against invasio..; and on application of the islature, or of case, to be witness against himself; or be deprived of lít,lib-rty, the executive, when the legislature cannot be convened, against ty he ta en for public use, without just compensation.
or property, without due process of law ; nor shall private propei domestic violence.
Vi. In !! criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the ARTICLE V. The congress, whenever two thirds of hoth honses shall deem it and district warrein the crime shall have been comited ; whicla
riglit to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury, of the state metssary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or, on the district shall have been previously ascertained by law; and to be aplication of the legislatures of two thirils oi'ihe several stats.liittorived on the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronto shall call a convention for proposing amendments; which, in vithered with the witnesses against him; lo have conspelsory process for ear, shall be valid to all internes and pirposes, as part of this con obtaining withoses in his favor; and to have the assistance of stitution, when ratified by the legislatuts of three fourtlis of the stiral states, or by conventions in three fourths therxof. as the one
cousc für bis defence.
VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy or the other mode of ratification may be propos.d by the congrum: shailesceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by Jury shall be pro Provided that no ameriment which may bemarle prior to the year servi; and 1:0 fact cried by jury shall be otherwise re- xamined in one thousand right handrex and eight, shall in any manner aifect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of ihe first arude any court or the United States, than according to the rules of the
common law, and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal
VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required ; nor excessive fines saffrage in the senate. ARTICLE VI.
imposed; nor eru 1 and unusual punishinent intendo
1x. Tht enimmation, is the constitution, of certain rights shall I. Al debts contracter!, and enga çeneuts entered into before be adoption of the constitution, shall be as valid amaiust the Cut not be construed to deny or disparuge others retained by the people.
X. The powers not delated to ihe United Siates hy the coned States under this constitution, as under the confideration.
stitution, nor prohibited by it 10 the states, are reserved to the II. This constitution, and the laws of the United States, which states respectively, or to the people. shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which XI, The judicial power of the United States shall not be conOsall be made, under the authority of the United Stat's, shall be stried to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prothe supreme law of the land: and the judges in every state shall be secuted against one of the United States he citizens of another brand thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state state, or by citizens or subjects or any foreign tute. to the contrary notwithstanding,
XII. Th electors shall mert in their respective states, and vote III. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the shall not be an inhabitant of the same suute with themselves; tlrey
by baliot for president ad vicepr sidleni, one of wirom, at kast Tilemb-13 of the stveral state legislatures, and all expeutise and shall name in their baliots the person voted for as presiel nt, and in judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states. distinct ballots the person votre for as vice-president and they shall be bound by oath or aflir nation to support this constitution; shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as pres dent, and of but no religious tost shall excr brequir: as a qualification to any all persons voted for as vier vident, ami of the ber of votes cfiee or public trust under the Unitexi States.
for each, which lists they shast sign and certif:', and transinit sealed ARTICLE VII.
to the government of ihe United States, dirceur to the presifleng The ratification of the contentions of nine states shall be sufii- of the spate; the pr sident of the senate shall, in the stree of eient for the establishment of this constitution, between the states the senate and house ofrepresentatives, open all the certificates, and 19 ratifying the same.
the votes shall then be countul: the person having the greatest Done in convention, by the nnanimous consent of the states prefer be a majority of the whole ruumber of lettors appointed; and
number of votes for president shall both president, if such pum sue thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the inde the iglest uumbet's not exceeding there on the list of those wood pendence of the United States of Ainoria the twelft. In wit- for as prasideat, the house of Representatives hail choue imate ness whereof, we hare hereunto subscribe our nantes. GEORGE WASHINGTON, President,
diately, by bailut, the president. But in choosing the president,
the vints shall be taken by states, the ripresentation from cach and dulugate from Virginia.state baring one wote ; a quiorum for this purpose shall consist of a New Hampshire. Delosvare.
Dember or membersirom two-thirds of the tiles, audi a majority John Larslun, Gorre Rueil
of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House Nicholas Giman. Guang Bedforl, jun.
of Represcitalivet stall plot choose a president whenever the right Mosacruelts. Job Dickinson,
of choice shall devolve upon thel, lfore the fourth day of March Nathaniei Gorban, Richard Basset,
next following, the the iice-prisid it shall act as president, as in Rufus Kii. Jacub Brooi.
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the pre Cunnerticed. Maryland.
silent. William Samuel Johnson, James Merry,
The person having the greatest number of votes us vice-presi. ko Shermiut. Dauid of St. 'l'homas Jenifer, deni, shall be vier-president, it' such number be a majority of the Nano-rurk. D. Carroll.
whole number on elections appointed; and if nopelou insea 128 Alstorp Hamilton. Virginia.
jority, then from the tivo lughät numbers on the list, the senata Nerjerry. Jow: hii,
Shall choose the vice-presii:it: : quorum for the purpose shall Wilian Livingston, Jarar's Windison, jon.
consist of two-thirts of the whole olmber of senatoci, anul a man Tati Berarley, XtrCarolina.
jority of the whole nu al shall be plecsary to a choice. Wilan Paturson, Wilian Blount,
But 110 prsou constitutionally ineligible to the vitice of preek Jonathan Duilos. Ricward Dubbs Spaight,
chent shall be cligible to that of vice-prezident of the U. Swie.
and your satices accepted, you will be crganized by of the governor to “his fellow-citizens and particu- vices will be verzused for tvic Ive moms. You will
the president, and when called upon thuity, your ser. larly to the young men of North Carolina."
be al med anci equipped and pisin? by the general goNot long since the American standard was plantech
verament. The or you who ma, prila love peron the shores of Cans; our army 12 c0m, 10 dient establintuneni will renuer yotoserres still of as brare men as ever greed the service of any of useful by filling the risks of the regular army. Power on carth; the patriotisn, military skill and it is necessary to detail the incincemies ottined to integrit: of ulic cutim neng general nerer lud been those patriots who may wish to jout that deserpion questione l. Ourencin's Cound rengtus vot' forre; suffice it to say, that wlien tiey are wegho by our in, composit of such brute mer, headkieci hy bin vidio may be iclined to prefer the regular by a general in winan it was believe ir reunited all serice, they will be suficienti; powoth to detertlie ou unicitibus incoSUV io constitute an able mine hiin to enter it without liesitation. To le a commuter, couki not fail to inspire the government'soldier mi vine of war is an humor w ci.w.lli. fale and people of the United States with the most when his services are ai an end. Those who fall in confid ice, thai the advantages gained couil and inic fence of their country, will live in remen.brance would be maintainesi ayuinst : ny opposin, force that of a grateful posicity, and those who live to see could he brought into xciiin letore the arrival of peace restored upon terms compatible with the honor the rewritenis de tined for that army. This
and dignity of ileir country, will not only be hajie'd confidence was of short duation; it quickly gave; as its brore defenders, but will thence forud enjoy way to doubts and ipprehens.ons, which were „Carce- the blissful consciousness of having performed their ly entertained before they were cofirme. To the duty in the arduous connict, the temination of'ubich great surprise and astonishment of , this brave had reflected lustre on the American character. and intrupid army, e.ger for battle, has been, by They will not only themselves cujoy the rell earned capitulation, surrendered by their keera! viithe fruits of their services, but their descendants will firing açın, to force consisting mosky vi'miserable inherit the glory and renown which their bravery saviges, whose fight ix-fore amilier, or the baronet, lanci patriotisi bad guaranteed to them. in open combat, is as certains dia th -v are lised in
Conscious, fellow-citizens, that you are impressed repelling them. We dis stiäiel', lins inexplica- with a due sense of the jusiness of the cause in which ble conduct of the gen rai drew is tiom tuis va- our country is at present engaged, and of the pro lisnt soldiers, it inflicted : woud ipon his comtry's farne. S!...!! that finie continue to be tarnished priety or placing yourselves in an attivode to afford The bou ve sons of the west answer in the native pleasing hope that in prosecuting the war, you will
it prompt and efective support, I entertain the They are voluntarily repairing to their commer's hou furnisi grounds to be charged with delinquency standard to retr eve its tarnishuil reputation. Their by the citizens of our sister states. exple foMowed, and the en my will quickly be I have the honor to be, taught, that out of this rererse of toriinne, will
With the greatest attachment, eventually grow an army c:pable of bearing down
Your obedient serrulli, all opposition, and of dictating its own terms within
WILLLAVILAWKINS. the wails of Quebec. Will yoli, patriotic sons of leap Quarters, North Carolina, hesitate to follow their noble exam
Raleigh, September 23, 1812. ple, to fly to your country's standard, to share in achievments which will cover the authors with immortal gtory and renown? Cin you beluid te Legislature of Upper
Canada. bleeding wounds of your country, wd not withi ea erness rush to its defence? Can you, with cold We rerisier the following as among the curiosities indifference, conicmplate the horrid massacies per
of the times. It contains something so very sinpirateri on our frontiers by the detudel and incici gular Ulane should be tempued io account it less Saviedes, instigated by our no less babirouls spurions, if not assured that it really is what it enemy? Can you repose, when you reflect that you
purporis to be. might be instrumenal in aescuing thods of ac- . 102156 OF THE HOSE OF ASSEMBLY TO THE PEOPLE OF feiceless women and chiluren ficn the 10:11, fro! the touchcovk ind from the scalping kirike? Ni, a The house of assembly barinn nearly completed suredly not. Tolswer liese questions in the if the necessary busine*s for which they were called firmative, would be to charge you with bemg insus- together, he leave before they return home, to lift ceptible of that patriotic :21:17 dich animates all the perring voice to this constituen: at this rouses your brave Courtymen of the west, with a leventful crisis. The declaration of Walessui d against shametil deres ard of the winds intelepon pour Great Britain by the livied Sisies, wlien first ancountry's reputation, and a totod !! ot' fecung tipiswered, if pannel to ie un act of sien astonishing the unparalisted il stressos del sutteri?,s of the un-1 trily or desperation, is to be trgother incredible, fortun:tend 'Inprotectcod citizens on ise tantiers. ani riotoalvexc terlihe greatest surprise art.ong the Your patriot:3!1!, .our 0:00 and your !!!::.21.hrop in salitants of' iliis province, but an.ong the great d.sciin such chargi's. till pot hesitatii
, theis, majority of our nemics they selves. Se many cogent to obey the dictares of our feelings ? Shew by reasons from mierest, ittection are virtue, pleaded your sets that you are deiermined to co-operate for en opsi pole, that the nest intelligent l'ekib yur briveco in Time, only in olivining course the most crs cuideas. That a povernment po. the foul stain wlich vom' Cuintus bas received, tessing to be the friend of mail and the great sup. but in eli etuarit et during and shuns the Bri-porte of his litert and indepenec, slould light th forces and te je rocious biww.hurt sävages. up the torch of the caly nation that Firm viuuier companies id muke i tender ontstonds hetteen it so Ifand desiruction, pleted a sviees to the president of the United St. ies.--te of inftration or madness, stogeilier mcom. You have already beeisiniormed that he is authorised prelicsit!..-—"ic:po 12x” sau: the wiser part of han act of cogn's) 1)
.doch ruuts, 18!2,10102rinh..bitionis, “ule liited States will never de acient the servicios of 5.1,000 volan cers. Under thuatledar: War againsi a nation which hos unitirmly treat. sot let your tendur be made. When you are enrolledled them with kinduess alid respect, whose ficets pro.
tect their commerce, and whose armies support their we are attacked by the same enemy, who once alreafreedom and independence." But the men at present dy aidled by the mistaken lenity of our moti.er ruling the states, infatuated, or as their more en-country and the misconduct of her commanders, lightened countrymen say, “bribed by the tyranit of were able to drive us from our native homes and France," regardless of the best interests of their possessions to this province, a people whose lands comery, and the fielings and affections of the great are manured with the blood of our friends and kins. mujority of their own people, have commenced 1109- men, who drove our wives and children from their tihtias against our mother country while treating houses into the woods, or threw them into dungeons, their vessels with hospitality, and instead of thred- and who now envy us the habitations which through ening their liberties, offering the most equitable the blessing of Providence, the beneficence of our terms of accommodation This war, on the part of parent state and our own industry, we have gained United States, includes an alliance with the French from the wilderness : we are confident that you will usurper ; whose dreadful policy has destroyed all display the same energy, and certainly with better that was great and good, venerable and holy on the hopes of success. Great Britain will not now concontinent of Europe. The goverment of this bloouls sicier Americans as perverse children who may be tyrant penetrates in to every thing-ii crushies incli- reclined, but as her most malignant foes. Her viduals as well as nations ; fetters thoughts as well commanders will not, as fornier!', temporise and motives, and delights in destroying for ever all that raise biosis of enemies by their misconduct and de. is fair and just in opinion and sentiment. It is evi- Tays, but they will hasten to punish them with all dently this tyrant who nou directs the rulers of Allie-uie rigor of war. rica, and they shew themselves worthy disciples of Already have we the joy to remark, that the spirit such a master.-Already have they seduced tvo pro. of loyalti has burst forth in all its ancient splendor. vinces from Spain. They first terpied the people to The joilija in all parts of the province have rolunrebel against their lawful government, and then ieeied their services with acclaination, and displayed they deceived and oppressed them.
degree of energy worthy of the British name. Thyclose time, to themselves the most inglo-They do not forget the blessings and privileges rious, for this infamous conduct, when Span over-fwhich they enjoy under the prctection and fostering whelmed with calamities and fighting most nobly a rare ot the British empire, whose government is onhome for liberty and every thung deal io mnan, was it felt in this country by acts of the pures: justice, not able to send se sonable and to her disturit culo- und inosi pleasogand ethicacious benevrience. When nies. It is certainly not the least wonderful anon, men are called upon to defnd every thing they hold the occurences of tliis astonishing:ge, that we should precious, their vives and children, their friends and find a nation descended from Englishmen, connected possessions, they ought to be inspired with ille nostilī by the same language and laws, by consanguuni- blest resolutions, and they will not be easily frightty and in my sinular Babits, not merely eulogizing jened with menaces, or conquered by force. And the impi.cobie enemy of their prent state, but join-beholding as we do, the name of patriotism burning ing tiim in the par; and while pretending to nourish|from one end of the Canadlas to the other, we cannot the purest principles of liberty, bowing the knee bui enterian the most pleasing anticipations. Our before the foe of all just 2nd tonal freedom, and enemies have indeed said, that they can subdue this supplicating his acceptance of tribute and adulation. country by a proclamation ; but it is our parts to
From this degrading picture, at which the friends prove to them that they are sadly mistaken; that of mankind and posterily will weep, we turn with the population is determinately hostile, and that the joy to you, many of whom have already risked your few who might be otherwise inclined, will find it lives to maintain the unity of the empire--we are their safety and interest to be faithful. conndent that the same spirit still animates your For nothing is clearer than this, that if there be bitests and those of your children, that you still re- any person so base and degenerate as to join the tain the same love for your excellent king, the same enemy after having taken the oath of allegiance, he veneration for our free and happy constitution that not only forfcits his property but his life. The Briyou exhibited during the American war. You pre- tish government never will make peace with the served your loval principles amidst the most dreadful American states, till fuli.nd ample indemnification political divisions and most implacable hostilities; has been received for all deprec. cions conmitted in you were not to be cajoled by those wicked and de- this country; nor will we permit a single traitor ever signing men who looked for private gratifications in to retum. Leithose who have come from the neighthe public ruin. You were not to be deceived by their boring states consider this well, and assure them. slanders on the parent state. You feit no hardship, selves, that as we are eager to reward loyalty and no cruel oppression. You saw no examples of inhu- affection for the government, so are we not slow in munity and cruelty; these were imaginary evils, in- punislung treachery. vented for the most wicked purposes, by those who Innumerable attempts will be made by falschood sought for gain amidst slaughter and blood. You to detach you from your allegiance; for our cremics, resisted their influence, and you acted nobly. You in initation of their European master, trusts more were not indeed successful, but the attempt covers to treachery than io force; and they will, no doubt, you with glory. When we picture to ourselves the wake use of many of those lies, which unfort.inately sublime prospect which the world would have exhi- for the virtuous part of these states, and the peace bited this day, had the population of the neighboring d happiness of the world, had too much success states preserved like you, their filial love, we should during the Americ: n rebellion, They will tell you not brave now beheld the continent of Europe groan- that le are come to give you frecrion-ayes, the ing under the yoke of a sanguinary tyrant, nor his base slaves of the most contemptille faction that satellites in America studiously imitating his fero-leve! directed the affiirs of any nation-the minions cious example.
of the very sycophants who lick the dust from the It is therefore from former esperience that we look feet of Bonaparie will tell you, that they are come to you for the same patriotic principles, principies to communicate de blessings of liberty to this prowhich enabled you to face death in his most dread-vince; but you have only to look at your situation, to ful attire, principles which exalt human nature, and pre such hypocrites to confusion. I order to insure which have been warmly cherished by the most vir- ow' prosperity and happiness, i constitution has been tuous and renowned in every age; and surely when given us, modelled from that of our parent state ;
not the hasty production of a day; but rising out of prisoners, attending particularly to his defence, and the experience of centuries. A governor standing even becoming of his council when he crrs. Shall in the place of his majesty, a legislative council com- we not feel grateful to a government which promotes posed of a select number of the principal inhabitants and sanctions so great uprightness, and which seeks of this province, and the representatives of the peo- so cagerly the happiness of its people. It is not ple fairly chosen. In the appointment of a legislative enough that we be obedient subjects to such a gorcouncil, a reward is presented to those who shall ernment is this; we must be active in its defence deserve well of the public, and a foundation laid for against open enemies and internal fues. Is there any an influence different from that which is produced person who is not conscious that lie is cnipletely by overgrown wealth. Honors are a cheaper and master of his own conduci--that the quiet possesmore effectuul mode of remwcraiing valor, genius, sion of his life, bis person and property, and good and singular attachment, than any sordid or pecunia- name, are secured to him by the laws. Do we not ry benefit. They are such rewards as meet the feel- feel that our government is able, and not merely able, ings of the generous and noble minded, and they but careful to protect the rights of every individual, nourish that pure and exalted ambition which gives and to allow him as much liberty as is con.patible live and energy to public affairs, which rouse we with the rights of his fellow sulyjects; protecting most dignified principles of action, and extinguish him against all oppression, giving tree scope to the that low groveiling policy which only aims ai des- exertion of his talents, and in every way contributpicable gratifications.
ing to his comfort and happiness. Such is a faint If the real foundation of true liberty, and conse- sketch indeed of the glorious constitution which we quently of'solid happiness, consists of being amena-enjoy ; and this we are called upon to exchange for ble only to the laws which we or our representatives the government of the United States ; a governordain, then are we in possession of thit liberty and ment which has uppressed and impoverished its own that happiness, for this principle was fully recogni- people, and deprived them virtually, of all their vazed by our excellent constitution. Your House oiluable privileges. For low can liberty exist an:0115 Assembly are truly elected by the people--conse- a people whicre officers of state and representatives quently all have a share in the government, because crouch to a bloody tyrant. Be vigilant against such all have a vote in the election of those who make the enemy; the contest is indeer awrul and to be de. laws. If these laws are not favorable to virti ir piored; but of the event your representatives enterthey are not clear and precise, we have nobody to tain no dread. blame but ourseives, and we have the power of al It is not necessary for us to examine the causes al. tering them.
ledgooi by our enemies for Unis unjust and unnatural The time for which our representatives are chosen, was becitise an address from the house of represenhas a view to the situation of the province as well as tatives of the state of Massachusetts, the most resto the state of the public mind. The period is infi- pectable in the union, proves in the most satisfactory nitely better than antal elections, because it gives moner, that it is winton ard unprovoked, and is the representatives to compichend the business for the cliinax of the various outrages previously comwhich they are seat, and enables them to bring to initted against Great Britain. l this statement they m:turity regulations which require intormation from have been joined by the minority in congress, u: hose diiferent parts of the country. The qualifications exposition of the secret reasons of the war, and the for becoming an elector wie simple and moderate, falsehood of those alledged by the president and his every pero may soon possess them, who is not con- fiends is unuswerable, and must hand down the viciel of flomv; or who has not yet attained the le-promoters of this diabolical merisure to the execragai age. Noris any person excluded from becoming tion of posterity. Indeed the more enlightened and a representative except the public teachers of reli- best infoi med persons in the United Staies, all men gion, and such as are not subjccts of the king. Is who love their native land and think with impartiali. not this constitution pertect above all others? In our ty, are against the war ; and as they form an increaslaws and instiuiions there is so much wisdom, suchling majority, we have every reason to suppose, an anxiety to hecp ile moral code always in view, that they will be able to burl their opponents from such aitention to our feelings, such a regard 10 power, andi speedily to restore peace to their counthe preservation of our rights both in person and pro- trj. perty, such a sierry abhorrence of vice, and such a Firding on their meeting, that the province was strici enforcement of virtue, in is far as it can be- ctuidly invaded, it becamie immediatı ly necessary come the object of public regulation, as merits on for your representatives to give as much efficacy as our part, the most steadly attachment; and in putting possible to our natural means of defence. For this tem in force there is, if possible, more to praise purpose, several alterations have been made in the than in the laws themselves. If ever impartially in iniliija laws, which being framed from a state of the a:Iministration of justice was attained, we bave tranquility, were too weak in their provisions for accertainly attained it. There is no interference on the tual war. These alterations render it easy for the pari or government. The tre interest of the rulers commander in chief of the province to call out any as well as of the people is known to depend upon part, or in cases of necessity the whole of the militia, the unfettered operations of the laws. The judges subject while enabodied, to the strictest discipline, and crown officers seiecied iom an honorable and li-l that they may become truly formidable to the enemy. beral profession; men whose maids ile raised by Your representatives persuaded themselves iliat the their education, far above all narrow and sordid great majority of their constituents were willing to views, are appointed to put the laws in force. When make every sacrifice at such a time as this, and to we behold these upright dispensers of justice with endure a temporary privation of liberty, in order ulout any temptation to the riglior the left, prepar- timately to secure the whole. In providing for the ed by a long cow'se of study for their av fid and im-defence of the province, your representatives did not portant functions ; when we iebold them hearing hesitate to enact the severest punishment against with the greatesi candor and most invincible pa- those who refuse to march against the enemy, or who tience, not merely the causes between difierent sub- endeavor by their infuence, to discourage and deter jects, but those between private citizens and their forhers. But as they apprehend more danger from sovereign, and instead of lerning to the rulers who the private machinations of their foes than their open appoiii tiem, giving every proper facility to the attacks, it was necessary to restrain the liberty of